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Burmese refugees in Bangladesh
For Rohingya refugees, see also the Arakan State section of "Administration and administrative areas" http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1241&lo=&sl= and the Rohingya section of Human Rights.

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Rohingya videos on Aljazeera
Date of publication: 15 November 2018
Description/subject: Aljazeeera coverage of the Rohingya crisis
Language: English commentary
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Kaladan News website - news archive
Date of publication: 20 December 2010
Description/subject: Many stories about the Rohingya back to January 2006
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kaladan Press Network
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=83&Itemid=41
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: "Bangladesh" from drop-down menu in Refworld
Description/subject: * Country Information (997)... * Legal Information (94)... * Policy Documents (8)... * Reference Documents (7).....The Legal Information includes case law and refugee appeals, which may be useful for those preparing asylum cases.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 February 2009


Title: Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
Description/subject: "According to the 1947 Constitution, a group of people who entered Burma before 1825 and settled in a defined territory are also indigenous race of Burma. This clause was especially written for Rohingya people, said Dr. Aye Maung, one of the author of the 1947 constitution. Accordingly U Nu government recognized Rohingya as an indigenous race of Burma..." Keywords: Islam, Muslim, stateless. Big, flashy site with lots of content.
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Google search results for rohingya repatriation november 2018
Description/subject: About 939,000 results (November 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: www via Google
Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/ICG-2018-05-the-long-haul-ahead-for-myanmar_0-en-red.pdf
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2018


Title: Kaladan News -- Online Burma Library archive 2002-2005
Description/subject: Many stories on the Rohingya
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kaladan Press Network
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


Title: MSF's reports and press releases on refugees in Bangladesh
Description/subject: Mainly the Rohingyas
Language: English
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2009


Title: Refugees International Bangladesh page
Description/subject: Useful, well-designed page, with background, summaries of the political and humanitarian situation, refugee voices etc., with reports stragely headed "policy recommendations"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


Title: Refugees International Myanmar page
Description/subject: Useful, well-designed page, with background, reports, advocacy letters, congressional testimony and the shorter reports under the heading of "Policy Recommendations"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


Title: Results of a local search for "Rohingya" on the Forced Migration Online digital library
Description/subject: Documents from 1992-2011
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forced Migration Online
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014


Title: Rohingya Emergency
Description/subject: "Over half a million Rohingya refugees have fled violence in Myanmar. Follow the crisis here. The Rohingya are a stateless Muslim minority in Myanmar. The latest exodus began on 25 August 2017, when violence broke out in Myanmar’s Rakhine State. The vast majority of Rohingya refugees reaching Bangladesh are women and children, including newborn babies. Many others are elderly people requiring additional aid and protection. They have nothing and need everything. See also: 100 days of horror and hope: a timeline of the Rohingya crisis Over half of the new arrivals have sought shelter in and around the existing refugee camps of Kutupalong and Nayapara and in makeshift sites that existed before the influx. Some have joined relatives there, while others are drawn to the assistance and services – putting immense pressure on the existing facilities..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: English
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2018


Individual Documents

Title: Bangladesh admits no Rohingya willing to take repatriation offer
Date of publication: 15 November 2018
Description/subject: "Buses standing ready to return refugees to Myanmar but no one is willing to board...Bangladesh has conceded that it will be unable to voluntarily repatriate Rohingya refugees to Myanmar as it had planned because it cannot find anyone willing to go back, though efforts to “motivate” people to leave will continue. Four trucks and three buses were stationed at Unchiprang camp in Cox’s Bazar on Thursday morning, ready to carry refugees who have been “approved” to a transit camp by the border, but not one refugee was willing to board them. Most refugees on a list of those approved to return have gone into hiding..."
Author/creator: Hannah Ellis-Petersen, Shaikh Azizur Rahman and Michael Safi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Bangladesh says Rohingya refugees will not be forced back to Myanmar
Date of publication: 15 November 2018
Description/subject: "Bangladesh has said it is fully prepared to begin repatriating Rohingya refugees to Myanmar but emphasised it would not force anyone to go back against their will. Four trucks and three buses have been stationed at Unchiprang camp in Cox’s Bazar since Thursday morning, ready to carry refugees who have been “approved” to a transit camp by the border – but not one refugee has been willing to board them. Most on a list of those approved to return have gone into hiding. Mohammad Abul Kalam, Bangladesh’s refugee relief and rehabilitation commissioner, told the Guardian his team had completed the “physical and logistical preparations” to facilitate the repatriation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Mounting confusion over forced Rohingya repatriation to Myanmar
Date of publication: 15 November 2018
Description/subject: "Expulsion planned for Thursday may not go ahead as Rohingya go into hiding while agencies warn return too dangerous...There is growing confusion over whether the planned forced repatriation of Rohingya Muslims back to Myanmar will begin on Thursday as planned. Bangladesh began preparations to send back an initial group of Rohingya to Myanmar in line with a bilateral plan agreed by the two governments in October. The move has been opposed by the United Nations' refugee agency and aid groups who fear for the safety of the ethnic minority. The Rohingya themselves have also said they are terrified of returning to the Buddhist-majority country. Some have gone into hiding. "It is not happening tomorrow as nobody wants to go back," Reuters news agency quoted one anonymous source as saying. Bangladesh has deployed the army to the refugee camps ahead of the expulsion in a move Human Rights Watch said underlined the refugees' fear of return. 'Genocidal intent': UN says Myanmar military leaders must face prosecution "The Bangladesh government will be stunned to see how quickly interntional opinion turns against it if it starts sending unwilling Rohingya refugees back into harm's way in Myanmar," Bill Frelick, the group's refugee rights director, said in a statement..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Rohingya in Bangladesh will not be forced back to Myanmar (video)
Date of publication: 15 November 2018
Description/subject: "It comes as a huge relief for hundreds of thousands of Muslim-majority Rohingya who fled Myanmar as Bangladesh has announced that they will not be forcibly repatriated. Bangladesh was scheduled to send back an initial group of 2,260 Rohingya from 485 families on Thursday, in line with a bilateral agreement between the two governments in October. Many refugees had refused to return, fearing for their safety. The United Nations had urged Bangladesh not to send people back under the current circumstances. Al Jazeera's Mohammed Jamjoom reports from Cox's Bazar."
Author/creator: Mohammed Jamjoom
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: Adobe Flash if html5
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Bangladesh army arrives in Rohingya refugee camps as repatriations loom
Date of publication: 14 November 2018
Description/subject: "Plans to send Rohingya refugees back to Myanmar on Thursday have gathered momentum, with reports of Bangladesh armed forces gathering in the Cox’s Bazar camps and allegations that refugees have been assaulted by the authorities for refusing to cooperate. The army, police and paramilitary troops have moved into several of the camps, where over 700,000 Rohingya are living after fleeing a campaign of violence, described as genocide by a UN fact-finding mission, carried out by the Myanmar military in August 2017. Qadar, a 29-year-old Rohingya refugee in Jamtoli camp, said many families, even those not among the list approved for return by Myanmar, had gone into hiding..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Forced repatriation of Rohingya refugees
Date of publication: 14 November 2018
Description/subject: "Following a bilateral agreement between the governments of Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh, the repatriation of more than 2,000 Rohingya refugees back to Myanmar is due to begin tomorrow, 15 November. The decision has been widely criticized as it places returnees at extreme risk of further persecution, and was taken without the consent of either the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) or Rohingya refugee organizations. Forced repatriation under such conditions violates the principle of non-refoulement enshrined in the 1951 Refugee Convention, and would be both immoral and illegal. According to the UN Human Rights Council- mandated Independent International Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) on Myanmar, military operations launched in Rakhine State by Myanmar's security forces during 2017 were conducted with "genocidal intent," including a premeditated plan for the destruction of Rohingya communities. Following the widespread killing of Rohingya civilians and the burning of nearly 400 villages, over 720,000 people fled the country, bringing the number of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh to more than 900,000..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: relifweb via "Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://gcr2p.cmail19.com/t/ViewEmail/j/67672E19F99A37062540EF23F30FEDED/D6BE5217E0694C59B4B1B1F623...
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Bachelet: Returning Rohingya refugees to Myanmar would place them at serious risk of human rights violations
Date of publication: 13 November 2018
Description/subject: "GENEVA (13 November 2018) – UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on Tuesday urged the Government of Bangladesh to halt plans for the repatriation of more than 2,200 Rohingya refugees to Myanmar, warning that the returns would be in violation of international law and put their lives and freedom at serious risk. The refugees in Cox’s Bazar are the victims of human rights violations committed in the midst of the violence that erupted in August 2017, which led to the flight of more than 725,000 people. Many witnessed the killings of members of their families and the burning down of their homes and villages. Refugees have stated repeatedly that they do not wish to return under current conditions. The Office also continues to receive reports of ongoing violations of the rights of Rohingya remaining in northern Rakhine, which include allegations of killings, disappearances and arbitrary arrests, as well as widespread restrictions on the rights to freedom of movement, health and education. About 130,000 internally displaced people (IDPs), many of whom are Rohingya, remain in camps in central Rakhine. Another 5,000 IDPs remain in No Man’s Land between Myanmar and Bangladesh while more than 4,000 are in Aung Mingalar ward in Sittwe, where they are subjected to a wide range of restrictions. Hundreds of thousands of people in other parts of Rakhine also remain deprived of their rights to freedom of movement, to basic services and livelihood – as well as their right to a nationality..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2018


Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar: The Danger of Forced Rohingya Repatriation
Date of publication: 12 November 2018
Description/subject: "Bangladesh is poised to begin returning several thousand Rohingya refugees to Myanmar. This repatriation is unlikely to be voluntary and should not proceed. It would not only violate Bangladesh’s international legal obligations and jeopardise the safety of the refugees, but risks triggering violence and greater instability on both sides of the border. Bangladesh and Myanmar should immediately halt the plan. The UN, including the secretary-general’s special envoy and the UN refugee agency,should continue to firmly oppose it, both in public and in private, and establish a process whereby Rohingya refugees are consulted about their future. The U.S., European Union (EU), Australia, Canada and others also should press Bangladesh and Myanmar to halt the returns and instead work to create conditions conducive to voluntary repatriation; those countries’ participation at the 11-15 November ASEAN summits in Singapore is an opportunity to do so..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Briefing N°153)
Format/size: pdf (363K-reduced version; 1MB-original); html
Alternate URLs: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/b153-bangladesh-myanmar.pdf
https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/b153-bangladesh-myanmar-danger-forced-rohi...
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2018


Title: Commentary: Why the Rohingya refugees should not be repatriated yet
Date of publication: 12 November 2018
Description/subject: "NEW DELHI: Last month, Bangladesh and Myanmar announced the signing of a new agreement to begin the repatriation of Rohingya refugees from their makeshift camps in Cox’s Bazar to Rakhine State within the coming weeks. Close to 720,000 Rohingya had fled to Bangladesh since last year August. So far, Myanmar has cleared only 4,600 names for return from the original list of more than 8,000 from Dhaka. While announcing the latest return deal, Myanmar’s foreign secretary, Myint Thu said there was a “very concrete plan” to start the return process “at the earliest possible date” and framed the decision as a show of “political will, flexibility, and accommodation”. His Bangladeshi counterpart, Shahidul Haque, said that repatriation should begin mid-November..."
Author/creator: Angshuman Choudhury
Language: English
Source/publisher: Channel Newsasia (CNA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2018


Title: Oxfam urges Myanmar, Bangladesh to halt Rohingya repatriation
Date of publication: 11 November 2018
Description/subject: "Description: Oxfam and dozens of NGOs warn that the return of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh would be dangerous and premature..." Video: 6 minutes and 49 seconds
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global News
Format/size: html or Adobe Flash (6 minutes and 49 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2018


Title: Rohingya fears grow as refugees face forcible return to Myanmar
Date of publication: 11 November 2018
Description/subject: "The governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar are to push ahead with the repatriation of thousands of Rohingya this week, despite objections by the UN, and against the wishes of the refugees, who spoke of being “terrified” at being sent back. Last week fear gripped the camps in Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh at the news that, without their consent, 4,355 people had been placed on a list of Rohingya approved for return by Myanmar. The first repatriations are due from Thursday, but not everyone who is on the list has been informed and it is unclear how it was compiled..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2018


Title: Statement by UN High Commissioner for Refugees on the repatriation of Rohingya refugees to Myanmar
Date of publication: 11 November 2018
Description/subject: "UNHCR supports the voluntary and sustainable repatriation of Rohingya refugees in safety and in dignity to their places of origin or choice, and will work with all parties towards this goal. The repatriation of refugees is premised upon the free and informed decision by refugees, on an individual basis, to return. Refugee returns should only take place at their freely expressed wish based on relevant and reliable knowledge of the conditions within the country of origin and the area of return. The best way to provide that knowledge to Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh is to allow them to go and see the conditions in Myanmar for themselves. Before making a choice of whether to return or not, the refugees reportedly verified by Myanmar as having the right to return should be allowed to visit their places of origin in Rakhine State, or other places to which they might choose to return, so that they themselves can make an independent assessment of whether they feel they can return there in safety and dignity. Myanmar authorities should allow these refugees to undertake such go-and-see visits without prejudice to their right to return at a later date, if indeed the refugees decide after the visits that the current conditions in Rakhine State would not allow them to return in safety and dignity..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR - UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2018


Title: Rohingyas to be repatriated despite UN genocide warning
Date of publication: 30 October 2018
Description/subject: "Bangladesh and Myanmar to start returning refugees days after warning of continuing genocide against Muslims...Myanmar and Bangladesh have agreed to start the repatriation of Rohingya refugees next month, less than a week after UN investigators warned that a genocide against the Muslim minority was continuing. More than 720,000 of Myanmar’s stateless Rohingya people fled a military crackdown in August last year, taking shelter in crowded camps in Bangladesh and bringing with them harrowing tales of rape, murder and arson. At a meeting of the Bangladeshi foreign secretary, Shahidul Haque, and his Burmese counterpart, Myint Thu, on Tuesday, the two countries drew up a “very concrete plan” to start repatriations..."
Author/creator: Hannah Ellis-Petersen and Shaikh Azizur Rahman Tue 30 Oct 2018 17.40 GMT
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html, pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2018


Title: 'Primitive people': the untold story of UNHCR’s historical engagement with Rohingya refugees
Date of publication: October 2018
Description/subject: "‘These are primitive people. At the end of the day they will go where they are told to go.’ These were the words of a senior UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) staff member in 1993, during a meeting convened to discuss potential solutions for the 250,000 Rohingya refugees who had recently fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh. The dismissive tone of the statement was emblematic of the organisation’s engagement with the Rohingya, which for many years showed limited respect for their rights and a readiness to abandon UNHCR’s own protection principles. Drawing on previously unpublished material from the UNHCR archives, this article shows how, in both the 1970s and 1990s, large numbers of Rohingya refugees were returned to Myanmar in a manner that was premature, involuntary and unsafe. The article concludes by asking whether a similar scenario could develop in relation to the 700,000 Rohingya refugees who fled to Bangladesh in the second half of 2017..."
Author/creator: Jeff Crisp
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Humanitarian Exchange Magazine" - The Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN)
Format/size: html (82K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs25/Crisp-2018-10-'Primitive_people'.html
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2018


Title: Myanmar's delaying tactics blocking Rohingya return - Bangladesh PM
Date of publication: 26 September 2018
Description/subject: "NEW YORK (Reuters) - Bangladesh’s leader accused neighboring Myanmar of finding new excuses to delay the return of more than 700,000 Rohingya who were forced across the border over the past year, and said in an interview late Tuesday that under no circumstance would the refugees remain permanently in her already crowded country. “I already have 160 million people in my country,” Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina said, when asked whether Bangladesh would be willing to walk back its policy against permanent integration. “I can’t take any other burden. I can’t take it. My country cannot bear.” ..."
Author/creator: Jonathan Spicer, Rodrigo Campos
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 September 2018


Title: Myanmar: Security Forces Torture Rohingya Returnees - Refugees Arrested, Mistreated as Accused Militants
Date of publication: 21 August 2018
Description/subject: "Myanmar authorities have tortured and imprisoned Rohingya refugees who returned to Rakhine State from Bangladesh, Human Rights Watch said today. The mistreatment reinforces the need for international protection, including United Nations monitors on the ground, before Rohingya will be able to return safely to Myanmar. “The torture of Rohingya returnees puts the lie to Myanmar government promises that refugees who return will be safe and protected,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director. “Despite Myanmar’s rhetoric guaranteeing a safe and dignified return, the reality is that Rohingya who go back still face the persecution and abuses they were forced to flee.”
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html. Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2018


