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Refugees from Burma: general reports

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "BurmaNet News" Refugee archive
Description/subject: Archive ends October 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


Title: Human Rights Watch Asia page
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) - Myanmar page
Description/subject: Highly recommended. Well-organised site. In "list of sources used" are most of the main reports from 1995 bearing on IDPs (though the reports from 1995 to 1997 are missing - temporarily, one hopes) and more Burma pages updated June 2001. Go to the home page for links on IDPs, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDMC
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.internal-displacement.org/search?q=myanmar
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Jesuit Refugee Service
Format/size: Search the site for Burma reports
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Description/subject: The largest body of high-quality reports on the civil war in Burma, especially focussed on the civilian victims - currently over 600 reports dating from 1992.
Language: English, Karen, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/index.php
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Refugees and Others of Concern to UNHCR
Description/subject: 1995-2000 statistical overviews: tables featuring Myanmar
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Refugees International Burma page
Description/subject: One major report, several shorter articles. " The repressive government of Burma has caused hundreds of thousands of people, mainly members of minority ethnic groups, to flee to Thailand, Bangladesh and other countries in search of safety."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


Title: Refworld compilation of material on Burma/Myanmar
Description/subject: Multiple sources...Despite the URL used here, users willl have to use the drop-down menu to access the Myanmar page
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2007


Title: Refworld Myanmar pages
Description/subject: Several thousand reports.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refworld (UNHCR)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017


Title: UNHCR country operations profile - Myanmar
Description/subject: THE CONTEXT: "The political environment in Myanmar continues to be dominated by preparations for the 2010 elections, which will result in both constraints and opportunities for UNHCR's operations. There has been no significant change in the situation of Muslim residents of northern Rakhine State. However, in the lead-up to the 2010 elections, the Government has made some overtures to them, suggesting that their legal status may be improved and that restrictions on movement, marriage and other rights may be eased...." Reports, Statistics, Maps and other documents on Myanmar....the material changes by year so users who want a complete archive should download each year.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: UNHCR: searches for Myanmar
Description/subject: From the UNHCR Home page, Type "Myanmar" in the Search box and click. 256 hits (December 2001). Sort by date or relevance. You can limit the search to the specific areas in the left frame - News, Refugee protection, Partners, Publications, Executive Committee, Research/Evaluation, Administration. Go to the area xxxxx you want to search, type "Myanmar" in the search box, click on "Restrict to xxxxx" then click on Go. In addition, more Burma documents (most not accessed by the general search), can be found by going into Research/Evaluation, clicking on "Country of origin and legal information". Select "Myanmar" from the drop-down Country Index list. This takes you to the nearest thing the site has to a Burma/Myanmar page. There are 130 reports from various sources (US and Canadian Govts, human rights organisations, UN Special Rapporteur on Myanmar, UN Secretary-General, UNHCR docs etc.) back to 1990. Under Legal Information, this page also has the 1974 Constitution, the 1982 Citizenship Law and other citizenship-related legislation. There are also maps and news (25 stories, very little before 2001).
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Description/subject: UNHCR home page.
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: US Committee for Refugees
Description/subject: Some reports and articles on Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 20: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: 23 November 2009
Description/subject: "...Burma is one of the largest sources of refugees in the world. Most people leaving Burma have been displaced through the cumulative impact of various policies such as forced labour; extortion, land confiscation, and forced agricultural practices. Family incomes and food resources have been driven down until household economies have collapsed completely and people are left with no options for survival. Simultaneously, there have been many pull factors that have attracted migration. The governments of the four major host countries this chapter will discuss later have often used this notion when arguing for minimal support for refugees, for restrictions on employment and movement, when defending their decision to close the registration of new asylum seekers, or when arguing against the opening of a resettlement programme..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf (1.13MB)
Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


Title: Burmese Refugee Transnationalism: What Is the Effect?
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burmese refugees in Thailand maintain economic, social and political links with their country of origin, but these transnational activities are influenced by the politics and level of development of the country of origin and the host country. Through transnational activities, refugees can have a positive impact on the home country by contributing to peace-building and development or they can enhance conflict, as the discussion on community engagement and political transnationalism will illustrate. Clearly, the increased capacity and networks of the Burmese diaspora have bestowed it with a large (future) potential to influence peace-building, development and conflict. Therefore, it is argued here that the various civil, political and military groups in exile should be included in the peace-building process initiated by international actors, next to stakeholders inside the country."... Keywords: Burma/ Myanmar, Burmese refugees, transnationalism, diaspora conflict, development, peace-building.... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
Author/creator: Inge Brees
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 23-46.
Format/size: pdf (156K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


Title: Contested Regimes, Aid Flows, and Refugee Flows: The Case of Burma
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: Abstract: "There is a substantial literature that critiques the role that international aid plays in lending support to oppressive and contested regimes. But few investigators have asked the inverse question: what happens when aid is withdrawn? Following government oppression in 1988, international aid to Burma decreased significantly, providing a case study enabling this question to be addressed. Using Burma as an example, this article asks: if the presence of aid has been shown to support oppressive and contested regimes, what is the impact when aid is withdrawn? The article reviews critiques of development and humanitarian aid and identifies three specific regime-reinforcing phenomena. It demonstrates that these have not diminished following the overall decrease of aid to Burma. The paper then addresses the related relationship between aid flows and refugee flows, and concludes with implications of the research."... Keywords: Burma, humanitarian aid, development aid, refugees.....ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
Author/creator: Susan Banki
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 2/2009: 47-73
Format/size: pdf (179K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


Title: The “Everyday Politics” of IDP Protection in Karen State
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: Abstract: "While international humanitarian access in Burma has opened up over the past decade and a half, the ongoing debate regarding the appropriate relationship between politics and humanitarian assistance remains unresolved. This debate has become especially limiting in regards to protection measures for internally displaced persons (IDPs) which are increasingly seen to fall within the mandate of humanitarian agencies. Conventional IDP protection frameworks are biased towards a top-down model of politicallyaverse intervention which marginalises local initiatives to resist abuse and hinders local control over protection efforts. Yet such local resistance strategies remain the most effective IDP protection measures currently employed in Karen State and other parts of rural Burma. Addressing the protection needs and underlying humanitarian concerns of displaced and potentially displaced people is thus inseparable from engagement with the “everyday politics” of rural villagers. This article seeks to challenge conventional notions of IDP protection that prioritise a form of state-centric “neutrality” and marginalise the “everyday politics” through which local villagers continue to resist abuse and claim their rights..."..... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
Author/creator: Stephen Hull
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 7-21.
Format/size: pdf (124K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


Title: The Politics of Refugees in and outside Burma/Myanmar,
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: Editorial, Marco Bünte: "Since gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1948, Burma has been faced with “the dilemma of national unity”.1 This dilemma has continued through all three successive periods of modern Burmese history: parliamentary democracy (1948-1962), military-socialist (one-party) rule (1962-1988) and renewed military rule under the SLORC/ SPDC regime (from 1988 to this day). What began with an armed insurrection by the Communist Party in March 1948 and with the rebellion of the Karen National Union in January 1949 ended in a protracted conflict in which nearly all the ethnic groups of Burma fought for some degree of autonomy or independence. Although the military government has signed ceasefire agreements with seventeen ethnic groups since 1989, the eastern part of Burma/ Myanmar is still plagued by low-intensity conflict and armed fighting. One consequence of these protracted conflicts is ongoing human rights abuses such as forced labour, political persecution and sexual abuse, with a huge number of refugees being created as a result. Since September 1988, when the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) came to power, approximately one million Burmese nationals have fled to neighbouring states – either out of sheer economic necessity or for political reasons..."..... ISSN: 1868-4882 (online), ISSN: 1868-1034 (print)
Author/creator: Marco Bünte (ed)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 28, 2, 3-5.
Format/size: pdf (74K)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2011