Title: “Bangladesh is Not My Country” Stateless Rohingya Refugees Expelled from Myanmar
Date of publication: August 2018
Description/subject: Table of Contents: Map ... Summary… Recommendations: To the Government of Bangladesh; To the Government of Myanmar; To Humanitarian Agencies ; To the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) ; To Donor Governments ; To ASEAN Member States ... I. Background: A History of Hostility; II. An Ad Hoc Response to a Dangerous Situation; Placement of the Mega Camp: Topography ; Population Density ; Climate ; International … III. A Highly Traumatized Refugee Population … IV. Refugees at Risk: Physical Security; Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH); Food and Fuel; Health; Older Refugees and Refugees with Disabilities… V. Legal Protection: Respect for Refugee Rights: Freedom of Movement ... VI. Repatriation: Obstacles to the Right of Return … VI. Where to Move the Refugees? Bhasan Char; Accessible and Relatively Safe Land in Ukhiya Subdistrict … VII. Beyond the Present Emergency, Looking Forward: Education; Livelihoods … Acknowledgments ... Appendix... Bangladesh Ministry of Foreign Affairs Response to HRW Questions
Language: English, Bengali
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (942K
Alternate URLs: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/bangladesh0818_web2.pdf
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2018


Title: Documentation of Atrocities in Northern Rakhine State
Date of publication: August 2018
Description/subject: The document was originally completed in August 2018 but issued on 24 September 2018...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), with funding support from the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL), conducted a survey in spring 2018 of the firsthand experiences of 1,024 Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar District, Bangladesh. The goal of the survey was to document atrocities committed against residents in Burma’s northern Rakhine State during the course of violence in the previous two years. The survey used a representative sample of refugee camp populations to provide insights into the violence they witnessed. Any hearsay testimony was not recorded. Survey results reveal the pattern of events refugees experienced. There may be cases when multiple refugees reported witnessing the same event, so the percentages from this survey should not be extrapolated to come up with a definitive overall number of events. The National GeospatialIntelligence Agency (NGA) worked with INR to map and analyze the resulting data (see Map 1). The results of the survey show that the vast majority of Rohingya refugees experienced or directly witnessed extreme violence and the destruction of their homes. They identified the Burmese military as a perpetrator in most cases. • Most witnessed a killing, two-thirds witnessed an injury, and half witnessed sexual violence (see Figure 1). • Rohingya identified the Burmese military as a perpetrator in 84% of the killings or injuries they witnessed. • Three-quarters say they saw members of the army kill someone; the same proportion say they witnessed the army destroying huts or whole villages. Police, unidentified security forces, and armed civilians carried out the rest of the observed killings. • One-fifth of all respondents witnessed a mass-casualty event of killings or injuries (either in their villages or as they fled) with more than 100 victims. 1 The two main phases of violence—the first in October 2016 and the second beginning in August 2017—followed attacks against Burmese security forces by the Rohingya insurgent group Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA). The vast majority of reported incidents against Rohingya took place from August to October 2017. The survey shows that the military, which used the ARSA attacks to justify its so-called counterinsurgency operations in northern Rakhine State, targeted civilians indiscriminately and often with extreme brutality. • Forty-five percent of refugees witnessed a rape, and the majority of rapes witnessed were committed, in whole or in part, by the army. Overall, nearly 40% of refugees saw a rape committed by members of the Burmese security services—either police or military— including 18% who saw them commit a gang rape. • Members of the security services, as well as non-Rohingya civilians in some cases, targeted children and pregnant women. • Those who were left behind because they were elderly, sick, or otherwise infirm were frequently found dead when their relatives returned to check on them. The survey reveals that the recent violence in northern Rakhine State was extreme, large-scale, widespread, and seemingly geared toward both terrorizing the population and driving out the Rohingya residents. The scope and scale of the military’s operations indicate they were wellplanned and coordinated. In some areas, perpetrators used tactics that resulted in mass casualties, for example, locking people in houses to burn them, fencing off entire villages before shooting into the crowd, or sinking boats full of hundreds of fleeing Rohingya."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
Format/size: html, pdf (727K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/286063.htm
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2018


Title: FUTURES IN THE BALANCE: BUILDING HOPE FOR A GENERATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN
Date of publication: August 2018
Description/subject: FOREWORD: "One year ago this week, a startled international community watched a dramatic humanitarian crisis unfold on the north-eastern edge of the Bay of Bengal. In a matter of weeks, hundreds of thousands of desperate and terrorized people – 60 per cent of them children – poured across the border from Myanmar into Bangladesh, bringing with them accounts of the unspeakable violence and brutality that had forced them to fl ee. Twelve months on, memories of those experiences remain raw among the roughly one million Rohingya refugees – including many from previous cross-border infl uxes – who live in cramped and primitive shelters inside the congested and often insanitary camps of Cox’s Bazar. The unstinting support of local Bangladeshi communities, and a multi-national aid effort led by the Government, has averted the more dire fears for the Rohingyas’ safety and well-being. Disease outbreaks have been largely kept at bay and famine has been averted. Safe water, sanitation, nutrition and other basic services have been installed, even if large gaps remain. For about one third of children up to the age of 14, a network of learning centres and child-friendly spaces offer a chance to begin healing, and a respite from their harsh surroundings. A semblance of normality has descended on the camps and the neighbouring communities, but it’s a normality that cannot last indefi nitely. The refugees live on a knife-edge, gripped by uncertainty about their future, and still traumatized by their experiences in Myanmar. Their homes – many built on precarious hillsides -- risk being washed away by the monsoon rain, or destroyed by a cyclone. A cholera or measles epidemic remains a real possibility. With no end in sight to their bleak exile, despair and hopelessness are growing among the refugees, alongside a fatalism about what the future has in store. Older children and adolescents who are deprived of opportunities to learn or make a living, are at real risk of becoming a “lost generation”, ready prey to traffi ckers and those who would exploit them for political or other ends. This UNICEF Child Alert calls for a concerted effort to build a new foundation for the rights and opportunities of Rohingya children over the longer term. By taking resolute action together, we – the international community as well as the Governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar – can give Rohingya children’s lives a stability and sense of hope that is currently absent. At the same time, we can strengthen the solidarity between Rohingya children and those living in host communities (whose situation is often not much better than that of the refugees). Central to our call is the promise of a quality, multi-lingual education, built around the acquisition of essential life-skills, and competencies in literacy, language and numeracy. Of course, a lasting solution to the plight of the Rohingya requires tackling the root causes of the Rohingya crisis inside Myanmar itself. The refugees cannot and will not agree to return home until the discrimination and violence that they have experienced for decades are ended, until their basic rights -- to citizenship, free movement, health, education, and jobs – have been established, and their property restored. But it is not only in Myanmar that diffi cult choices are needed. As our Call to Action makes clear, Bangladesh and the international community have critical responsibilities to address. This is a crisis that will require a complex, multilayered approach underpinned by long-term fi nancial resources and infrastructural development, and bold political will. Given the untenable situation in which the refugees fi nd themselves, and its implications for both countries, this is a challenge that must be addressed, and rapidly. The Rohingya – and their children especially – demand and deserve nothing less."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf (3.26MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2018


Title: Joint Bangladesh/UNHCR verification of Rohingya refugees gets underway
Date of publication: 06 July 2018
Description/subject: This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Charlie Yaxley – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today's press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, 06 Jul...The Government of Bangladesh and UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, have launched a joint verification exercise for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. The exercise, which began at the end of June and is expected to take up to six months to complete, will help consolidate a unified database for the purposes of protection, identity management, documentation, provision of assistance, population statistics and ultimately solutions for an estimated 900,000 refugees who have fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh in successive waves of forced displacement. Most of them - more than 720,000 – fled since August last year in what was one of the largest and fastest growing refugee emergencies seen in the region in decades. The verification will play a key role in establishing refugees’ identities and their declared places of origin in Myanmar. It will help preserve their right to voluntarily return home, if and when they decide that the conditions are right to do so. The verification exercise will also help to enhance the accuracy of data on refugees in Bangladesh, helping the Government and humanitarian partners enhance their understanding of specific needs amongst the refugee population, better plan and target delivery of protection and assistance and avoid duplication of services.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2018


Title: Rohingya: Unpeopled. Genocide survivours are invited back to their homeland (video)
Date of publication: 04 July 2018
Description/subject: "A long scar from a burn runs across Momtay Begum’s temple. She was beaten, raped and set on fire by Myanmar soldiers, who swept into her village of Tula Toli in Rakhine State in August 2017. Momtay made it out alive from what the UN later branded a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing.” After four days on the run, she and her only surviving daughter reached the border with Bangladesh. They now live in the Cox’s Bazar district of Bangladesh along with nearly 700,000 Rohingya, who fled the massacres and violence the Myanmar military unleashed on the mainly Muslim ethnic minority. Many displaced Rohingya recount harrowing experiences that echo Montay's story. However, the government continues to deny that massive slaughter even took place, claiming the troops targeted only Muslim insurgents, not civilians. Rakhine residents repeat the official narrative, saying Muslims burned their villages before fleeing and describing atrocities the Rohingya militants carried out. Follow RTD's Natalia Karachkova, as she explores the roots of the Rohingya crisis. She goes to Cox’s Bazar, where Muslim refugees relay their stories of persecution and escape from the country they called home. Meanwhile, the Rakhine residents she meets on a government-escorted press tour share a different account of what happened."
Language: English
Source/publisher: RT Documentary (RTD)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2018


Title: UNHCR and UNDP sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Myanmar to support the creation of conditions for the return of refugees from Bangladesh
Date of publication: 06 June 2018
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html.
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2018


Title: The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis
Date of publication: 16 May 2018
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In the last eight months, nearly 700,000 Rohingya have fled indiscriminate and brutal operations by Myanmar’s military in northern Rakhine State to Bangladesh, joining tens of thousands who left earlier in 2017, and many more from previous years. The two countries have agreed upon a procedural framework for voluntary repatriation, but no Rohingya have returned and small numbers continue to flee. The burden of the crisis may have shifted to Bangladesh, but the onus of responsibility remains squarely on Myanmar. The world must pursue accountability for crimes committed and press the government to create the conditions for voluntary repatriation. The tragic reality, however, is that the vast majority of refugees are unlikely to return in the foreseeable future, however much international opprobrium Myanmar faces. Planning for the refugees should proceed on that assumption, while efforts continue to protect those Rohingya who remain in Myanmar. Failing to develop long-term plans for the refugees would not only risk that hundreds of thousands of people remain in limbo. It could also lead the status quo to morph in dangerous ways. For now, host communities and political elites in Bangladesh largely sympathise with the refugees, but if the sentiments of either were to shift – after the December elections, for example, or due to prolonged negative impacts on host communities – the Rohingya might face pressure to return against their will or move into more isolated camps in Bangladesh, such as those the Bangladeshi government is building on remote Bhasan island. Such developments could prompt instability or violence on either side of the border – due to organised resistance by refugees to relocation or premature repatriation, communal violence against returning refugees, or renewed ARSA mobilisation in Rakhine State. The social, political and strategic implications of this crisis for Bangladesh are complex at all levels. The host communities – neglected by Dhaka at the best of times – are already feeling the strain. While there is no disagreement in political and policy circles about the intractability of the crisis, there is widespread reluctance to acknowledge it, as it would reflect badly on the Bangladeshi government’s ability to protect its sovereignty and could be interpreted as tacit acceptance of ethnic cleansing. Public sympathy for the Rohingya will not last forever, and the current situation is likely to evolve in unpredictable ways. After the December elections, the next government (likely to be the same as the present one) will have to make some difficult longer-term decisions. This subject will be covered in detail in a forthcoming report. Myanmar has constructed some of the infrastructure that could support a limited return, in the form of heavily guarded processing and holding camps. But it has done little if anything to create conditions on the ground that would give refugees, who fled abuses that likely constitute crimes against humanity, and who continue to be fearful and traumatised, the confidence to go back. It has bulldozed many burned Rohingya villages, is building new roads, power lines and security infrastructure across northern Rakhine State, and has promoted or allowed the expansion of existing villages and construction of new settlements inhabited by other ethnicities. The refugees’ return to their homes and lands thus is not only increasingly unlikely, but also becoming impossible in practice. Ethnic Rakhine political leaders and local The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Crisis Group Asia Report N°296, 16 May 2018 Page ii communities are staunchly opposed to repatriation, and the government has done little to mitigate their resistance (indeed, its own relations with ethnic Rakhine have soured). Moreover, hostility toward the Rohingya across Myanmar political elites and in society more broadly remains firmly entrenched. Most refugees express no intention to go to third countries, and in any case their opportunities to do so are likely to remain scarce. They want to return home. Many refugees hope that the unprecedented international attention their plight has received over the past months could help them achieve that, but they are resigned to staying for an extended period in Bangladesh. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army militant group has significant networks of members and supporters in the Bangladesh camps, and appears determined to remain relevant as an insurgent and political force. The extent to which it can do so is uncertain. It launched a small cross-border attack on a Myanmar army convoy on 5 January, but it has conducted no actions since then. Whether it can leverage widespread disaffection and the significant sympathy it still enjoys in the camps into political authority and sustain cross-border attacks remains to be seen. There is no evidence it has established links to transnational groups like ISIS or al-Qaeda. Indeed, viewing the situation in the camps through a counter-terrorism lens would be unhelpful, as the Bangladeshi authorities appear to recognise. Improving the situation in northern Rakhine State, where 100,000-150,000 Rohingya still live (and on some estimates as many as 250,000), is not primarily a development challenge. It depends on the Myanmar government and security forces changing course. For the Rohingya in northern Rakhine, particularly those in rural areas, life is becoming increasingly untenable. Curfews, checkpoints and movement restrictions mean that they cannot gain access to farms, fishing grounds, markets, day labour opportunities or social services. These people say they do not want to leave, but if the restrictions are not urgently eased, many may decide they have no other choice. To prevent further deterioration, the international community should continue pushing the government to allow unfettered United Nations and aid agency access to northern Rakhine. They should press for accountability for crimes committed by the security forces and others. It is also vital to ensure that the government changes conditions in northern Rakhine, to improve the prospects of an eventual refugee return, and more urgently to stabilise the situation of the Rohingya who remain, so as to prevent a further exodus. The recent appointment of a UN special envoy for Myanmar, combined with continued scrutiny and engagement from the Security Council – which just completed a visit to Bangladesh and Myanmar – can hopefully result in some progress on these issues. The recent statement from State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi’s office promising improved relations with the UN, together with the appointment of a new president, may open space for changes in the government’s approach. Realistically, however, the hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who have fled to Bangladesh appear unlikely to return any time soon. Donors should prepare for the long haul. They should not only fund the humanitarian operation but also invest in the development of Cox’s Bazar district, where the refugees currently reside, to reduce the burden on host communities, minimise risks that local sentiment turns against refugees and create an environment more amenable to their integration. The The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Crisis Group Asia Report N°296, 16 May 2018 Page iii Bangladeshi government currently resists such an approach, given the domestic political costs of acknowledging that the Rohingya will remain indefinitely. Similarly, many Western governments are understandably loath to acknowledge explicitly that prospects of the refugees’ return are slim. But sustained political discussions on longterm solutions between the government, donors and multilateral institutions are vital. Failing to develop plans for the Rohingya’s prolonged stay in Bangladesh risks worsening their suffering and propelling the crisis in a still more dangerous direction".
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°296)
Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/ICG-2018-05-the-long-haul-ahead-for-myanmar_0-en-red.pdf
Format/size: pdf (320K, reduced version; 1MB, orginal) html
Alternate URLs: https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/296-long-haul-ahead-myanmars-rohingya-refu...
https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/296-the-long-haul-ahead-for-myanmar_0.pdf
https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/296-the-long-haul-ahead-for-myanmar-burmese.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2018