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007: Chapter 17: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Chapter Navigation Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances | Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment | Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions | Landmines | Forced Labour and Forced Conscription | Deprivation of Livelihood | Right to Health | Freedom of Belief and Religion | Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press | Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement | The Saffron Revolution – The 2007 Pro-Democracy Movement | Right to Education | Rights of the Child | Rights of Women | Ethnic Minority Rights | Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation | The Situation of Refugees | The Situation of Migrant Workers Chapter 17: The Situation of Refugees Download this chapter as PDF Right-click to download Section Navigation Introduction | Burmese Refugees in Thailand | Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh | Burmese Refugees in India | Burmese Refugees in Malaysia | Burmese Refugees in Other Locations | Endnotes 17.1 Introduction
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 17. Chapter 14: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: 25 June 2007
Description/subject: Background: Burmese Refugees in Thailand: 2006 Demographics of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand ; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; Change of the Thai Government; Policy for Refugees in the Camps; Detained, Arrested and Deported Refugees; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Children in Refugee Camps; Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population; Timeline of Major Refugee-Related Events on the Thai-Burma Border in 2006... Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Rohingya Refugees in Nayapara and Kutupalong Refugee Camps; UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; Unofficial Rohingya Refugees; Arakanese Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese Refugees in Bangladeshi Prisons... Burmese Refugees in India: Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi; Chin Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Northeastern India; Crackdown on Chin Opposition Groups... Burmese Refugees in Malaysia... Burmese Refugees in Other Locations: Australia; Canada; Finland; Indonesia: Japan; South Korea; United States.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf (443K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005 -- Chapter on refugees
Date of publication: July 2006
Description/subject: Covers Burmese refugees in Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and other countries.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
Format/size: pdf (271K)
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: "...According to the U.S. Committee for Refugees, more than 600,000 Burmese refugees and asylum seekers remained in countries neighboring Burma at the end of 2003. Driven out by the ruling military regime’s policies and practices that suppress their freedom and violate their human rights, refugees and asylum seekers have fled to countries including Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Refugees flee forced labor, forced relocation, torture, rape, and other human rights violations perpetrated by members of the Tatmadaw (armed forces) or other State sponsored individuals or organizations. As the SPDC continues to try and eliminate all armed and unarmed resistance, the military presence and involvement in every area of the country and all aspects of life continues to grow, forcing many to leave their homes fleeing to neighboring countries or to become displaced within Burma. There are an estimated one million internally displaced people in Burma who have the potential to become cross border refugees in times of increased military conflict. In Thailand, the U.S. Committee for Refugees reports a population of over 400,000 refugees, the majority of whom are from Karen, Karenni, Mon, and Shan ethnic groups. At the same time, there are more than one million migrant workers in Thailand who go there for many of the same reasons as refugees. A new trend is more ethnic Burmese leaving Burma from both urban and rural areas in family groups. They usually become migrant workers and leave Burma due to forced labor, heavy taxation, corruption, inability to maintain an adequate standard of living and interference with their livelihood through the theft or confiscation of land, property and livestock..."...Situation in Thailand: Refugee Demographics in 2003; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; The Provincial Admission Boards... Situation in the Camps; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Refugee Childre...Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population: Situation of Karen Refugees; Situation of Karenni Refugees; Situation of Mon Refugees; Situation of Pa-O Refugees; Situation of Shan Refugees...Timeline of Major Refugee Related Events on the Thai/Burma Border in 2003... Situation of Refugees in Bangladesh: UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; The Unofficial Rohingya Refugee Population; Situation of Rakhine Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese in Bangladeshi Prisons...Situation of Refugees in India; Situation of Chin Refugees in the Northeastern States of India; Situation of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi...Situation of Refugees in Malaysia...Refugees from Burma in Other Locations...Personal Accounts: Chin Refugee Testimony Regarding the Situation in Mizoram State, India; Account of A Karen Refugee in Thailand; Refugee Accounts of Forced Repatriation from Nayapara and Kutupalong Camps in Bangladesh.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


Title: UNHCR: MYANMAR 2005 COUNTRY OPERATIONS PLAN - Executive Committee Summary
Date of publication: 01 September 2004
Description/subject: Refugee Repatriation from Thailand; Returnees and Vulnerable Groups in Northern Rakhine State; Promotion of Refugee Law; Myanmar refugees in India..... "(a) Context and Beneficiary Population (s): In a major administrative reorganisation in 2003, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) appointed a Prime Minister who subsequently presented a seven-point road map for a democratic transition in Myanmar. The first step in this process is the reconvening of the national convention to draft a new constitution for the country. The road map has been welcomed by the UN Secretary-General, who urged that it be implemented in an “all inclusive manner”. Most of the 17 armed ethnic groups who have reached a ceasefire agreement with the SPDC have had consultations with the new Prime Minister, and announced their willingness to join the national convention process. In an unprecedented development, the Kayin National Union (KNU), which has been engaged in active armed conflict with the regime in Myanmar for the past 50 years, reached a verbal ceasefire agreement with the SPDC in December 2003. At the time of writing, negotiations between the SPDC are ongoing. These discussions include the return of refugees in camps in Thailand....."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (59.07 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&docid=4180edb64&query=MYANMAR%202...
http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&query=MYANMAR+2005+COUNTRY+OPERATIONS...
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-2003: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: "According to the US Committee for Refugees, there are more than 450,000 Burmese refugees and asylum seekers in countries neighboring Burma. Driven out by the ruling military regimes unrelenting policies and practices that violate their human rights, refugees and aylum seekers have fled to Thailand, Bangladesh, India and Malaysia. The human rights abuses committed by the SPDC include forced relocations, rape, forced labor, torture, the confiscation of land and property, arbitrary arrest and lack of personal security. As the SPDC continues to try and eliminate all resistance forces, particularly in ethnic areas, they attempt to expand military control over the population through mass forced relocation programs. There are currently over 1 million internally displaced people who have the potential to become cross-border refugees in times of increased military conflict. In Thailand, there are over 144,000 refugees, the majority of whom are from Karen, Karenni, Mon, and Shan ethnic groups. At the same time, there are more than 1 million migrant workers in Thailand who flee to Thailand for many of the same reasons as refugees. A new trend is more ethnic Burmese leaving Burma from both urban and rural areas in family groups. They usually become migrant workers and leave Burma due to forced labor, heavy taxation, corruption, inability to maintain an adequate standard of living and interference with their livelihood through the theft or confiscation of land, property and livestock. In 1992 over 250,000 Rohingyas fled religious persecution in Arakan State to take refuge in Bangladesh. While most have been repatriated, there are still over 21,500 Rohingya refugees in the two remaining refugee camps as well as over 100,000 who are living and working among the Bangladeshi communities. Rohingyas have also fled to Malaysia while the refugee population in India consists mostly of Chin people. The Refugee Convention states that refugee protection rests on the principle of non-refoulement, which dictates that no refugee should be returned to any country where he or she is likely to face persecution on grounds of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group. This principle has been repeatedly violated by the governments of Bangladesh, India and Thailand, who continue to forcibly repatriate refugees back to areas where their safety cannot be guaranteed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: September 2002
Description/subject: "...There are currently more than 135,000 refugees living in Thailand. Refugees from Burma are also in refugee camps along the Bangladeshi and Indian borders, as well as working and living in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Malaysia. The line between refugee and migrant is a thin one and there are also an estimated 1 million migrant workers living in Thailand who have fled from their homes for many of the same reasons that official refugees have. (The topic of migrant workers from Burma is covered in the next chapter) The majority of refugees living in Thailand are from the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Mon ethnic groups with migrant workers coming from all ethnic groups and all areas of Burma. The majority of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are Rohingya Muslims who face religious and ethnic persecution in their native Arakan State in western Burma. Many Rohingya refugees have been repatriated since 250,000 of them fled to the Coxs Bazaar District of Bangladesh in 1992 and there are currently 22,000 refugees remaining in the camps. Thousands of Rohingya refugees have also migrated or been trafficked to India and Pakistan where there are a number of Rohingya refugee women and girls who have been sold into prostitution..