Title: The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis မန္မာနို္င္ငံ၏ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာဒုကၡသည္ ျပႆနာအတြက္ ေရွ႕ တြင္ ရုန္းကန္ရမည္႔ ခရ
Date of publication: 16 May 2018
Description/subject: အဓိကအေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ား အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ : " လြန္ခဲ့ေသာရွစ္လအတြင္း ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းတြင္ ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္၏ လက္လြတ္ စပယ္ ရက္စက္ၾကမ္းတမ္းေသာ စစ္ဆင္ေရးမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ၇၀၀,၀၀၀ နီးပါးခန္႔ ဘ ဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ႏိုင္ငံဖက္သို႔ ထြက္ေျပးခဲ့ၿပီး ၂၀၁၇ အေစာပိုင္းႏွင့္ ယခင္႔ယခင္ႏွစ္မ်ားက ထြက္ ေျပးသြားႏွင့္သူ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ေထာင္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ ရွိရာသို႔ သြားေရာက္ ခိုလံႈေနထိုင္ခဲ့ၾကသည္။ ႏွစ္ႏိုင္ငံသည္ ဆႏၵအေလ်ာက္ ေနရပ္ျပန္ပို႔ျခင္းအတြက္ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမူေဘာင္ကို သ ေဘာတူခဲ့ၾကေသာ္လည္း မည္သည့္ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမွ ျပန္မသြားသည့္အျပင္ အေရအတြက္ အနည္း ငယ္မွာ ဆက္လက္ထြက္ေျပးေနဆဲျဖစ္သည္။ ယင္းျပႆနာ၏ ဝန္ထုပ္ဝန္ပိုးသည္ ဘဂၤလား ေဒ့ရွ္အေပၚသို႔ ကူးေျပာင္းသြားေသာ္လည္း တာဝန္ယူရမည့္ ဝတၱရားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအေပၚ တြင္ လံုးလံုးလ်ားလ်ားရိွေနသည္။ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားအေပၚ တာဝန္ခံမႈရိွေစ ရန္ႏွင့္ ဆႏၵအေလ်ာက္ ေနရပ္ျပန္ႏိုင္မည့္ အေျခအေနမ်ားကို ဖန္တီးရန္ အစိုးရအား ဖိ အားေပးေရးအတြက္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာက တစိုက္မတ္မတ္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ရမည္ျဖစ္သည္။ သို႔ရာတြင္ ဝမ္းနည္းဖြယ္အမွန္တရားမွာ ႀကိဳတင္မွန္းဆနိုင္သည္႔ အနာဂတ္ကာလအတြင္းေတာ႔ ဒုကၡ သည္ အေျမာက္အမ်ား အိမ္ျပန္ၾကရန္ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေသးျခင္းျဖစ္ၿပီး ထိုအခ်က္သည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရေသာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာက ျပင္းထန္စြာေဝဖန္ေနမႈ၏ အေၾကာင္းျဖစ္သည္။ ဒုကၡသည္ မ်ားအတြက္ အစီအစဥ္ေရးဆြဲမႈမ်ားသည္ အလ်င္အျမန္ ေနရပ္ျပန္ေရးဟူေသာ ယူဆခ်က္ အေပၚတြင္ အေျခခံလုပ္ေဆာင္ရမည္ျဖစ္သလို ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ က်န္ရွိေနေသာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ မ်ားကိုလည္း ဆက္လက္ အကာအကြယ္ေပးရန္ ႀကိဳးပမ္းရမည္ျဖစ္သည္။ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအတြက္ ေရရွည္အစီအစဥ္မ်ား လုပ္ေဆာင္ရန္ ပ်က္ကြက္မႈေၾကာင္႔ သိန္းခ်ီေသာ လူအမ်ားသည္ မေရမရာအေျခအေနတြင္ ဆက္လက္ေနထိုင္ရရန္ အႏၱရာယ္ ရိွသည့္အျပင္ လက္ရိွအေျခအေနကို အႏၱရာယ္ႀကီးမားသည့္ လမ္းေၾကာင္းသို႔ ဦးတည္ သြားေစႏိုင္သည္။ ေလာေလာဆယ္တြင္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္မွ အိမ္ရွင္အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ႏိုင္ငံ ေရးအေပၚလႊာမွသူမ်ားက ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအေပၚ ႀကီးႀကီးမားမား ဂရုဏာသက္ေနၾကေသာ္ လည္း ဒီဇင္ဘာလေရြးေကာက္ပြဲအၿပီး စိတ္သေဘာထားေျပာင္းလဲသြားခဲ့လွ်င္ျဖစ္ေစ၊ အိမ္ ရွင္အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ားအေပၚ ေရရွည္ဆိုးက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္မႈမ်ား ရွိလာလွ်င္ျဖစ္ေစ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ တို႔သည္ ၎တို႔ဆႏၵႏွင့္ ဆန္႔က်င္ကာ ေနရပ္ျပန္ရန္ ဖိအားေပးမႈကို ရင္ဆိုင္ရျခင္း သို႔မဟုတ္ ေဝးလံေသာ ဘာဆန္ (Bhasan) ကြ်န္းတြင္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္အစိုးရက တည္ေဆာက္ထား ေသာ စခန္းမ်ားကဲ့သို႔ေသာ လူအမ်ားႏွင္႔ေဝးရာ စခန္းမ်ားသို႔ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းရျခင္းတို႔ ျဖစ္လာ ႏိုင္သည္။ ယင္းကဲ့သို႔ ျဖစ္ရပ္မ်ားသည္ ျပန္လည္ေနရာခ်ထားျခင္း သို႔မဟုတ္ အခ်ိန္မတန္ခင္ ေနရပ္ျပန္ပို႔ျခင္းကို ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားက စနစ္တက် ဆန္႔က်င္ျခင္း၊ ျပန္သြားေသာ ဒုကၡသည္ မ်ားႏွင္႔ လူအုပ္စုမ်ားၾကားအၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားျဖစ္ပြားျခင္း သို႔မဟုတ္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ ARSA အတြက္ The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Crisis Group Asia Report N°296, 16 May 2018 Page ii အသစ္တဖန္စည္းရံုးမႈ ထပ္မံေပၚေပါက္ျခင္းတို႔ေၾကာင့္ နယ္စပ္၏ ႏွစ္ဖက္စလံုးတြင္ မတည္ၿငိမ္မႈ သို႔မဟုတ္ အၾကမ္းဖက္မႈမ်ားကို ျဖစ္ေပၚေစႏိုင္သည္။ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ႏိုင္ငံအေပၚ ထိုျပႆနာ၏ လူမႈေရးဆိုင္ရာ၊ ႏိုင္ငံေရးဆိုင္ရာ၊ မဟာ ဗ်ဴဟာေျမာက္ အက်ိဳးဆက္မ်ားသည္ အဆင္႔တိုင္းတြင္ ရႈတ္ေထြးေနသည္။ ပံုမွန္အေျခအ ေနမွာပင္ ဒကၠားအာဏာပိုင္မ်ား၏ လစ္လ်ဴရႈျခင္းကို ခံေနရေသာ အိမ္ရွင္အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ား သည္ ဒဏ္ပိမႈကို ခံစားေနၾကရသည္။ ႏိုင္ငံေရးႏွင့္ မူဝါဒခ်မွတ္သူမ်ား အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းတြင္ ထိုျပႆနာ၏ ကိုင္တြယ္ရခက္ခဲမႈႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ သေဘာကြဲလြဲျခင္းမရွိေသာ္လည္း ဘဂၤ လားေဒ့ရွ္ အစိုးရ၏ အခ်ဳပ္အျခာအာဏာ ကာကြယ္ႏိုင္စြမ္းကို ဆိုးဆိုးဝါးဝါး ထင္ဟပ္လာ နိုင္ျခင္းႏွင့္ လူမ်ဳိးတုန္းသန္႔စင္မႈကို သိလ်က္ႏွင့္ လက္ခံသည္ဟု အဓိပၸါယ္ေကာက္ခံရႏိုင္ျခင္း တို႔ေၾကာင့္ ကိုင္တြယ္ရခက္ခဲမႈကို အသိအမွတ္ျပဳရန္ အမ်ားစုက တုန္႔ဆိုင္းေနၾကသည္။ ရို ဟင္ဂ်ာတို႔အေပၚ လူထု၏ ဂရုဏာသက္မႈသည္ အျမဲတမ္းရွိေနမည္မဟုတ္ပဲ လက္ရွိအေျခအ ေနသည္ မွန္းဆမရႏိုင္ေသာ လမ္းေၾကာင္းမ်ားသို႔ ျဖစ္ေပၚေျပာင္းလဲသြားႏိုင္သည္။ ဒီဇင္ဘာ လ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲမ်ားအၿပီးတြင္ အစိုးရသစ္ (လက္ရွိအစိုးရ အာဏာျပန္ရႏိုင္ေခ်ရွိသည္) သည္ ခက္ခဲေသာ ေရရွည္ဆံုးျဖတ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို ခ်မွတ္ရေတာ့မည္ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤအေၾကာင္း အရာကို လာမည့္ အစီရင္ခံစာတြင္ အေသးစိတ္တင္ျပပါမည္။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသည္ ေနရပ္ျပန္လာမည္႔သူမ်ား၏ အေရအတြက္အကန္႔အသတ္သာ ပံ့ပိုး ႏိုင္ေသာ အေျခခံအေဆာက္အဦအခ်ဳိ႕ကိုသာ တည္ေဆာက္ထားရာ အေစာင့္အၾကပ္ ထူ ထပ္စြာ ခ်ထားေသာ စခန္းမ်ား ပံုစံျဖင့္ တည္ေဆာက္ထားသည္။ သို႔ရာတြင္ လူသားထုအေပၚ က်ဴးလြန္ေသာ ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားဟု သတ္မွတ္ႏိုင္ေသာ ႏွိပ္စက္ညွင္းပန္းမႈမ်ားမွ ထြက္ေျပးခဲ႔ ရၿပီး ဆက္လက္ေၾကာက္ရြံ႕ေနၾကကာ စိတ္ဒဏ္ရာရရိွခဲ႔ၾကေသာ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအတြက္ ေန ရပ္ျပန္ရန္ ယံုၾကည္စိတ္ခ်ရမည္႔ အေျခအေနမ်ားကို ဖန္တီးေပးျခင္းႏွင္႔ပတ္သက္ၿပီး အနည္း ငယ္သာ လုပ္ေဆာင္ထားသည္။ အစိုးရသည္ မီးေလာင္ထားေသာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာေက်းရြာမ်ား စြာကို ေျမထိုးစက္ျဖင့္ ထိုးပစ္ခဲ့ၿပီး ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းတြင္ လမ္းသစ္မ်ား၊ ဓာတ္အား လိုင္းမ်ား၊ လံုျခံဳေရးႏွင္႔ဆိုင္ေသာ အေျခခံအေဆာက္အဦမ်ားကို တည္ေဆာက္ေနကာ လက္ ရွိေက်းရြာမ်ားကို တိုးခ်ဲ႕ ျခင္း၊ အဆင္႔ျမွင္႔တင္ျခင္း၊ အျခားတိုင္းရင္းသားမ်ားအေျခခ်ေနထိုင္ မည့္ ရပ္ရြာသစ္မ်ား တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္းတို႔ကို ခြင့္ျပဳလ်က္ရွိသည္။ သို႔ျဖစ္ရာ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ၎တို႔၏ ေနအိမ္ႏွင့္ ေနရပ္သို႔ ျပန္ရန္ကိစၥသည္ အလားအလာမရွိရံုသာမကပဲ လက္ေတြ႔ တြင္ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေခ် ပိုမ်ားလာခဲ့သည္။ ရခိုင္တိုင္းရင္းသား ႏိုင္ငံေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေဒသခံ အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ားသည္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားေနရပ္ျပန္မႈကို ျပင္းျပင္းထန္ထန္ ဆန္႔က်င္လ်က္ရွိၿပီး အစိုးရက ၎တို႔၏ ဆန္႔က်င္မႈကို ေလ်ာ႔ခ်ရန္ အနည္းငယ္သာ လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈရွိသည္ (အ မွန္တကယ္တြင္ အစိုးရကိုယ္တိုင္၏ ရခိုင္တိုင္းရင္းသားတို႔ႏွင္႔ ဆက္ဆံေရးမွာ ေအးခဲေန သည္) ။ ထို႔အျပင္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ႏိုင္ငံေရးထိပ္ပိုင္းအလႊာမွသူမ်ားႏွင့္ ျမန္မာလူ႔အဖြဲ႔အစည္း The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Crisis Group Asia Report N°296, 16 May 2018 Page iii ၾကားတြင္လည္း ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာတို႔အေပၚ ရန္လိုစိတ္သည္ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႔ျပန္႔ ခိုင္ခိုင္မာမာ အ ျမစ္တြယ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ အမ်ားစုက တတိယႏိုင္ငံမ်ားသို႔သြားရန္ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္မရွိေၾကာင္း ထုတ္ေဖာ္ ေျပာဆိုထားၾကၿပီး ထိုသို႔ျပဳလုပ္ရန္ အခြင့္အလမ္းမွာလည္း နည္းပါးေနဆဲပင္ျဖစ္သည္။ ၎ တို႔က ေနရပ္ကိုသာ ျပန္ခ်င္ၾကသည္။ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာအမ်ားစုက ၿပီးခဲ့ေသာလမ်ားအတြင္း ႏိုင္ငံ တကာက ၎တို႔၏ အခက္အခဲကို မၾကံဳစဖူး သတိျပဳမိလာျခင္းသည္ ၎တို႔၏ လိုလားခ်က္ ေအာင္ျမင္ရန္ အေထာက္အကူျပဳႏိုင္သည္ဟု ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ေနၾကေသာ္လည္း ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္တြင္ ေနထိုင္ခြင့္ကာလ သက္တမ္းတိုးေရးကို ပယ္ခ်ျခင္း ခံထားရသည္။ ရခိုင္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာကယ္တင္ေရးတပ္ (ARSA) စစ္ေသြးၾကြအုပ္စုသည္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ရွိ ဒုကၡ သည္စခန္းမ်ားတြင္ အဖြဲ႔ဝင္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေထာက္ခံသူမ်ားကြန္ရက္ ခိုင္ခိုင္မာမာရွိထားၿပီး သူပုန္ တပ္ဖြဲ႕ အျဖစ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ႏိုင္ငံေရးအင္အားစုအျဖစ္လည္းေကာင္း ဆက္ရွိေနရန္ ဆံုးျဖတ္ ထားပံုရသည္။ ထိုကဲ့သို႔ လုပ္ႏိုင္မည့္ အတိုင္းအတာမွာမူ ေရရာမႈမရွိေပ။ ၎တို႔သည္ ဇန္န ဝါရီ ၅ ရက္က နယ္စပ္ကို ျဖတ္ေက်ာ္ကာ ျမန္မာစစ္တပ္ယာဥ္တန္းကို အေသးစားတိုက္ခိုက္ မႈ ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ေသာ္လည္း ထို႔ေနာက္တြင္ မည္သည့္တိုက္ခိုက္မႈမွ လုပ္ေဆာင္ႏိုင္ျခင္း မရွိေပ။ ၎တို႔သည္ က်ယ္က်ယ္ျပန္႔ျပန္႔ရိွေနေသာ မေက်နပ္မႈမ်ားႏွင့္ ဒုကၡသည္စခန္းမ်ားတြင္ ရရွိ ေနေသာ ဂရုဏာမ်ားကို ႏိုင္ငံေရးအခြင့္အာဏာႏွင့္ အဆက္မျပတ္နယ္စပ္ျဖတ္ေက်ာ္ တိုက္ ခိုက္မႈမ်ားအျဖစ္ ေျပာင္းလဲႏိုင္မလားဆိုသည္ကိုမူ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ရဦးမည္ျဖစ္သည္။ ၎တို႔ သည္ ISIS ႏွင့္ အယ္လ္ကိုင္ဒါ ကဲ့သို႔ေသာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာအၾကမ္းဖက္အုပ္စုမ်ားႏွင့္ အခ်ိတ္အ ဆက္ထူေထာင္ထားသည့္ အေထာက္အထားမရွိေပ။ အမွန္တကယ္တြင္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ အာ ဏာပိုင္မ်ားလည္း သိရွိထားပံုရသည့္အတိုင္း ဒုကၡသည္စခန္းမ်ားရွိ အေျခအေနမ်ားကို အ ၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ႏွိမ္နင္းေရးရႈေဒါင့္မွ ရႈျမင္ျခင္းသည္ အေထာက္အကူ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေပ။ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ၁၀၀,၀၀၀ မွ ၁၅၀,၀၀၀ ခန္႔ ေနထိုင္ေနဆဲျဖစ္ေသာ ရခိုင္ ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းမွ အေျခအေနတိုးတက္မႈရွိေရးသည္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ အဓိကဆိုင္ ေသာ စိန္ေခၚမႈမဟုတ္ေပ။ ယင္းကိစၥသည္ ျမန္မာအစိုးရႏွင့္ လံုျခံဳေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႔မ်ား၏ ပံုစံေျပာင္း မႈအေပၚတြင္ မူတည္ေနသည္။ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္း၊ အထူးသျဖင့္ ေက်းလက္ေဒသမွ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားအတြက္ ဘဝသည္ ပို၍ အကာအကြယ္မဲ႔လာေနသည္။ ညမထြက္ရအမိန္႔မ်ား၊ စစ္ေဆးေရးဂိတ္မ်ားႏွင့္ အသြားအလာ ကန္႔သတ္ခ်က္မ်ားေၾကာင့္ ၎တို႔၏ လယ္ယာမ်ား၊ ငါးဖမ္းသည့္ေနရာမ်ား၊ ေစ်း၊ ေန႔စားအလုပ္အခြင္႔အလမ္းမ်ား သို႔မဟုတ္ လူမႈေရးဆိုင္ရာ ဝန္ ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားကို ရယူရန္ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ေတာ့ေပ။ အဆိုပါအသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ားက ၎တို႔ ထြက္ခြာ သြားလိုျခင္းမရွိေသာ္လည္း ကန္႔သတ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို အျမန္ဆံုးေျဖေလွ်ာ့ေပးျခင္းမရွိပါက ေရြး ခ်ယ္စရာလမ္းမရွိဟု အမ်ားစုက ဆံုးျဖတ္ႏိုင္ေၾကာင္း ေျပာၾကားသည္။ The Long Haul Ahead for Myanmar’s Rohingya Refugee Crisis Crisis Group Asia Report N°296, 16 May 2018 Page iv ေနာက္ထပ္ယိုယြင္းလာမႈကို တားဆီးရန္အတြက္ အေႏွာင္အဖြဲ႔ကင္းေသာ ကုလသမဂၢ ႏွင့္ အကူအညီေပးေရးေအဂ်င္စီမ်ားကို ရခိုင္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းသို႔ သြားေရာက္ခြင့္ျပဳရန္ ျမန္မာအစိုး ရကို ႏိုင္ငံတကာအသိုင္းအဝိုင္းက ဆက္လက္တြန္းအားေပးသင့္သည္။ လံုျခံဳေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႔မ်ား ႏွင့္ အျခားအုပ္စုအခ်ဳိ႕ က်ဴးလြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားကို တာဝန္ခံရန္ ဖိအားေပးသင့္သည္။ ထို႔အျပင္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ေနရပ္ျပန္ေရးအလားအလာ တိုးတက္ေရးႏွင့္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္တြင္ က်န္ရွိေနေသာ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ား ေနာက္ထပ္အစုအျပံဳလိုက္ ထြက္မေျပးေအာင္ ၎တို႔၏ အ ေျခအေနတည္ၿငိမ္ေအးခ်မ္းေရးအတြက္ ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပိုင္းမွ အေျခအေနမ်ားကို အ စိုးရက ေျပာင္းလဲမႈမ်ားျပဳလုပ္ေရးေသခ်ာေစရန္ အေရးႀကီးလွသည္။ မၾကာေသးမီက ျမန္မာ ႏိုင္ငံဆိုင္ရာ ကုလသမဂၢအထူးကိုယ္စားလွယ္ခန္႔အပ္မႈ၊ ျမန္မာႏွင့္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္သို႔ သြား ေရာက္ခဲ့ၿပီးေသာ ကုလသမဂၢလံုျခံဳေရးေကာင္စီ၏ ဆက္လက္ထိေတြ႔ဆက္ဆံမႈႏွင့္ စံုစမ္း စစ္ေဆးမႈတို႔သည္ အဆိုပါကိစၥရပ္မ်ားတြင္ တိုးတက္မႈရလဒ္ ထြက္ေပၚ လာေစႏိုင္သည္ဟု ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ရသည္။ ကုလသမဂၢႏွင့္ ဆက္ဆံေရး တိုးတက္ေစေရးအတြက္ အာမခံထားေသာ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္အတိုင္ပင္ခံပုဂၢိဳလ္ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္၏ ရံုးမွ မၾကာမီက ထုတ္ျပန္ေသာ ေၾက ညာခ်က္ႏွင့္ သမၼတသစ္ခန္႔အပ္ျခင္းတို႔သည္ အစိုးရ၏ နည္းလမ္းေျပာင္းလဲရန္အတြက္ လမ္း ပြင့္လာႏိုင္သည္။ သို႔ရာတြင္ လက္ေတြ႕ က်က်ဆိုရပါက ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ဖက္သို႔ ထြက္ေျပးသြားၾကေသာ သိန္းဂဏန္းရိွ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားစြာသည္ မၾကာမီအေတာအတြင္း ျပန္လာဖြယ္မရိွေသးေပ။ ထို႔ ေၾကာင့္ အလွဴရွင္မ်ားအေနျဖင္႔ ကာလရွည္ရုန္းကန္ရန္အတြက္ ႀကိဳတင္ျပင္ဆင္ထားသင္႔ သည္။ အလွဴရွင္မ်ားသည္ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာမႈဆိုင္ရာ လုပ္ေဆာင္မႈမ်ားအတြက္သာ ရန္ပံုေငြ ေထာက္ပံ့ရံုသာမကပဲ လက္ခံထားရေသာ အိမ္ရွင္ရပ္ရြာလူထု၏ ဝန္ထုပ္ဝန္ပိုးကို ေလွ်ာ့ခ် ေပးရန္၊ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားကို ေဒသခံမ်ားက ဆန္႔က်င္လာမည့္ အႏၱရာယ္ကို ေလွ်ာ့ခ်ရန္ႏွင့္ ဒုကၡ သည္မ်ား၏ ေဒသခံႏွင္႔ ေပါင္းစည္းေနထိုင္မႈ လြယ္ကူေခ်ာေမြ႔ေစမည့္ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ကို ဖန္ တီးေပးရန္အတြက္ ၎တို႔ လက္ရွိေနထိုင္ေနေသာ ေကာ့ဘဇား (Cox’s Bazar) ခရိုင္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳး ေရးအတြက္ပါ ရင္းႏွီးျမွပ္ႏွံသင့္သည္။ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္အစိုးရသည္ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ားအေနျဖင္႔ အခ်ိန္အကန္႔အသတ္မရိွ ဆက္လက္ေနထိုင္ေနလိမ္႔ဦးမည္ဆိုသည္ကို အသိအမွတ္ျပဳေရး အတြက္ ျပည္တြင္းႏိုင္ငံေရးတြင္ ေပးဆပ္ရမည္႔ အေရးမ်ားရိွျခင္းေၾကာင္႔ လက္ရိွအေျခအေန ၌ အစိုးရက ျငင္းဆန္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ အလားတူပင္ အေနာက္နိုင္ငံအစိုးရအေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား သည္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားေနရပ္ျပန္ေရး အလားအလာမ်ားမွာ နည္းပါးလွသည္ကို ရွင္းရွင္းလင္း လင္း အသိအမွတ္မျပဳလိုၾကသည္မွာလည္း သဘာဝက်သည္ဟုဆိုနိုင္သည္။ သို႔ရာတြင္ အ စိုးရ၊ အလွဴရွင္မ်ားႏွင့္ ႏိုင္ငံစံုအဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ားအၾကား ေရရွည္ခံမည့္ ေျဖရွင္းနည္းမ်ားႏွင့္ပတ္ သက္၍ ႏိုင္ငံေရးဆိုင္ရာ ေဆြးေႏြးမႈမ်ား စဥ္ဆက္မျပတ္ ျပဳလုပ္ေနရန္ အေရးႀကီးလွသည္။ ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ား ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္တြင္ ေရရွည္ေနထိုင္ေရးအတြက္ အစီအစဥ္မ်ားကို ေရးဆြဲရန္ ပ်က္ကြက္ပါက "
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ), English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°296)
Format/size: pdf (800K}
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/ICG-2018-05-the-long-haul-ahead-for-myanmar_0-en-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2018


Title: Investigative Report of Rohingya Refugee Camps in Bangladesh - Rohingya Refugees Face Serious Human Rights Violations in Myanmar and Bangladesh Refugee Camps
Date of publication: 12 April 2018
Description/subject: Table of Contents: I. Introduction... II. Background: a. Documented Violations; b. Myanmar Government Actions; c. International Community Reactions and Recommendations ... III. Methodology ... IV. Findings & Legal Implications ... a. Situation Inside Myanmar ... b. Situation In Refugee Camps ... Recommendations ..... Specifically, the policy requiring the Rohingya to produce official documentation upon repatriation will likely hamper the Rohingya’s ability to return to their homes in Myanmar, due to their lack of citizenship status, noted above. HRN’s interviews with the Rohingya refugees confirmed the possibility that many Rohingya may be forced to return to Myanmar against the ir volition. For example, the 55 - year - old woman, the 29 - year - old man, and the 70 - year - old man, all expressed reluctance to return to Myanmar unless they had guarantees of certain rights (i.e. citizenship, living freely outside of a camp, and citizenship wi th fundamental rights, respectively). The 37 - year - old man and the 35 - year - old man both mentioned concern for lack of citizenship as a reason they do not want to return to Myanmar. Given the interviewees’ explicit expressions of fear and reluctance to retur n to Myanmar, HRN is skeptical that a repatriation process that does not provide comprehensive protection of the Rohingya rights would be in compliance with international legal standards regarding the treatment of refugees. V. Recommendations Human Rights Now is gravely concerned with the allegations of systematic and gross violations of human rights and humanitarian law directed against Rohingya in Myanmar and with the urgency of the situation of displaced Rohingya. The Burmese military’s atrocities in Rak hine S tate include summary executions, rape , expulsion and the mass burning of villages. These abuses amount to crimes against humanity and resulted in widespread deaths and the displacement of over 650 , 000 Rohingya..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Now
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB-reduced version; 2.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://hrn.or.jp/eng/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Investigative-Report-of-Rohingya-Refugee-Camps-in-B...
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2018


Title: Brides and Brothels: The Rohingya Trade (video)
Date of publication: 08 March 2018
Description/subject: "Thousands of Rohingya girls continue to face sexual exploitation, forced marriage and trafficking in refugee camps.hey have survived rape and the slaughter of their families. Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya girls and women fled Myanmar to escape a military crackdown... In Bangladesh's refugee camps they thought they would be safe. But inside the tents that house almost a million Rohingya refugees, women and girls are being bought, sold and given away. Girls are being forced into marriage because relatives can't afford to feed them, or are being lured to brothels with the promise of good jobs. We investigate the dangers still facing Rohingya women and meet the people seeking to exploit them" ...Rohingya, Bangladesh, Sexual assault, Asia, Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (25 minutes)
Alternate URLs: https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2018/03/brides-brothels-rohingya-trade-180308070438854...
Date of entry/update: 09 March 2018


Title: We Must Not Repeat the Shameful History of Returning Rohingya Refugees
Date of publication: 17 January 2018
Description/subject: "As Rohingya refugees poured out of Myanmar into Bangladesh last fall, the two countries were already negotiating mass returns. This wouldn’t be the first premature repatriation of Rohingya, but today it reflects a trend of unsafe returns, says refugee expert Jeff Crisp...As demonstrated by the earlier experience of the Rohingya, the principle of voluntary and safe repatriation has never been universally respected, and it would be misleading to suggest these developments are entirely new. Even so, the scale and frequency of involuntary refugee returns in recent years suggest that a fundamental norm of refugee protection is now being challenged as never before...."
Author/creator: Jeff Crisp
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Refugees Deeply"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2018


Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis Enters a Dangerous New Phase
Date of publication: 07 December 2017
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The actions of the Myanmar military in northern Rakhine State have created a major humanitarian catastrophe, a crisis for the country and a security threat to the region. It has strengthened an ugly strand of nationalism that will be long-lasting and could lead to the targeting of other minorities in the future. The crisis will define Myanmar in the eyes of much of the world for years to come, with hugely negative consequences across the board on trade, investment, tourism. The country has squandered its considerable reserves of global good-will just when it needed them most, as it was emerging from decades of isolation from the West. Myanmar has also put itself at much greater risk of attack by transnational jihadist groups. Priority long-term aims of balancing China’s geostrategic influence and economic dominance in the country and rehabilitating the military’s international image have been significantly set back. The abuses against the Rohingya minority have captured global public opinion, and the uncompromising posture of the government has exacerbated the situation. Western countries almost certainly will re-impose some of the sanctions that had been lifted in recent years. As they do so, they should acknowledge their inherent limitations and approach them in a manner that can maximise leverage while minimising collateral damage on Myanmar’s long-suffering population."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html (892K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/ICG-292.htm
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2017


Title: Myanmar: "My world is finished". Rohingya targeted in crimes against humanity in Myanmar
Date of publication: 18 October 2017
Description/subject: "Early in the morning of 25 August 2017, members of a Rohingya armed group, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), attacked approximately 30 security force outposts in northern Rakhine State.1 In its response, the Myanmar Army, rather than targeting ARSA, launched an attack on the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State as a whole. Often working with Border Guard Police (BGP) and local vigilantes, the military has carried out a campaign of violence that has been systematic, organized, and ruthless. In this briefing, Amnesty International presents evidence that the Myanmar military has killed at least hundreds of Rohingya women, men, and children; raped and perpetrated other forms of sexual violence on Rohingya women and girls; and carried out organized, targeted burning of entire Rohingya villages. This briefing builds on Amnesty International’s published findings since the crisis began, including on the Myanmar military’s use of anti-personnel landmines. In seven weeks, the relentless human rights violations have forced more than 520,000 Rohingya to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh. More cross the border daily. The attack on the Rohingya population has been both systematic and widespread, constituting serious human rights violations and crimes against humanity under international law (see text box below). The violations and crimes have been committed within a context of decades of systematic, state-led discrimination and persecution of the Rohingya population and occasional large-scale outbursts of violence. After ARSA attacks on security force outposts in October 2016, the Myanmar military carried out “clearance operations” marked by widespread and systematic human rights violations, including unlawful killings, sexual violence and other forms of torture, enforced disappearances, and arbitrary arrests, which Amnesty International concluded may have amounted to crimes against humanity. The current campaign is an escalation, with the targeted burning of villages on a massive scale seemingly designed to push the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State out of the country and make it incredibly difficult for them to return..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/7288/2017)
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB-reduced version; 4.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/AI-2017-10-18-My_World_is_Finished-en.pdf
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa16/7288/2017/en/
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh 13-24 September 2017
Date of publication: 11 October 2017
Description/subject: "...Credible information indicates that the Myanmar security forces purposely destroyed the property of the Rohingyas, scorched their dwellings and entire villages in northern Rakhine State, not only to drive the population out in droves but also to prevent the fleeing Rohingya victims from returning to their homes. The destruction by the Tatmadaw of houses, fields, food-stocks, crops, livestock and even trees, render the possibility of the Rohingya returning to normal lives and livelihoods in the future in northern Rakhine almost impossible. It also indicates an effort to effectively erase all signs of memorable landmarks in the geography of the Rohingya landscape and memory in such a way that a return to their lands would yield nothing but a desolate and unrecognizable terrain. Information received also indicates that the Myanmar security forces targeted teachers, the cultural and religious leadership, and other people of influence in the Rohingya community in an effort to diminish Rohingya history, culture and knowledge..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
Format/size: pdf (125K-reduced version; 772K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/MM/CXBMissionSummaryFindingsOctober2017.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 October 2017


Title: October 2017 Assessment Report: Undocumented Myanmar Nationals Influx to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh
Date of publication: 10 October 2017
Description/subject: "The International Rescue Committee (IRC) and Relief International (RI) carried out a multi - sector assessment between September 29 and October 3, 2017 with the aim of better understanding the priority needs of the influx of Undocumented Myanmar Nationals (UMN) – Rohingya – in Bangladesh, as well as the locations in which assistance is most needed from the humanitarian community. To date, an estimated 515,000 UMN have fled violence in Myanmar for Bangladesh. 1 With the influx of additional people seeking asylum, the makeshift settlements have expanded and the needs of the displaced population has changed as the demographics shifted. Th is needs assessment focused on recently arrived UMN in the four most affected Upazilas in Cox’s Bazar: Ukhia, Teknaf, Ramu, and Cox’s Bazar Sadar. The assessment used the following methods: cluster sampling to survey families, key informant interviews with medical and education professionals (notably, among the displaced population), observations in selected surve y sites, health facility assessments, and a rapid market assessment in Cox's Bazar. Of particular note, the findings include:  The three most commonly reported needs were money (73% ), household goods and non - food items (61%) and food (52%).  Over 3/4 of t he surveyed population relies on food security coping strategies, including opting for less preferred and less expensive foods (90%), reducing number of meals eaten in a day (69%), and restricting consumption by adults in order for small children to eat (68%). In addition, food consumption scores are extremely poor.  Nearly one - third of fami lies surveyed reported open defecation, and key informants noted the cleanliness of public latrines among major concerns in their areas of the sites surveyed.  Nearly half of all pregnant women have not received medical care for their pregnancies and 41% of families with pregnant women do not know where to go for medical care for pregnant women.  Observations during the assessment noted harmful practices in supporting survivors of gender - based violence (GBV) , including men working in women’s safe spaces, iden tifiable GBV sign posts without the necessary discretion required, and men exposing survivors to the community. 1 International Organization on Migration. Bangladesh Rohingya Crisis Response. Situation Report. October 5, 2017 . https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/IOM%20Bangladesh%20 - %20Rohingya%20Influx%20Situation%20Report%20 - %2005%20October%202017.pdf Assessment Report: Undocumented Myanmar Nationals Influx to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh October 7, 2017 BANGLADESH ASSESMENT REPORT | 2 The following report outlines the methodology as well as key findings and recommendations for the sectors of health, WASH, education, cash assistance , protection, food security, and shelter and NFIs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Rescue Committee (IRC), Relief International
Format/size: pdf (346K-reduced version; 443K- original)
Alternate URLs: October 2017 Assessment Report:
Undocumented Myanmar Nationals
Influx to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh
https://www.rescue.org/
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2017


Title: The Hard Truth Is Rohingya Refugees Are Not Going Home
Date of publication: 06 October 2017
Description/subject: "The only likely outcome of the crisis is the near-permanent presence of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya along the Bangladesh border...The harrowing scenes of human suffering on the Myanmar–Bangladesh border have provoked outpourings of sympathy and some firm statements by international politicians. At least half a million people have been brutally expelled from their homes and are now living in miserable conditions in muddy refugee camps and storm-drenched shanty towns. As the international community debates how to respond, it needs to take a clear-eyed view of the situation and recognise a brutal truth: the refugees are almost certainly not going home. Consequently, policymakers must not hide behind the fiction that Bangladesh is only temporarily hosting the refugees in preparation for their rapid return home. Over-optimistic assumptions now will lead to worse misery in the long term. Instead, the world needs to plan on the basis that Bangladesh will be hosting a very large and permanent refugee population..."
Author/creator: Bill Hayton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chatham House
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2017