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: The Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "There are currently more than 120,000 refugees living in Thailand. Refugees from Burma are also in refugee camps along the Bangladeshi and Indian borders as well as working and living in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Malaysia. The line between refugee and migrant is a thin one and there are also an estimated 1 million migrant workers living in Thailand who have fled from their homes for many of the same reasons that official refugees have. (The topic of migrant workers from Burma is covered in the next chapter) The majority of refugees living in Thailand are from the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Mon ethnic groups with migrant workers coming from all ethnic groups and all areas of Burma. The majority of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are Rohingya Muslims who face religious and ethnic persecution in their native Arakan State in western Burma. Many Rohingya refugees have been repatriated since 250,000 of them fled to the Coxs Bazaar District of Bangladesh in 1992 and there are currently 22,000 refugees remaining in the camps. Thousands of Rohingya refugees have also migrated or been trafficked to India and Pakistan where there are a number of Rohingya refugee women and girls who have been sold into prostitution. Refugees flee Burma for a number of reasons, including large scale human rights abuses such as forced relocations, rape, forced labor, torture, the confiscation of land and property, arbitrary arrest and lack of personal security..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand
Date of publication: 2001
Description/subject: A Participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children(UK)... 1. Introduction; 2. Background; 2.1. Population; 2.2. Geography; 2.3. Political Dimensions; 2.4. Economic Dimensions; 2.5. Social Dimensions; 2.6. Vulnerability of Children and Youth; 3. Research Design; 3.1. Project Objectives; 3.2. Ethical Considerations; 3.3. Research Team; 3.4. Research Sites and Participants; 3.5. Data Collection Tools; 3.6. Data Analysis Strategy; 3.7. Obstacles and Limitations; 4. Preliminary Research Findings; 4.1. The Migrants; 4.2. Reasons for migrating; 4.3. Channels of Migration; 4.4. Occupations; 4.5. Working and Living Conditions; 4.6. Health; 4.7. Education; 4.8. Drugs; 4.9. Child Labour; 4.10. Trafficking of Persons; 4.11. Vulnerabilities of Children; 4.12. Return and Reintegration; 4.13. Community Responses; 5. Conclusion and Recommendations... Recommendations to empower migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region... "This report provides an awareness of the realities and perspectives among migrant children, youth and their communities, as a means of building respect and partnerships to address their vulnerabilities to exploitation and abusive environments. The needs and concerns of migrants along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand are highlighted and recommendations to address these are made. The main findings of the participatory action research include: * those most impacted by migration are the peoples along the mountainous border areas between China, Myanmar and Thailand, who represent a variety of ethnic groups * both the countries of origin and countries of destination find that those migrating are largely young people and often include children * there is little awareness as to young migrants' concerns and needs, with extremely few interventions undertaken to reach out to them * the majority of the cross-border migrants were young, came from rural areas and had little or no formal education * the decision to migrate is complex and usually involves numerous overlapping factors * migrants travelled a number of routes that changed frequently according to their political and economic situations. The vast majority are identified as illegal immigrants * generally, migrants leave their homes not knowing for certain what kind of job they will actually find abroad. The actual jobs available to migrants were very gender specific * though the living and working conditions of cross-border migrants vary according to the place, job and employer, nearly all the participants noted their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse without protection or redress * for all illnesses, most of the participants explained that it was difficult to access public health services due to distance, cost and/or their illegal status * along all the borders, most of the children did not attend school and among those who did only a very few had finished primary level education * drug production, trafficking and addiction were critical issues identified by the communities at all of the research sites along the borders * child labour was found in all three countries * trafficking of persons, predominantly children and youth, was common at all the study sites * orphaned children along the border areas were found to be the most vulnerable * Migrants frequently considered their options and opportunities to return home Based on the project’s findings, recommendations are made at the conclusion of this report to address the critical issues faced by migrant children and youth along the borders. These recommendations include: methods of working with migrant youth, effective interventions, strategies for advocacy, identification of vulnerable populations and critical issues requiring further research. The following interventions were identified as most effective in empowering migrant children and youth in the Mekong sub-region: life skills training and literacy education, strengthening protection efforts, securing channels for safe return and providing support for reintegration to home countries. These efforts need to be initiated in tandem with advocacy efforts to influence policies and practices that will better protect and serve migrant children and youth."
Author/creator: Therese M. Caouette
Language: English
Source/publisher: Save the Children (UK)
Format/size: pdf (343K) 145 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_5205.htm
http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/small_dreams.pdf
Date of entry/update: May 2003