Title: Burma: Military Massacres Dozens in Rohingya Village. Soldiers Shot, Stabbed Men and Boys in Maung Nu, Rakhine State
Date of publication: 04 October 2017
Description/subject: "Since August 25, Burmese security forces have been carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State. Over half a million Rohingya have fled to neighboring Bangladesh to escape killings, arson, and other mass atrocities. The Rohingya, effectively denied citizenship under Burmese law, have faced decades of repression and discrimination. About 120,000 remain internally displaced from waves of violence in 2012 and 2016, in dire humanitarian conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers are reporting from the field on the crisis and its global impact.....Children's Rights ...Refugees and Migrants ...Refugee Rights... Asylum Seekers ...Internally Displaced People... United Nations... Women's Rights... Sexual Violence and Rape ...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/rohingya-crisis
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2017


Title: Bangladesh Prime Minister condemns mine use in Myanmar, Mine Ban Treaty President calls for Fact-Finding Mission
Date of publication: 23 September 2017
Description/subject: "Yesterday, 21 September 2017, at the United Nations General Assembly, Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh, stated, “We are horrified to see that the Myanmar authorities are laying landmines along their stretch of the border to prevent the Rohingya from returning to Myanmar. These people must be able to return to their homeland in safety, security and dignity.” "
Author/creator: bmban
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mine Free Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 October 2017


Title: Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina, Speech At UNGA United Nations
Date of publication: 21 September 2017
Description/subject: The first 7 minutes are abut the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh
Language: English (translation)
Source/publisher: UN General Assembly
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (17 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 22 September 2017


Title: Myanmar Statement to the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly
Date of publication: 20 September 2017
Description/subject: "Henry Van Thio, Vice President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, addresses the general debate of the 72nd Session of the General Assembly of the UN (New York, 19 - 25 September 2017)."...Mostly dealing with the current situation in Rakhine State and the Government's responses
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 21 September 2017


Title: Rohingya Documentary: ‘A boy with no name for a people with no identity’
Date of publication: 18 September 2017
Description/subject: "Almost 400,000 Rohingya Muslims have now fled the violence in Myanmar in the last three weeks, including 240,000 children. Refugee camps across the border in Bangladesh are overflowing, and aid agencies fear it could get worse, warning up to a million could flee. Jonathan Miller has been in the region to see it all first hand."
Author/creator: Jonathan Miller (presenter)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Channel 4 News
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2017


Title: Suu Kyi has ‘a last chance’ to stop army offensive in Rohingya crisis: UN
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "UN chief Antonio Guterres says Myanmar’s de-facto head of state Aung San Suu Kyi has ‘a last chance’ to stop the military crackdown on Rakhine state and ease the Rohingya crisis, the BBC reports. "If she does not reverse the situation now, then I think the tragedy will be absolutely horrible, and unfortunately then I don't see how this can be reversed in the future," the UN secretary general said during an interview with BBC’s HARDtalk programme. Guterres reiterated that the Rohingyas should be allowed to return to Myanmar. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein has called the situation a ‘textbook example of ethnic cleansing’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Observer Online Desk
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017


Title: Myanmar: Scorched-earth campaign fuels ethnic cleansing of Rohingya from Rakhine State
Date of publication: 14 September 2017
Description/subject: "More than 80 sites set ablaze in orchestrated campaign since 25 August... More than 370,000 Rohingya fled across border in less than three weeks... Testimonies show attacks were planned, deliberate and systematic... Amnesty International can reveal new evidence pointing to a mass-scale scorched-earth campaign across northern Rakhine State, where Myanmar security forces and vigilante mobs are burning down entire Rohingya villages and shooting people at random as they try to flee. The organization’s analysis of active fire-detection data, satellite imagery, photographs and videos from the ground, as well as interviews with dozens of eyewitnesses in Myanmar and across the border in Bangladesh, shows how an orchestrated campaign of systematic burnings has targeted Rohingya villages across northern Rakhine State for almost three weeks. “The evidence is irrefutable – the Myanmar security forces are setting northern Rakhine State ablaze in a targeted campaign to push the Rohingya people out of Myanmar. Make no mistake: this is ethnic cleansing,” said Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response Director..." Additional articles and images
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: NOTE TO EDITORS:
Satellite imagery and maps showing the extent of burnings inside Rakhine State are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/y126upmuuityz1weygmqom0z7sdi7but

Still images illustrating fleeing Rohingya and the growing humanitarian crisis across the border in Bangladesh are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/c8g2ox6oy1pkrlevs590pw9enjdpsl74

Public Document
****************************************
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017


Title: Landmines on Myanmar/Burma-Bangladesh border & the flight of the Rohingya
Date of publication: 12 September 2017
Description/subject: "...Some of the current wave of refugees have stepped on landmines during their attempts to leave Myanmar. International news agencies and human rights organizations have stated that they have witness testimony of new use of landmines by Myanmar’s Armed Forces along the NRS-Bangladesh border, and this has reportedly led to the issue being raised with Myanmar by Bangladesh authorities.,, UPDATE 19 SEPTEMBER 2017 "The ICBL/Landmine Monitor has verified that recent mine victims were from newly laid mines. On 28 of August, humanitarian workers providing relief to refugees camped on the Zero line of the border witnessed an Army truck arrive on the Myanmar side and unload three boxes from which soldiers took mines and placed in the ground. This continued on that day from 10am until 3pm. The mines were laid commencing in Taung Pyo Let Yar village tract of Maungdaw Township, which is adjacent to border pillar No. 31 in Bangladesh. This area demarcates the beginning of the land border between Bangladesh and Myanmar, as south of this area the border follows the Naf River.New mine use was witnessed along about a 20km stretch of the shared border between Burma and Banladesh. This stretch lies between the two main land crossing routes between Burma (Maungdaw township) and Bangladesh (Bandarban District). Subsequent to the daytime landmine operation, the Burmese Army brought trucks at night to continue laying mines, which could be seen under the lights by which they worked. Mine laying continued during the next few days, and was witnessed progressing along the border to the northeast in Mee Taik, Nga Yant Chaung, Hlaing Thi, Bauk Shu Hpweit and In Tu Lar townships. Mine laying was last seen continuing to the east of In Tu Lar township. All mines were laid on the eastern side of the border fence."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mine Free Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 October 2017


Title: Guterres: 'Pressure needed to stop Myanmar carnage' (video clip)
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: "Myanmar's de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi has "a last chance" to halt an army offensive that has forced hundreds of thousands of the mainly Muslim Rohingya to flee abroad, the UN head has said. Antonio Guterres told the BBC's Hardtalk programme that unless she acted now, "the tragedy will be absolutely horrible". The full interview with Antonio Gutteres will be broadcast on BBC World News on Monday, 18 September at 03:30, 08:30; 14:30 and 19:30 (all times GMT)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC - Hardtalk (clip)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017


Title: How Myanmar's Buddhists view Rohingya crisis (video)
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: + 2 more videos
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017


Title: A Continuing Humanitarian Tragedy: Ongoing Abuses and Oppression against the Rohingya in Myanmar
Date of publication: 11 July 2017
Description/subject: "This policy brief draws on many years of Refugees International (RI) reporting on the Rohingya, as well as a recent RI mission to Bangladesh, where RI Senior Advocate for Human Rights Daniel Sullivan interviewed recent Rohingya arrivals who fled Myanmar beginning in late 2016. This policy brief is being issued in advance of a separate report on the situation of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, which will be issued on July 13, 2017. RI is issuing this policy brief out of concern that Myanmar’s political reforms have not benefitted the Rohingya. In fact, the Government of Myanmar, and the military in particular, has engaged in, supported or condoned widespread, egregious, and systematic human rights abuses that may constitute crimes against humanity. And while we note statements by the government expressing an intention to address the well-being of all communities in Rakhine State (home to the vast majority of Rohingya in Myanmar), governments and international organizations must not confuse talk with action..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (495K)
Alternate URLs: https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/continuing-humanitarian-tragedy-ongoing-abuses-and-oppression-...
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2017


Title: Cyclone Brings Destruction to Burma Refugee Camps in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 30 May 2017
Description/subject: "COX’S BAZAR, Bangladesh — A cyclone battered refugee camps in Bangladesh on Tuesday where hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims from Burma have taken refuge from violence at home, as authorities moved at least 350,000 Bangladeshis out of harm’s way. Cyclone Mora struck the island of Saint Martin and Teknaf in the coastal Bangladeshi district of Cox’s Bazar, where officials said some 200,000 people were evacuated to shelters. In Chittagong district, about 150,000 people were evacuated..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters via "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html (57K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/128989.html
Date of entry/update: 31 May 2017


Title: Bangladesh proposes interning, repatriating up to 270K Rohingya to Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 November 2014
Description/subject: "...Bangladesh has outlined proposals to intern thousands of undocumented Rohingya before repatriation to Myanmar, which they fled because of targeted violence and systematic discrimination, an official Foreign Ministry document obtained by Al Jazeera America reveals. An estimated 270,000 stateless Rohingya live in overcrowded camps, on the outskirts of already impoverished townships, finding shelter in locals’ homes or using plastic sheeting and bamboo to construct huts in forests. An additional 30,000 have official status as refugees, living in U.N.-run camps but lack freedom of movement and the right to employment. Dhaka announced a new national strategy for the undocumented Rohingya in February but has refused to make the details public. An International Organization for Migration (IOM) official provided the Foreign Ministry’s summary of key proposals to Al Jazeera America. The document, dated March 31, 2014, reads, “It has been suggested that a survey/listing of undocumented Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh would be carried out in order to identify them and determine their actual number and location … The listed individuals would be housed in temporary shelters in different suitable locations pending their repatriation to Myanmar through regular diplomatic/consular channels.”..."
Author/creator: Nigel O'Connor
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014


Title: Rohingyas: Asylum seekers, not infiltrators
Date of publication: 26 June 2012
Description/subject: "The Rohingya issue has received a fair degree of media coverage over the last few weeks. Admittedly, voices in favour of granting admission were far outweighed by those sharing the government's position of denying admission. While the former based their case on moral and legal grounds, the latter's case has been shaped by, what one may say, misguided notion of state interest and unsound understanding of the international human rights and refugee laws. Politicians, pundits and policy makers belonging to the latter group have put several reasons in justifying their position. This brief essay will examine the efficacy of their reasoning..."
Author/creator: C.R. Abrar
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Daily Star" (Bangladesh)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


Title: Bangladesh: The Silent Crisis
Date of publication: 19 April 2011
Description/subject: Introduction: "The Rohingya ethnic minority of Burma are trapped between severe repression in their homeland and abuse in neighboring countries. Bangladesh has hosted hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas fleeing persecution for more than three decades, but at least 200,000 Rohingya refugees have no legal rights there. They live in squalor, receive very limited aid and are subject to arrest, extortion and detention. Unregistered refugee women and girls are particularly vulnerable to sexual and physical attacks. The international community must urge the Bangladeshi government to register undocumented refugees and improve protection for all vulnerable Rohingyas. Donor governments must also work to restart and increase resettlement of refugees to a third country and increase assistance for communities hosting refugees."
Author/creator: Lynn Yoshikawa and Melanie Teff
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html, pdf (NOT WORKING)
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2011


Title: The Unwelcoming Committee
Date of publication: September 2010
Description/subject: Resentment of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh is giving rise to highly organized and increasingly vocal resistance to their presence... "Sitting on a dusty balcony outside the local district office in Ukhia in southern Bangladesh, a group of smartly dressed men take turns speaking their mind. One man, taller than the average Bangladeshi, stands up. Throwing his fist in the air, he states the group’s objective. Rohingya children in Bangladesh face a bleak future. (Photo: Yuzo/ The Irrawaddy) “Those bloody naughty people, they destroy the environment, upset local law and order and sell drugs,” he says. “They must all go back to Burma.” The rest of the group nod their heads and wave their hands to compete for the next opportunity to speak. Two things have brought this group of men together: grievances against Rohingya refugees who have settled in the area, and their powerful positions in the local community. Together they have formed the Anti-Rohingya Resistance Committee, which has taken on the role of pressuring the government to repatriate Rohingya refugees to Burma. Despite their dedication to their cause, however, their goal remains highly ambitious and controversial. Citing religious oppression in Burma, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya refugees have fled to Bangladesh over the last three decades to seek asylum. Several times the Burmese government has made major pushes to flush the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority, out of Burma’s Arakan State—the last one being in 1992..."
Author/creator: Alex Allgee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2010


Title: STATELESS and STARVING - Persecuted Rohingya Flee Burma and Starve in Bangladesh
Date of publication: March 2010
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In recent months Bangladeshi authorities have waged an unprecedented campaign of arbitrary arrest, illegal expulsion, and forced internment against Burmese refugees. In this emergency report Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) presents new data and documents dire conditions for these persecuted Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. PHR’s medical investigators warn that critical levels of acute malnutrition and a surging camp population without access to food aid will cause more deaths from starvation and disease if the humanitarian crisis is not addressed... Methods: The plight of the Burmese refugees in Bangladesh came to PHR’s attention while its researchers were conducting a quantitative study in the region on health and human rights in Burma. This emergency report is based on a sample of 100 unregistered refugee households at the Kutupalong makeshift camp in southeastern Bangladesh as well as in-depth interviews with 25 refugees and 30 other key informants throughout the region. Richard Sollom MA MPH, PHR’s Director of Research and Investigations, and Parveen Parmar MD, emergency physician at Harvard University’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital, conducted the eight-day assessment from 8-16 February 2010. Both team members have considerable experience working in refugee populations throughout the world and describe the conditions for unregistered Burmese in Bangladesh as alarming... Arbitrary arrest and forced expulsion of refugees by Bangladesh: The Burmese refugee population in Bangladesh is estimated at 200,000 to 400,000. The Government of Bangladesh and the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) jointly administer two “official” camps with a combined population of just 28,000 registered refugees. The remaining unregistered refugees are currently not protected by UNHCR because they arrived after 1993 when the Bangladesh government ceased conferring refugee status to any Rohingya fleeing Burma. In an apparent attempt to dissuade the influx of any further refugees fleeing anticipated repression prior to elections in Burma later this year, Bangladesh police and border security forces are now systematically rounding up, jailing or summarily expelling these unregistered refugees across the Burmese border in flagrant violation of the country’s human rights obligations. Although Bangladesh has not acceded to the UN refugee convention, it is minimally obligated to protect this vulnerable population against refoulement (forced deportation across the border)... Makeshift camp is “open-air prison”: Arbitrary arrest and expulsion by Bangladeshi authorities have acutely restricted all movement out of the unofficial camp, effectively quarantining tens of thousands of refugees in what one experienced humanitarian called “an open-air prison.” Because refugees fear leaving the camp, they are no longer able to find work to buy food. This confinement, coupled with the Bangladeshi government’s refusal to allow unregistered refugees access to food aid, presents an untenable situation: refugees are being left to die from starvation... Refugee children facing starvation and disease: Tens of thousands of unregistered Burmese refugees in the burgeoning camp in Bangladesh have no access to food aid. Physicians for Human Rights researchers observed children in the unofficial camp who were markedly thin with protruding ribs, loose skin on their buttocks, and wizened faces – all signs of severe protein malnutrition. The PHR team also came across many children who appeared to have kwashiorkor, as evidenced by swollen limbs and often distended abdomens. One out of five children with acute malnutrition, if not treated, will die. Results from the PHR household survey reveal that 18.2% of children examined suffer from acute malnutrition. In emergency settings, acute malnutrition is traditionally measured among children age 6–59 months. High rates of malnutrition in this age group correspond with high rates in the population as a whole. Child malnutrition levels that exceed 15% are considered “critical” by the World Health Organization (WHO), which recommends in such crises that adequate food aid be delivered to the entire population to avoid high numbers of preventable deaths. In addition, PHR received numerous testimonies from families who had not eaten in two or more days. As a coping mechanism, many refugees are now forced to borrow food or money to feed their families. Results from the PHR survey show that 82% of households had borrowed food within the past 30 days, and 91% of households had borrowed money – often with exorbitant interest rates – within the previous 30 days. Walking through the Kutupalong camp, PHR investigators saw stagnant raw sewage next to refugees’ makeshift dwellings. Human excrement and open sewers were visible throughout the camp. Results of the PHR survey show that 55% of children between 6–59 months suffered from diarrhea in the previous 30 days. Such inhuman conditions presage a public health disaster... Obstruction of humanitarian relief: PHR received reports of Bangladeshi authorities’ actively obstructing the little amount of international humanitarian relief that reaches this population. Corroborating eyewitnesses report that a Bangladeshi Member of Parliament recently Persecuted Rohingya Flee Burma and Starve in Bangladesh rounded up four national staff of an international humanitarian organization, tied them to a tree, and beat them for providing aid to the Rohingya refugees. This environment of regular harassment by Bangladeshi authorities severely impairs the ability of NGOs to provide assistance to unregistered refugees. The UK-based organization Islamic Relief ceased its humanitarian operations in one camp on 28 February 2010 because the Bangladeshi government refused to approve the group’s humanitarian activities that benefit these refugees... Bangladeshi hate propaganda and incitement against Rohingya refugees: The Bangladeshi government’s ongoing crackdown against Rohingya refugees appears to be coordinated among local authorities, police, border security forces, and the ruling political elite. Bangladeshis near the southern coastal town of Cox’s Bazar have formed Rohingya “resistance committees” that demand the expulsion from Bangladesh of the Rohingya. Bangladeshi authorities threaten villagers with arrest if they do not turn in their Rohingya neighbors. Local media disseminate ominous anti-Rohingya propaganda in editorials and opinion pieces, all of which incite xenophobic antagonism among local inhabitants... Background to the refugee crisis: Burma’s de facto president, Senior General Than Shwe, seized power 20 years ago while promising free and fair elections in 1990. That year, the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) defeated the military-backed State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), garnering 59% of the vote and 80% of the seats in the People’s Assembly. SLORC dismissed the results, and subsequently detained NLD’s Prime Minister-elect Aung San Suu Kyi, who is currently under house arrest. To fend off risk of a second defeat at the polls in late 2010, the Burmese military regime has stepped-up militarization and abuses against all ethnic minorities, who represent nearly 40% of Burma’s total population of 50 million. Than Shwe’s Tatmadaw military has locked up 2,200 political prisoners, destroyed more than 3,200 villages, and forced millions to flee, ensuring that opposition parties cannot organize prior to upcoming elections. Burmese ethnic minorities, including the Rohingya, continue to flee, seeking refuge in neighboring countries. An additional 8,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh in 2009. The Rohingya have a well-founded fear of persecution if forcibly returned to Burma. During the past five decades of continuous military rule, ethnic and religious minorities in Burma have suffered from systematic and widespread human rights violations including summary executions, torture, statesanctioned- rape, forced labor, and the recruitment of child soldiers. These acts of persecution by the military regime have resulted in up to two million ethnic minorities fleeing Burma..,."
Author/creator: Richard Sollom MA MPH
Language: English
Source/publisher: Physicians for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 09 March 2010


Title: Bangladesh: Violent Crackdown Fuels Humanitarian Crisis for Unrecognized Rohingya Refugees
Date of publication: 18 February 2010
Description/subject: Summary Stateless Rohingya people in Bangladesh are currently victims to unprecedented levels of violence and attempts at forced repatriation. Recent weeks have seen thousands of people arrive at Kutupalong makeshift camp as they flee what appears to be a violent crackdown on the Rohingya presence in the country. At its clinic in Kutupalong, in Cox’s Bazar District in the south of the country, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has treated victims of beatings and harassment by the authorities and members of the community. The victims are people who have been driven from their shelters throughout the district and in some cases forced back into the river which forms the border to neighboring Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Medecian Sans Frontieres Doctors Wothout Borders
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: Unregistered Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh: Crackdown, forced displacement and hunger
Date of publication: 15 February 2010
Description/subject: "An unprecedented crackdown by Bangladesh law enforcement agencies against unregistered Rohingya refugees who had settled outside the two official refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar District started on 2 January 2010. More than 500 Rohingyas were subsequently arrested in January and the crackdown continues. Some of those arrested were pushed back across the Burmese border and others were charged under immigration legislation and sent to jail. In parallel to the roundups, there is a resurgence of anti-Rohingya movements among the local population and of anti-Rohingya propaganda in the local media fuelling xenophobia and pressing the government to take action against the Rohingya. A similar campaign started earlier in 2009 in Bandarban District and is still ongoing. Over the last few weeks, fearing arrest, harassment or facing expulsion, more than 5,000 self-settled Rohingya have already fled their homes and most flocked to the Kutupalong makeshift camp in Ukhia in search of safety. The makeshift camp population is now estimated to have swelled to over 30,000. Forced displacement appears to be a device to push the vulnerable unregistered Rohingya into this camp. The makeshift camp residents, including uprooted families, do not receive food assistance and are now denied access to livelihood as they would face arrest if they left the camp to find work. Food insecurity and hunger is spreading rapidly and a serious humanitarian crisis is looming."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 February 2010


Title: Living in a No-man's Land [PHOTO ESSAY]
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: The Rohingya of northwestern Burma are fleeing to Bangladesh, where unofficial, makeshift refugee camps are rapidly expanding. The plight of the Rohingya in Burma and Bangladesh has grown worse during the past year.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17499
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: No Place for Buddhist Refugees
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Burmese Rakhines also face problems and discrimination in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar District... "Thant Sin is one of thousands of Burmese Buddhist refugees living in Cox’s Bazar who fled from Burma across the Naf River, a long estuary that forms the Bangladeshi-Burmese border. Hiking through the jungle for 15 days to escape arrest for being a student organizer in the 1996 uprising in Sittwe, he reached Bangladesh and was able to register with the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, receiving an ID card that states in English and Bengali that the holder should not be forcefully repatriated to Burma. Unfortunately, he feels no safer because some Bangladeshi police are known to rip up Rakhine refugee cards and force them to pay bribes. “We get very little financial assistance and when we do, it usually ends up being hard to receive and full of complications,” he said, adding that Rakhine refugees believe that if they were Muslims like the Rohingya, the Bangladeshi authorities would allow them into camps where they could benefit from assistance and security..."
Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17498
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: Nowhere to Turn
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Many homeless Rohingya prefer hunger in a hostile land to life in Burma... "I’ve lost everything in my life and now I can only pray that I don’t get sent back to Burma,” said Haziqah, a 27-year-old Rohingya resident of the unofficial Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh... Before joining the camp, Haziqah lived in the Bandarban Hill Tract, about 150 km [93 miles] to the north, where many Rohingya refugees from Burma have settled. She and her husband managed to survive on the meager wages he earned from odd jobs in the area and were starting to hope they could lead a normal existence. Rohingya men gather round to listen to Haziqah tell her story. (Photo: ALEX ELLGEE) But then, one morning seven days after giving birth to her first child, soldiers from the Bangladeshi border force, the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR), stormed their village. Rounding up all the Rohingyas living there, they marched them toward the Bangladesh-Burma border. During the march, she said, the soldiers beat her husband severely and pushed her along, ignoring the week-old baby in her arms. When they reached the top of a hill bordering Burma, the soldiers simply gave them a shove to send them back to the country from which they had fled..."
Author/creator: Alex Ellgee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17497
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: ROHINGYA, ASYLUM SEEKERS & MIGRANTS FROM BURMA: A HUMAN SECURITY PRIORITY FOR ASEAN
Date of publication: 30 January 2009
Description/subject: Since October 2006, about 10,000 Rohingya have boarded boats in Bangladesh and Burma and headed for Thailand and Malaysia. The thousands of Rohingya boat people are only the tip of the iceberg. Millions of Burmese have fled the country in the past decade, with two million in Thailand alone... ASEAN must be proactive in pressuring Burma’s military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) to cease perpetuating the severe persecution and economic mismanagement that has been forcing millions of people to flee to neighboring countries.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (124K)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2009


Title: Bangladesh: A Life on Hold. The story of Noor Jahan, a refugee from Myanmar (video)
Date of publication: 01 December 2008
Description/subject: "Noor Jahan fled from Myanmar in 1992. She lives in Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh. Life has always been hard- espcially with no chance to return home. But recent improvements in camp life have made her family's life a little easier. "
Language: English subtitles
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: Adobe Flash (3 minutes 49 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 13 February 2009


Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
Date of publication: October 2008
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 2nd and 3rd periodic State party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) -MYANMAR-....."...Rohingya women and girls suffer from the devastating consequences of brutal government policies implemented against their minority group but also from socio-religious norms imposed on them by their community, the combined impact of which dramatically impinges on their physical and mental well-being, with long-term effects on their development. a) State-sponsored persecution: The 1982 Citizenship Law renders the Rohingya stateless, thereby supporting arbitrary and discriminatory measures against them. Their freedom of movement is severely limited; they are barred from government employment; marriage restrictions are imposed on them; they are disproportionately subject to forced labour, extortion and other coercive measures. Public services such as health and education are appallingly neglected. Illiteracy is estimated at 80%. The compounded impact of these human right violations also results in household impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing the vulnerability of women and children....Rohingya women and girls are also subject to serious gender-based restrictions due to societal attitudes and conservative interpretation of religious norms in their male-dominated community. The birth of a son is always favoured. Girls’ education is not valued and they are invariably taken out of school at puberty. Women and adolescent girls are usually confined to their homes and discouraged from participating in the economic sphere. They are systematically excluded from decision-making in community matters. Divorced women and widows are looked down upon, exposed to sexual violence and abandoned with little community support..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (179K)
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


Title: Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 22 April 2008
Description/subject: The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine State in Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in their country of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significant improvements in recent times.
Author/creator: Pia Prytz Phiri
Language: Burmese, English
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
Format/size: pdf (English, 387K; Burmese, 260K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/34-35.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


Title: Rohingya and Muslims in Arakan State: slow-burning genocide - August 2006
Date of publication: August 2006
Description/subject: "Almost 14 years have passed since the UN General Assembly recognized the suffering the Rohingya experienced at the hands of Burma’s military regime. Yet, Rohingya and Muslims from Burma continue to be subjected to a widespread and systematic campaign of persecution and discrimination at home and the denial of basic protection and fundamental rights in neighboring countries. Often overlooked in global media coverage, the plight of more than 1 million Rohingya and Muslims from Burma should be more closely watched by the international community, to prevent what increasingly appears to be another genocide in the making"
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (102K)
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2007


Title: The Rohingya Riddle
Date of publication: June 2006
Description/subject: Burmese refugees in Bangladesh are running out of options... "Iman Hussein does not officially exist. But standing less than 100 feet from the Naff River which separates his makeshift refugee camp in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh from his homeland of Arakan State in Burma, he says there are more pressing concerns for his group of 14,000 refugees: “We are just hoping for assistance,” he says. In Dhaka, the Ministry for Food and Disaster Management has yet to permit the UNHCR refugee agency to register this group of Rohingyas, thereby denying them food and medical aid. The Burmese Ambassador to Bangladesh, Thane Myint, does not even recognize the Rohingyas as an ethnic group. “Many people are claiming they lived in Rakhine [Arakan] State a long, long time ago,” he says, chuckling. “Some of them are, or have been, living in Myanmar [Burma]. Some of them may not be [from Burma].” The Bangladesh government says there are just over 20,000 Burmese people in the area—the number registered officially with UNHCR in two refugee camps south of Cox’s Bazaar. But the Burmese embassy in Dhaka recognizes only 10,000 as citizens of Arakan State. There are many more Buddhist Burmese refugees living illegally in Bangladesh. Those interviewed by The Irrawaddy—both Buddhists and Muslims—gave the same reason for leaving their homeland: they were fed up with human rights abuses inflicted by the Burmese military government..."
Author/creator: Clive Parker
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 December 2006


Title: Stateless in Arakan
Date of publication: January 2006
Description/subject: Rohingyas have struggled for decades to legitimize their presence in the country, and their fight looks to be anything but over... "Burma’s contentious Arakan State has long been a sore spot for the country’s ruling military dictatorship. Physical brutality and draconian measures to stifle the region’s Muslim Rohingya population have produced waves of refugees over the western border to Bangladesh (formerly eastern Bengal) since the 1970s. Some historians suggest that Muslims in northern Arakan State—predominantly ethnic Rohingya—can trace their lineage back to Muslim merchants of the 8th and 9th centuries who made their living as tradesmen in coastal ports. Never ones to let historical facts get in their way, the generals in Rangoon tell quite another story..."
Author/creator: Yeni
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Bangladesh: Burmese Rohingya Refugees Virtual Hostages
Date of publication: 09 May 2005
Description/subject: "Protection and humanitarian problems continue to plague the Burmese Rohingya refugees living in two camps in southern Bangladesh. A wave of more than a quarter of a million Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority, fled to Bangladesh in the early 1990s as a result of severe oppression and human rights abuses by the Burmese military government. Since then about 230,000 of the refugees have been repatriated to Burma, many against their will, and there remain approximately 20,000 Rohingya in the refugee camps of Nayapara and Kutupalong in Bangladesh. The situation for the Rohingya in the camps has become more complicated due to UNHCR's decision in 2003 to phase out its support for the 20,000 refugees remaining in the camps and implement its proposed self-sufficiency plan to integrate the Rohingya refugee population with the local Bangladeshi community. The self-sufficiency plan was rejected by Bangladeshi authorities in September 2004. UNHCR, however, is continuing to seek an exit strategy and plans to rework the self-sufficiency program in 2005 into one involving temporary stay and freedom of movement and present it again to the Bangladeshi government..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 May 2005


Title: WFP/UNHCR REPORT OF THE JOINT ASSESSMENT MISSION: BANGLADESH: 10 TO 17 OCTOBER 2004
Date of publication: October 2004
Description/subject: WFP/UNHCR mission to assess the health situation of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh... "a) The Joint Assessment Mission comprising of representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the Government of Bangladesh conducted the mission from the 10th to the 17th of October 2004. The objectives of the mission were to carry out an assessment of food and non-food requirements of the ongoing operation, to focus on the underlying causes of persistently high malnutrition and to make specific recommendations on the potential to reduce dependency on food assistance, alleviation of causes of using food for other purposes, modalities of assistance, composition of the food basket and the duration of assistance... b) The mission met with representatives of UNHCR, WFP, NGOs and representatives of the GOB at the capital, district and camp level. The mission visited facilities in Nayapara camp these included the medical facilities, water and sanitation facilities, school, women’s training facility, food storage and distribution facility. The mission conducted focus group discussion with women refugees in the camp and carried out interviews with key informants such as Concern’s counsellors and staff, representatives of BDRCS, DC of Food, DPHE staff, Civil surgeon, WFP and UNHCR field staff and the Camp in Charge... c) Briefing and Debriefing sessions by the mission team were given presenting the main recommendation (annex 3) of the mission at the district level to UNHCR, WFP, NGO and Government representatives and in Dhaka to the Secretary of the MFDM, representatives of UNHCR, WFP and the EC..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR/WFP
Format/size: pdf (769K) 53 pages
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2005


Title: Sikkerheds- og menneskeretsforhold for rohingyaer i Burma og Bangladesh
Date of publication: December 2003
Description/subject: Rapport fra fact-finding mission til Bangkok i Thailand, Dhaka og Cox’s Bazar i Bangladesh og Maungdaw i Burma Oktober – november 2003 København, december 2003 Udlændingestyrelsen
Language: Dansk, Danish
Source/publisher: Udlændinge Styrelsen
Format/size: pdf (991K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.nyidanmark.dk/
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: The situation of Burmese refugees in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 07 November 2003
Description/subject: Delivered at the Regional Conference on the Protection for Refugees from Burma, Chiang Mai, 6 & 7 November 2003... "Bangladesh hosted one of the largest numbers of refugees in Asia when 250,000 Rohingya fled en masse from Burma in 1978 and again in 1991/92. However, like most countries in the region, Bangladesh has not acceded to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention, nor has it enacted any national refugee legislation. Refugees are dealt with on an ad-hoc basis. Bangladesh has allowed the UNHCR to assist and protect some Burmese refugees. Burmese refugees currently in Bangladesh can be divided into three categories: 1) About 20,000 Rohingya refugees sheltering in two camps: They remain from the mass exodus of 1991/92 and are recognised as "prima facie" refugees by the UNHCR (group recognition)... 2) Between 100,000 and 200,000[1] Rohingya refugees outside camps in South Bangladesh: They are not recognised as refugees and are often labelled as economic migrants... 3) A caseload of about 70 mostly Rakhine urban refugees in Dhaka: They have been granted "Person of Concern" status by the UNHCR (individual basis)... This paper will first examine the root causes of the Burmese refugee exodus to Bangladesh and then address the specific situation and protection issues of each category of refugees..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: html (93K), Word
Alternate URLs: http://www.google.co.th/#hl=en&biw=1055&bih=416&q=The+situation+of+Burmese+refugees+in+...
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2003


Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
Date of publication: November 2003
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report of Myanmar... Conclusion: "Rohingya children bear the full brunt of the military regime’s policies of exclusion and discrimination towards the Muslim population of Rakhine State. The combination of the factors listed above, which deny them fundamental human rights, gravely damage their childhood development and will affect the future of the Rohingya community. With regard to Rohingya children, the State Peace and Development Council has failed to implement most of the rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Myanmar ratified in 1991. The Government has also ignored the suggestions and recommendations provided by the Committee in 1997, in particular, paragraph 28 in which “The Committee recommends that the Citizenship Act be repealed” and paragraph 34 which stated: “In the field of the right to citizenship, the Committee is of the view that the State Party should, in light of articles 2 (non-discrimination) and 3 (best interests of the child), abolish the categorization of citizens …” and that “all possibility of stigmatisation and denial of rights recognized by the Convention should be avoided”"
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: pdf (151.35 KB) html (280K) , Word (224K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Lewa-CRC2004.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