Title: "State of the World's Refugees, 2000"
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: "UNHCR's 50 years of humanitarian action". Though this report is a good introcution to refugee studies, it has rather few references to Burma. UNHCR in its wisdom has not given us the option of downloading the full text (thinking, perhaps, that 18MB or so would be indigestible), so we have to access it by individual chapters and therefore cannot do a full-document search. The chapters with the main Burma references (according to the index of the print version) are: Chapter 3 (mainly Box 3.3,"The plight of the Rohingyas"); another reference to the Rohingyas in Chapter 8 (Box 8.1, "Statelessness and disputed citizenship"). Chapter 9 (Box 9.1) refers to IDPs in Burma; The report contains: Preface by the UN Secretary-General; Foreword by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; Introduction. The chapters are: 1 The early years; 2 Decolonisation in Africa; 3 Rupture in South Asia; 4 Flight from Indochina; 5 Proxy wars in Africa, Asia and Central America; 6 Repatriation and peacebuilding in the early 1990s; 7 Asylum in the industrialized world; 8 Displacement in the former Soviet region; 9 War and humanitarian action : Iraq and the Balkans; 10 The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath; 11 The changing dynamics of displacement. There are useful tables in the Annexes and a good bibliography under Further Reading.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: PDF (individual chapters up to 1700K)
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000 (contents)
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Contains some sections on Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Bangladesh at a glance
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Maps, photos, tables, text. Main Objectives and Activities: "Facilitate voluntary repatriation to Myanmar of those refugees who are willing and cleared to return; promote and initiate activities fostering self-reliance for refugees unable or unwilling to return in the near future, pending a lasting solution; co-ordinate and ensure protection and basic services for the refugees, paying special attention to women and children....."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (220K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/WorldReport-Bang.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Myanmar at a glance
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Maps, tables, photos and text. "Main Objectives and Activities: Support the voluntary repatriation, reintegration, and stabilisation of returnees in Northern Rakhine State, and monitor the situation in areas hosting them; promote activities conducive to self-reliance, and provide special assistance to the most vulnerable within the Muslim population; prepare for the United Nations Integrated Development Plan for Northern Rakhine State which will permit the gradual phasing out of UNHCR�s assistance programme. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: PDF (220K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Thailand at a glance
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: "Main Objectives and Activities: Ensure that the fundamentals of international protection, particularly the principles of asylum and nonrefoulement, are respected and effectively implemented; ensure that refugee populations at the Thai- Myanmar border are safe from armed incursions, that the civilian character of refugee camps is maintained and that their protection and assistance needs are adequately met; promptly identify and protect individual asylum-seekers; promote the development of national refugee legislation and status determination procedures consistent with international standards. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/27437918/UNHCR-Global-Report-2000
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: UNHCR Rapport Global 2000: Myanmar en bref
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: "Principaux objectifs et activit�s: Appuyer le rapatriement librement consenti, la r�int�gration et la stabilisation des rapatri�s dans le Nord de l��tat de Rakhine, et suivre la situation dans les r�gions qui les accueillent ; encourager les activit�s propices � l�autosuffisance et accorder une assistance sp�ciale aux membres les plus vuln�rables de la population musulmane; effectuer des pr�paratifs en vue du Plan quinquennal de d�veloppement int�gr� des Nations Unies pour le Nord de l��tat de Rakhine, qui permettra l�arr�t progressif du programme d�assistance du HCR. ..."
Language: Francais
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "The State of the World's Refugees 1997-98: A Humanitarian Agenda" (Full Text)
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Chapter Headings: 1 Safeguarding human security; 2 Defending refugee rights; 3 Internal conflict and displacement; 4 Return and reintegration; 5 The asylum dilemma; 6 Statelessness and citizenship; Conclusion - An agenda for action. Some references to the Rohingyas.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Alternate URLs: http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin/ulis.pl?catno=109648&set=4C098182_1_112&gp=0&lin=1&a...
http://web.archive.org/web/20000510062155/http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/97/toc.htm
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 14 - Situation of Refugees
Date of publication: September 1995
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html (51K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 15 - Forced Repatriation
Date of publication: September 1995
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html (55K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: State of the World's Refugees 1995: In Search of Solutions
Date of publication: 1995
Description/subject: "During the past few years, the world has witnessed a succession of massive refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian organizations are struggling to keep pace with the demands of each new exodus, while governments around the world are becoming increasingly reluctant to offer refuge to these victims of violence. This book examines the origins of the current crisis and provides a comprehensive account of the way in which approaches to the problem of human displacement have changed since the end of the Cold War. While the right of asylum must be scrupulously maintained, the book argues, greater efforts must also be made to tackle refugee problems at their source, by restoring peace and prosperity to countries where large numbers of people have been forced to abandon their homes. And to achieve this objective, concerted international action will be required to protect human rights, establish effective peacekeeping operations, promote sustainable development and manage migratory movements....." * Preliminaries: Table of Contents, Preface and Foreword * Introduction: Searching for Solutions * Chapter 1: Changing Approaches to the Refugee Problem * Chapter 2: Protecting Human Rights * Chapter 3: Keeping the Peace * Chapter 4: Promoting Development * Chapter 5: Managing Migration * Conclusion: Investing in the Future * Bibliography * Annexes
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (783.56 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unhcr.org/3eedd8db4.pdf
http://web.archive.org/web/20010818155036/http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/95/contents.htm
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: State of the World's Refugees 1993: The Challenge of Protection
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: "By 1993, 18.2 million men, women, and children across the world had left their homelands to escape persecution and violence. An average of 10,000 refugees a day were forced to flee the year before, as new upheavals forced out new victims. At least another 24 million were displaced within their own countries. Yet despite these staggering numbers and the backlash they have provoked in overburdened countries of asylum, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees believes there is a solution to the international refugee crisis. This important book illuminates the problems and their causes with informed analysis, detailed charts, and discussions of policy alternatives. It voices an urgent plea that doors be kept open for those in need of asylum. It is also an eloquent appeal for early intervention by the international community, whose peacemaking efforts could prevent further crises before they start, and could enable millions of refugees to return safely to their homes once again....."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20010818155036/www.unhcr.ch/refworld/refworld/refpub/refpub.htm
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - refugees* (video)
Description/subject: About 112,000 results (August 2017)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2017