Title: Conflict, discrimination and humanitarian challenges
Date of publication: 08 October 2003
Description/subject: Delivered at the EU – Burma Day 2003 Conference..."In contrast to the Thai-Burma border, very little international attention has been given to conditions on the Bangladesh-Burma border. Consequently, Arakan State has remained a largely ignored region of Burma. Awareness is generally limited to the cycle of exodus and repatriation of Rohingya refugees. But Arakan is no less than a microcosm of Burma with its ethnic conflicts and religious antagonisms, and is by far the most tense and explosive region of the country. The refugee outflow to Bangladesh does not result from counter-insurgency strategies to undermine ethnic armed resistance, as it is the case for the Shan, Karen and Karenni along the Thai-Burma border, but is the outcome of policies of exclusion against the Rohingya community..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: html (100K), Word
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2003


Title: Thousands of refugees harassed to return to Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 September 2003
Description/subject: The free choice of refugees should be respected. In recent months, staff from MSF received over 550 complaints of coercion from the refugees. The complaints ranged from incidents of intimidation to outright threats of physical abuse to push people to repatriate...... Dhaka/Amsterdam - "The Bangladesh government is subjecting thousands of Rohingya refugees to intimidation and harassment as part of a campaign to pressure them to return to Myanmar (Burma), says the international humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: SRI On-Site Action Alert: Rohingya Refugees of Burma and UNHCR’s repatriation program
Date of publication: 17 July 2003
Description/subject: "SRI met with UNHCR officials, officials from the Ministry of Relief and Disaster Management, journalists, academics, international organizations such as Medicins Sans Frontier (MSF) and Concern International which has been working with the Rohingyas for over ten years as well as with local people in the Teknaf region and the refugees themselves. Access to international organizations was not difficult to obtain and neither was it extremely challenging to talk to civil society about the Rohingyas, the situation in the state of Arakan and the current UNHCR policy. However, it was evident that UNHCR was hesitant to discuss its current proposal and the allegations of abuse against the Rohingyas by camp officials with a representative of an international organization; and given the recent criticisms leveled by Refugees International and Burma Center Holland against UNHCR..."
Author/creator: Tazreena Sajjad
Language: English
Source/publisher: Survivors’ Rights International
Format/size: html (114K), pdf (3.57MB)
Date of entry/update: 06 February 2004


Title: "We are like a soccer ball, kicked by Burma, kicked by Bangladesh!"
Date of publication: 20 June 2003
Description/subject: -- Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh are facing a new drive of involuntary repatriation -- "...This report attempts to give a voice to the Rohingya refugees in the camps and includes 57 refugee accounts illustrating the types of abuses used by the camp authorities to enforce repatriation. These testimonies denounce 26 acts of forced repatriation itself, usually involving detention in the camp followed by a forceful removal to the transit camp and back to Burma (18 in May 2003 alone), and also expose different types of mental and/or physical pressure to induce repatriation. Refugees unwilling to repatriate have been arrested and then given the choice of signing up for repatriation or going to jail (5 cases of threats and 5 cases of actual transfer to jail). Families have had their ration book seized until they agreed to repatriate (6 cases of deprivation of food). Other incidents have involved physical ill treatment (12 cases of beatings), sudden transfer to other sections of the camp (5 cases), destruction of housing (2 cases). The consequences have been particularly dramatic when families have been divided, when children have been separated from their parents, wives from their husbands, old people left behind and sick refugees abandoned (19 cases of family separation). As a result of these pressures, many refugees fled from the camp to avoid repatriation. Often, the male head of the household runs away, leaving women and children vulnerable in the camps (1 rape case reported). These accounts seriously challenge the voluntary character of the ongoing repatriation exercise. And, thus far, UNHCR has remained rather quiet. The UNHCR proposal also promotes self-sufficiency within the local host community pending return. The UNHCR initiative of promoting "temporary local integration" raises many questions with regard to protection and feasibility of self-reliance in an already tense and saturated environment. The Government of Bangladesh has not endorsed the proposal, and yet the UNHCR is already moving into the implementation phase. FORUM-ASIA calls upon the UNHCR and the Government of Bangladesh to immediately halt these forced repatriations and ensure that the principle of voluntariness is respected. In particular, we call on the UNHCR to continue to provide effective protection and humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya refugees in the camps until a durable solution emerges..." TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgment; Executive Summary; Map; Introduction; The Rohingya Refugee Exodus And Its Root Causes In Burma; - Root causes; The UNHCR Plan for the camps: Promoting Self-sufficiency Pending Voluntary Return: - UNHCR's Proposal; - Bangladesh's position; - Issues of Concern... The Current Situation in the Camps: Coercion, Harassment and Forced Repatriation: - Repatriation figures; - Overview of the Abuses in the Camps and their Consequences ; - Reduction of Humanitarian Assistance... Conclusion; Recommendations; Appendices: The Refugees' Voices - Appendix 1 - Declaration from Rohingya refugees dated 25 May 2003; Appendix 2 - A refugee account of a meeting with UNHCR in Kutupalong camp; Appendix 3 - Selection of 57 refugees' accounts.
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
Format/size: pdf (303K), html (602K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKED-June2003.doc
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKED-June2003.htm
Date of entry/update: 21 June 2003


Title: Rohingya-Flüchtlinge in Bangladesch sehen sich einer neuen unfreiwilligen Wiedereingliederung gegenüber
Date of publication: 20 June 2003
Description/subject: "Ungefähr 21500 Rohingya Flüchtlinge haben Schutz in den beiden Flüchtlingslagern, Kutupalong und Nayapara, im Süden Bangladeschs gefunden. Diese Flüchtlinge sind das Überbleibsel der Massenflucht der Jahre 1991/92, als 250000 Rohingyas der brutalen Repression gegen Muslime im Norden des Arakan-Staates in Burma entflohen. Ein Repatriierungsprogramm unter der Aufsicht des Flüchtlingshilfswerks der Vereinten Nationen UNHCR, fand in den Jahren 1994/95 statt. Die Rohingyas verließen Bangladesch jedoch alles andere als freiwillig. Seitdem wurden die Rückführungsprogramme bis zum September 2002 eingestellt..." [Übersetzung der Zusammenfassung des Berichts "We are like a socker ball, kicked by Burma, kicked by Bangladesh" von Chris Lewa, Forum Asia, über die Repatriierung der burmesischen Rohingya-Flüchtlinge in Bangladesch. Gesamttext in Englsich unter http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KICKEDTOBURMA-Final-3.htm ]
Author/creator: Chris Lewa (Deutsch von Jan Zalewski, für Burma Initiative Asienhaus)
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: FORUM ASIA
Format/size: html (14K)
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


Title: CAUGHT BETWEEN A CROCODILE AND A SNAKE: The Increasing Pressure on Rohingyas in Burma and Bangladesh & The Impacts of the Changing Policy of UNHCR
Date of publication: 05 June 2003
Description/subject: Report of the fact-finding mission - April/May 2003... "In Arakan (Rakhine) State in Western Burma, the Burmese military regime (SPDC) and border police (NaSaKa) are still committing serious human rights violations. Although both peoples in Arakan (Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims) are victims of these crimes, especially the Rohingyas living in Northern Arakan are marginalized as a people. By definition, the Rohingyas do not have full citizenship, still suffer from gross human rights violations, are still forced to perform unpaid labour (especially in the countryside) and are not free to practice their religion. The Rohingyas in Arakan/Burma are often denied basic freedoms like the right to marry, and they are forced to pay the military authorities for all basic necessities. Rohingyas have no freedom of movement. Finally, often the military orders them to handle over all there belongings, including their land, without any compensation. The future of Rohingyas in Arakan still looks grim..."
Author/creator: Peter Ras
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Center Netherlands
Format/size: html (240K)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2003


Title: Weakness in Numbers
Date of publication: 10 March 2003
Description/subject: "Muslim minorities across Asia are under siegeand their persecution fuels fundamentalists' rage...the Burmese government has convinced many Buddhists in the Arakan region that the Rohingyas are fighting for an independent Islamic statea goal embraced by radical militant groups in exile in Bangladesh but not by the majority of Muslims living in Arakan. "It's propaganda," says Christina Fink, a cultural anthropologist at Chiang Mai University in Thailand. "It's a way for the regime to divide the Arakanese and make sure the people are less interested in the pro-democracy movement and more interested in driving the Muslims out." The United Nations has overseen the return to Burma of more than 200,000 Rohingya refugees. But many have found their houses and land appropriated by Buddhist settlers and their basic rights still denied by the authorities. For example, to qualify for citizenship, says Fink, the Rohingyas must prove that their grandparents on both sides were born in Burma, but "there are very few who can." Many have abandoned hope and go back to Bangladesh, only to find they are no longer allowed access to the refugee camps, says French anthropologist Chris Lewa, who studies the Rohingya refugees. "Perhaps as many as 100,000 live in slums around Cox's Bazar," she says. "They are not wanted in Bangladesh or in Burma. Effectively, they are stateless people."..."
Author/creator: Andrew Perrin
Language: English
Source/publisher: Time Asia Vol. 161 No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The refugee situation on the western borders of Burma
Date of publication: 09 October 2002
Description/subject: Delivered at the Canadian Friends of Burma Public Conference Ottawa – 9 October 2002. "Burma’s borders with India and Bangladesh have received much less international attention than the Thailand-Burma border. A major reason is the difficult access to refugees in these border areas due to policies of the host governments. Nevertheless, outflows of refugees from Burma to India and Bangladesh are no less significant. More than 50,000 mostly Chin refugees have fled to India while up to 200,000 Rohingya refugees are found in Bangladesh in and outside refugee camps..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
Format/size: html (39K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "The exodus has not stopped: Why Rohingyas continue to leave Myanmar”
Date of publication: 01 April 2002
Description/subject: Delivered at the Medecins Sans Frontieres Conference: “10 Years for the Rohingya Refugees: Past, Present and Future” Dhaka – 1 April 2002. "As long as the situation in Rakhine State does not show any fundamental improvement, Rohingya people will continue to enter and seek shelter in Bangladesh. The refugees in the two remaining camps are only the visible side of an outflow that has never ceased. Indeed, the exodus of Rohingya to Bangladesh has never stopped. Every day, new Rohingya individuals and families continue to cross the border illegally and seek sanctuary in Bangladesh. It is no longer a mass exodus, but a constant trickle. This influx seems to be encouraged and at the same time strictly controlled by the Myanmar authorities, and concurrently it is rendered invisible by the Bangladesh administration. New arrivals are denied access to the refugee camps, and these undocumented Rohingya have no other option than to survive among the local population outside the camps. Their exact number is unknown. An estimate of 100,000 has regularly been cited for several years now, which does not take into account the constant increase. According to the local press, there may be as many as 200,000 living in the Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf-Bandarban area and this amount appears to be more realistic. They are not referred to as refugees but labelled as “economic migrants”..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: US Committee for Refugees, Burma Report 2002
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: Situation to end 2001
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Bangladesh-Myanmar Relations and the Stateless Rohingyas
Date of publication: June 2001
Description/subject: "I have lately been disturbed by two developments. Firstly, at the very moment when 'realism' has lost its post-Westphalian glories and is suffering from disrepute, the stateless people continue to be at the mercy of the state. In the case of the Rohingyas it is even more pathetic for their refuge across the border brought no change to their sufferings. On the contrary, as camped and non-camped refugees, they ended up becoming victims of yet another state power, this time of Bangladesh. Secondly, when the power of the state has been eroded considerably, particularly in the wake of misgovernance and globalization, the state is brought in to resolve the issue of statelessness. Indeed, the Rohingyas were sent home, amidst criticism of 'involuntary' repatriation, with the hope that the government of Myanmar (GOM) after over half-a-century would change its position and make them all worthy citizens of Myanmar. What we have is a representation of a dialectic in the constitution of the state, that is, state as usurper and state as salvation, without of course realizing that the former cancels the latter and vice versa. It is against this background that I intend to discuss the Bangladesh-Myanmar relations and that again, from the standpoint of the stateless Rohingyas. Two questions, I believe, are pertinent. One, how do stateless people view the state/s? And two, what impact does the stateless people have on the state-to-state relationship? Few will dispute that the discussion requires a sound understanding of the 'stateless,' which in our case are the Rohingyas..."
Author/creator: Imtiaz Ahmed
Language: English
Format/size: html (26K)
Date of entry/update: 10 July 2003


Title: The Rohingya: Forced Migration and Statelessness
Date of publication: 28 February 2001
Description/subject: "Forced Migration in the South Asian Region: Displacement, Human Rights and Conflict Resolution" Paper submitted for publication in a book edited by Omprakash Mishra on "Forced Migration in South Asian Region", Centre for Refugee studies Jadavpur University, Calcutta and Brookings Institution Project on Internal Displacement. "In the eyes of the media and the general public, whether in Bangladesh or further afield, the situation of the Rohingya from Burma[ii] is usually referred to as a ?refugee problem?. Over the last two decades, Bangladesh has born the brunt of two mass exoduses, each of more then 200,000 people, placing them among the largest in Asia. Each of these massive outflows of refugees was followed by mass repatriation to Burma. Repatriation has been considered the preferred solution to the refugee crisis. However, this has not proved a durable solution, since the influx of Rohingyas over international borders has never ceased. And it is unlikely that it will stop, so long as the root causes of this unprecedented exodus are not effectively remedied. The international community has often focussed its attention on the deplorable conditions in the refugee camps in Bangladesh, rather than on the root causes of the problem, namely the denial of legal status and other basic human rights to the Rohingya in Burma. This approach doubtless stems from the practical difficulty of confronting an intractable military regime which refuses to recognise the Rohingya as citizens of Burma, and of working out solutions acceptable to all parties involved. The actual plight and continuous exodus of the Rohingya people has been rendered invisible. Though they continue to cross international borders, they are also denied the right of asylum, being labelled ?economic migrants?. The international community has preferred to ignore the extent of this massive forced migration, which has affected not only Bangladesh, but also other countries such as Pakistan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, etc..."
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Malaysia/Burma: Living in Limbo
Date of publication: July 2000
Description/subject: Burmese Rohingyas in Malaysia. Contains a good discussion of the Rohingyas' de facto statelessness under the 1982 Citizenship Law as well as background material on the Rohingyas' situation in Burma.."Burmese authorities bear responsibility for the Rohingya's flight. Burma's treatment of the Rohingya is addressed in the background section of the report, and the report offers specific recommendations to the Burmese government. The focus of this report, however, is on what happens to Rohingya when they reach Malaysia. There, they are not treated as refugees fleeing persecution who should be afforded protection, but as aliens subject to detention or deportation in violation of Malaysia's international human rights obligations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Birmanie: Repression, Discrimination Et Nettoyage Ethnique En Arakan
Date of publication: April 2000
Description/subject: Mission Internationale d’Enquête Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme... L’Arakan: A. Présentation de l’Arakan; B. Historique de la présence musulmane en Arakan; C. Organisation administrative, forces répressives et résistance armée. .. Le retour forcé et la réinstallation des Rohingyas - hypocrisie et contraintes: A. Les conditions du retour du Bangadesh après l’exode de 1991-92; B. Réinstallation et réintégration. Répression, discrimination et exclusion en Arakan: A. La spécificité de la répression à l’égard des Rohingyas; B. Les Arakanais : une exploitation sans issue. .. Nouvel Exode: A. Les années 1996 et 1997; B. L’exode actuel.
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Federation International des Droits de l'Homme
Format/size: pdf (479K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma: Repression, Discrimination and Ethnic Cleansing in Arakan
Date of publication: April 2000
Description/subject: International Mission of Inquiry by the International Federation of Human Rights Leagues. I. Arakan: A. Presentation of Arakan - A buffer State; B. Historical background of the Muslim presence in Arakan; C. Administration organisation, repressive forces and armed resistance... II. The forced return and the reinstallation of the Rohingyas: hypocrisy and constraints: A. The conditions of return from Bangladesh after the 1991-92 exodus; B. Resettlement and reintegration. .. III. Repression, discrimination and exclusion in Arakan: A. The specificity of the repression against the Rohingyas; B. The Arakanese: an exploitation with no way out. .. IV. A new exodus: A. The years 1996 and 1997; B. The current exodus.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Federation International des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
Format/size: pdf (446K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rohingyas in Bangladesh: Anmerkungen zur Flchtlingshilfe
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Rohningyas in Bangladesh: some comments about international assistance for refugees. Sociological analysis of acteurs in migrant situations, questions of space and place in and around refugee camps, migrant's identities. Am Beispiel der Flchtlinge aus Myanmar, der Rohingyas, im Sdosten Bangladeshs, die mit internationaler Hilfe in Flchtlingslagern angesiedelt wurden, u.a. folgende Fragen untersucht: Akteure der Fluchtsituation, Rume und Schaupltze in und um Flchtlingslager, Identitt von Flchtlingen. Eine Lehrforschung des Sociology of Development Research Centre. Gliederung: Einleitung; Methoden; Geschichte(n) des Problems; Akteure; Rume und Schaupltze; Fazit; Literatur.
Author/creator: Stephanie Hering
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Universitats Bielefeld
Format/size: pdf (119K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Bangladesh at a glance
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Maps, photos, tables, text. Main Objectives and Activities: "Facilitate voluntary repatriation to Myanmar of those refugees who are willing and cleared to return; promote and initiate activities fostering self-reliance for refugees unable or unwilling to return in the near future, pending a lasting solution; co-ordinate and ensure protection and basic services for the refugees, paying special attention to women and children....."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: pdf (220K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/WorldReport-Bang.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2010


Title: UNHCR Global Report 2000: Myanmar at a glance
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Maps, tables, photos and text. "Main Objectives and Activities: Support the voluntary repatriation, reintegration, and stabilisation of returnees in Northern Rakhine State, and monitor the situation in areas hosting them; promote activities conducive to self-reliance, and provide special assistance to the most vulnerable within the Muslim population; prepare for the United Nations Integrated Development Plan for Northern Rakhine State which will permit the gradual phasing out of UNHCR�s assistance programme. ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: PDF (220K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: US Committee for Refugees Burma Report 1999
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: Situation to end 1998
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry: customised version highlighting violence against the Rohingyas
Date of publication: 02 July 1998
Description/subject: Extracts on the Rohingyas from the report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry into forced labour in Myanmar (Burma). ".... the situation in the northern part of Rakhine State appears to be more severe in all respects than that prevailing in most other parts of the country. Most of the witnesses questioned on this subject, who were members of the Rohingya ethnic group, and who had left the country very recently, claimed to have been subjected to systematic discrimination by the authorities..." (ILO Report, para 435). The 1998 ILO Inquiry into forced labour in Burma covers a wide range of human rights violations in addition to forced labour. The Commission of Inquiry, which is the most senior body to have examined human rights in Burma, reported that the Rohingyas suffer a higher level of discrimination than other groups in the country.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ILO (customised by BPF)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: UNHCR: Bangladesh/Myanmar
Date of publication: March 1998
Description/subject: "An estimated 21,000 refugees from Rakhine State in Myanmar live in two camps in southern Bangladesh. They were among 250,000 people who originally fled Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) in 1992, claiming widespread human rights abuse, including rape and excessive unpaid community labor..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2010


Title: US Committee for Refugees, Burma Report 1998
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Situation to end 1997
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: MYANMAR/BANGLADESH: ROHINGYAS - THE SEARCH FOR SAFETY
Date of publication: September 1997
Description/subject: "Thousands of Burmese Muslims from the Rakhine (Arakan) State in Myanmar, known as Rohingyas, have fled into southeastern Bangladesh during the first half of 1997. Unlike more than 250,000 Rohingya refugees who came to Bangladesh in 1991 and 1992, these new arrivals are largely living in local villages rather than in designated refugee camps. The Government of Bangladesh has not permitted the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to interview these people, asserting that they are all economic migrants. Amnesty International is aware of reports that some of the new arrivals have stated that they have left Myanmar solely because of economic hardship. However, it is concerned that others are in fact people fleeing serious human rights violations in Myanmar, and therefore would be in need of protection. Indeed, it should be noted that the distinction between economic hardship and violations of civil and political rights is not necessarily a clear one; for example, many of the Rohingyas have been unable to make a living due to continuing unpaid forced labour in Rakhine state. Given the grave human rights situation in Myanmar, it is impossible to state in a blanket fashion that Rohingyas are only fleeing economic hardship and therefore are not worthy of protection..." KEYWORDS: REFUGEES 1 / REFOULEMENT1 / MINORITIES 1 / FORCED LABOUR / TORTURE/ILL-TREATMENT / RELIGIOUS GROUPS - ISLAMIC / WOMEN / MILITARY / ARMED CIVILIANS / HUNGER-STRIKE / ARMED CONFLICT / SECOND GOVERNMENTS / UNHCR / RECOMMENDED ACTIONS /
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (Al INDEX: ASA 13/07/97)
Format/size: html (86K), Word (61K) The html version works better with Netscape than IE, or download the Word version.
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/AI-Rohingya97-09.doc (Word version)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


Title: US Committee for Refugees Burma Report 1997
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: Situation to the end of 1996
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma - The Rohingya Muslims: Ending a Cycle of Exodus?
Date of publication: September 1996
Description/subject: I. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS; II. THE 1996 INFLUX; III. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND; IV. THE REPATRIATION: The first stage, September 1992-January 1994; Mass repatriation, July 1994 - December 1995; V. THE REINTEGRATION PROGRAM; VI. CONTINUING DISCRIMINATION: Citizenship Legislation and Identity Cards; International Law and the 1982 Citizenship Act; Current Status of Returnees; Forced Labor; Land Ownership and Arbitrary Taxation; Forced Relocations; Model Villages; Freedom of Movement; VII. CONCLUSIONS.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch/Asia
Format/size: html (391K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Non-Refoulement (Chapter 4 of "The Refugee in International Law")
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: "The principle of non-refoulement prescribes, broadly, that no refugee should be returned to any country where he or she is likely to face persecution or torture. In this chapter, the scope of the principle is examined against the background of a number of recurring issues: the question of ‘risk’; the personal scope of the principle, including its application to certain categories of asylum seekers such as stowaways or those arriving directly by boat; exceptions to the principle; extraterritorial application; extradition; and the ‘contingent’ application of the principle in situations of mass influx. The possible application of non-refoulement or an analogous principle of refuge to those outside the 1951 Convention/1967 Protocol is also considered, as is the relationship between non-refoulement and asylum. The analysis takes account of the increasing number of references to non- refoulement..." Extracted (with the author's permission) from "The Refugee in International Law" by Guy S. Goodwin-Gill
Author/creator: Guy S. Goodwin-Gill
Language: English
Source/publisher: OUP
Format/size: pdf (327K) - 54 pages
Date of entry/update: 23 May 2015


Title: REPATRIATION OF ROHINGYA REFUGEES
Date of publication: 1995
Description/subject: "In 1978 and 1991 Bangladesh was faced with influx of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar. In 1978 about 200,000 refugees crossed into Bangladesh to flee persecution by the Myanmarese army in the Arakan region. Their stay in Bangladesh at that time was short lived as the problem was resolved through diplomatic initiatives in sixteen months. The situation is somewhat different this time when about a quarter of a million of refugees took shelter in the Teknaf-Cox's Bazar region. Following the successful completion of the Cambodian operation the Rohingya repatriation constitutes the single largest UNHCR operation in Asia. In spite of the Bangladesh Government's agreement with the Myanmar authorities and UNHCR's Memorandum of Understanding with both the governments on repatriation, initial steps in the repatriation has been rather slow. Currently the repatriation process has virtually stagnated. The presence of such a large number of refugees, which at one stage appeared to be for an indefinite period, has created tensions in the host communities and impacted adversely the economy and environment of the region. It is in this setting that a study on the Rohingya refugees is being undertaken..."
Author/creator: C.R. Abrar
Language: English
Format/size: html (133K)
Date of entry/update: 22 June 2003


Title: Repatriation to Myanmar
Date of publication: 1995
Description/subject: "Between late 1991 and the middle of 1992, more than 250,000 people fled from the Rakhine State of Myanmar (formerly Burma) to neighbouring Bangladesh. Almost all of the refugees were Rohingyas, a Muslim minority group living in a predominantly Buddhist country. Although accurate statistics are not available, the Rohingyas are thought to constitute just under half of Rakhine State's population, which is estimated to be some 4.5 million..." Extract from "The State of The World's Refugees 1995: In search of solutions" (Chapter 2, Box 2.2)
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNHCR
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Recommendations on the Rohingyas in Bangladesh: Mission to Bangladesh - April 21 to 29, 1994
Date of publication: 06 June 1994
Description/subject: "Repatriation, although agreed upon to be voluntary, has in fact not been voluntary. Those who "agreed" to return to Arakan have faced and continue to face severe coercion, including reportedly, physical abuse, deprivation of food rations, confiscation of their money or possessions, arrest and threats. Donor governments should express concern that UNHCR Geneva is currently not providing adequate monitoring of the process to return refugees to Arakan and must take action to ensure the voluntary nature of the repatriation is upheld. UNHCR should increase protection of the refugees currently in the camps; UNHCR must supply additional staff - at least one per camp - tasked not only with preparations for repatriation, but also focussed on protecting the refugees from a non-voluntary return. The Memorandum of Understanding focusses primarily on the short term needs of the refugees and fails to address many of the root causes of their distrust and fear. Because of these circumstances, UNHCR and the Government of Bangladesh should re-evaluate the time frame for repatriation. Refugees should not be returned until their safety can be insured. UNHCR and donor countries should solicit the continued patience of the Bangladesh government. UNHCR should arrange for adequate monitoring in Arakan. Their team should be given access to all areas where refugees are returning and be allowed to conduct their monitoring without official escort or official interpreters. We urge UNHCR to work with Burmese government authorities to reinstate former land use privileges to those returning. If not applicable, the government should allocate new land in proximity to their former residence. This would help to reassure refugees of the government's good faith commitment. UNHCR and the governments involved should be identifying and addressing the special needs of vulnerable and at risk groups both in Bangladesh and Arakan. Requests should be made for continued monitoring of both the Bangladesh camps and Arakan by an appropriate additional NGO within the next 2 to 3 months. In light of refugee anxieties over the Burmese government's compulsory three month training courses for girls aged 15 to 18 which separates girls from their families, UNHCR should work with the Burmese authorities to eliminate these courses. UNHCR and the international community should encourage SLORC to participate in tripartite meetings to facilitate coordination on repatriation policy..."
Author/creator: Yvette Pierpaoli
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: html (93K)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


Title: BANGLADESH: ABUSE OF BURMESE REFUGEES FROM ARAKAN
Date of publication: 09 October 1993
Description/subject: "Beginning in late 1991, wide-scale atrocities committed by the Burmese military, including rape, forced labor, and religious persecution, triggered an exodus of ethnic Rohingya Muslims from the northwestern Burmese state of Arakan into Bangladesh.[1] Nearly 240,000 refugees, now housed in 19 camps in and around the Bangladeshi town of Cox's Bazar, face the prospect of possible mass repatriation when the 1993 rainy season ends in October. That repatriation would be cause for concern on two grounds. First, though talks have taken place between Burmese authorities and Mrs. Sadako Ogata, head of the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) to allow a UNHCR presence inside Burma, no final agreement has yet been reached, and grave concerns remain about military abuses in Arakan and thus about the safety of repatriated refugees. Second, when mass repatriations took place in 1992, they became the occasion for coercion and physical abuse of refugees by Bangladeshi authorities, raising serious doubts about whether most returned voluntarily. Asia Watch has not been able to investigate abuses on the Burmese side of the border. But in April 1993, an Asia Watch consultant visited the refugee camps in Bangladesh. He also met in Dhaka with officials in both the Foreign Ministry and the Home Ministry, local government officials in the Cox's Bazar area directly responsible for implementing policy with respect to the Rohingyas, staff members of the UNHCR, foreign government officials, international relief workers, Bangladeshi human rights monitors, and refugees. The Bangladeshi government was cooperative in allowing the mission to take place. The Asia Watch consultant compiled evidence of verbal, physical and sexual abuse of refugees at the hands of Bangladeshi military and paramilitary forces in charge of the camps. Those abuses indicate the need for international agencies, particularly the UNHCR, to have full access to all camps to interview refugees in confidence about their willingness to return, and for the Bangladeshi authorities to investigate the pattern of abuse against refugees and bring those responsible to justice..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Watch (A Committee of Human Rights Watch)
Format/size: html (129K)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2003


Title: Burma: Rape, Forced Labor and Religious Intolerance in Northern Arakan
Date of publication: 07 May 1992
Description/subject: "Muslims from Arakan State in northwestern Burma, have become the latest targets of Burmese military atrocities. Since late 1991, they have been streaming into neighboring Bangladesh at the rate of several thousand a day with stories of rapes, killings, slave labor and destruction of mosques and other acts of religious persecution. By mid-March, the Bangladesh government had registered over 200,000 refugees and the exodus was continuing. In many ways, the treatment of these Muslims, called Rohingyas, seemed to be part and parcel of the stepped up military offensive against ethnic minorities and opposition activists by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the military junta that has become one of the most abusive governments in Asia. Intensive fighting has been taking place along Burma's eastern border against the Karen and Mon people as well, with refugees pouring into Thai border camps with similar accounts of rape and forced labor..." INTRODUCTION; ARAKAN AND THE ROHINGYA MUSLIMS:The 1978 Exodus; The 1990 Election and Its Aftermath; PATTERNS OF ABUSE 1991-92: Rape; Forced Labor; Population Transfers and Religious Persecution; Summary Executions;
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Watch - A Division of Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html (167K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Union of Myanmar (Burma): Human rights violations against Muslims in the Rakhine (Arakan) State
Date of publication: May 1992
Description/subject: "During February and March 1992 Amnesty International conducted over 100 interviews in Bangladesh with Burmese Muslim refugees from the Rakhine (Arakan) State, which is in the southwest of Myanmar (Burma)[1] bordering Bangladesh. All of those interviewed told Amnesty International that they had fled from their homes in the Maungdaw and Buthidaung township areas of the Rakhine State to escape a wide range of human rights violations at the hands of the Myanmar security forces, including ill-treatment, deliberate killings, and arrests on religious and political grounds. In their testimonies, these refugees said they were themselves victims of human rights violations, or had witnessed such violations committed against others, or were personally acquainted with the victims of such abuses. The human rights violations documented in this report are part of a general pattern of repression by the Myanmar security forces against Muslims in the Rakhine State. Troops have entered Muslim villages in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships, occupied and closed mosques, confiscated farmers' livestock and crops, seized villagers for forced labour, and evicted them from their houses. The repression of Muslims in the Rakhine State is part of the gross and consistent pattern of human rights violations committed by the SLORC against all forms of political opposition and dissent and against vulnerable and weak sectors of the country's population, such as ethnic minorities, who the military authorities suspect may not support its national ideology. All the available evidence indicates that Muslims are targeted for repression by the Myanmar security forces simply because they belong to a particular religious minority, some members of which seek greater autonomy from central Myanmar control. Reports of human rights abuses against Muslims in the Rakhine State by Myanmar security forces rose sharply in early 1991, and they began to leave Myanmar in the thousands to seek asylum in Bangladesh. Those numbers increased dramatically in late 1991 and early 1992, with more than 200,000 now believed to be in Bangladesh." KEYWORDS: RELIGIOUS GROUPS - ISLAMIC / MINORITIES / FORCED LABOUR / TORTURE/ILL-TREATMENT / DEATH IN CUSTODY / EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION / WOMEN / SEXUAL ASSAULT / ARBITRARY ARREST / POLITICAL PRISONERS / TRIALS / MILITARY TRIBUNALS / LONG-TERM IMPRISONMENT / FARMERS / FARM WORKERS / AGED / RELIGIOUS GROUPS - HINDU / FAMILIES / CHILDREN / JUVENILES / STUDENTS / COMMUNITY LEADERS / TEACHERS / RETIRED PEOPLE / CIVIL SERVANTS / REFUGEES 1 / DISPLACED PEOPLE / MISSIONS / PRISONERS' TESTIMONIES / MILITARY / PARAMILITARIES / POLICE / POLITICAL VIOLENCE / EMERGENCY LEGISLATION /
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA (Al INDEX: ASA 16/06/92)
Format/size: html (123K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Our Journey" - Voices from Arakan, Western Burma
Date of publication: May 1991
Description/subject: Introduction, map and 32 interviews with Arakanese (Rakhine) and Rohingya refugees and activists.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: REPORT ON THE 1978-79 BANGLADESH REFUGEE RELIEF OPERATION
Date of publication: June 1979
Description/subject: "During the past year the problems of international refugees have received much coverage in the world press -most of it devoted to the Vietnamese "boat people" arriving on the shores of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian nations. Another refugee movement of almost equal magnitude in the area, however, has received little attention: the 200,000 Muslim refugees from Burma in Bangladesh. Some press coverage appeared in May and June, 1978, when tens of thousands of the Muslim minority community were pouring into Bangladesh from neighboring Burma. And the signing of an agreement between the two governments on July 9th, allowing the refugees to return, merited short articles in many papers. But from then on there was virtually no news for six and a half months until January 26, 1979, when the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva announced to the press that since June 1, 1978, more than 10,000 of the Burmese refugees had died in the Bangladesh camps. Between late March and mid-July, 1978, approximately 200,000 of the estimated 1,400,000 Bengali Muslims (called Rohingyas) living in the state of Arakan in north-western Burma fled into nearby Bangladesh. The roots of this mass exodus can evidently be traced to increased immigration from Bangladesh in recent years into this isolated area somewhat tenuously controlled by the central government of the Union of Burma, and to the apparent growth of a movement for the autonomy or independence of the Arakan among both the Buddhists and the Muslims of the area. While some of the Buddhist community wanted independence for the Arakan state, they were also afraid of absorption into Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Alan C. Lindquist
Language: English
Format/size: html (95K)
Date of entry/update: 13 June 2003


Title: Google search results for rohingya repatriation november 2018
Description/subject: About 928,000 results (November 2018)
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2018