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World Bank and its Watchers

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Google site-specific search for "Burma OR Myanmar" on worldbank.org
Date of publication: 17 March 2016
Description/subject: About 1,750,000 results (17 March 2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 March 2016


Title: Myanmar data from World Bank
Date of publication: 17 March 2016
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: Bank Information Center
Description/subject: The Bank Information Center BIC is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization that provides information and strategic support to NGOs and social movements throughout the world on the projects, policies and practices of the World Bank and other Multilateral Development Banks MDBs. BIC advocates for greater transparency, accountability and citizen participation at the MDBs.
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: World Bank Documents on Myanmar
Description/subject: 511 results (August 2015); (588 on March 2016) for "Myanmar" from 1948 - project descriptions, sector reports, environmental assessments, working papers, main reports.....This link has the documents organised by reverse chronology, but users can also click on "Document Type" to group them by category such as Environmental Assessment. Most documents are in English with a few in Burmese....If the search times out, put Myanmar in the search box top right and click on Go.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf, powerpoint
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: World Bank Myanmar page
Description/subject: "The World Bank has begun the process of re-engaging with the Government to support reforms that will benefit all of the people of Myanmar, including the poor and vulnerable. Comparable country data for Myanmar can't be provided at this time..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2010


Title: World Bank Research on Myanmar
Description/subject: 378 results (August 2015)
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


Title: World Bank Search for Myanmar
Description/subject: 34,669 results for a search for Myanmar on the World Bank site (August 2015) 34,756 results (March 2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.worldbank.org
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar Economic Monitor (English)
Date of publication: 24 May 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "After two years of strong economic growth and macroeconomic stability, Myanmar faced a more difficult economic environment in 2015-2016. In 2015-2016, economic growth in Myanmar eased to 7 percent amid a supply shock from heavy flooding, a slowdown in new investment flows during an election year, and a more challenging external environment including lower commodity prices affecting Myanmar’s main exports. The May 2016 edition of the MEM takes stock of recent economic developments, policy challenges, economic prospects, and upcoming policy priorities. Economic growth in 2016-2017 is expected to pick up, with a premium on sound macroeconomic policies and continued structural reforms.".....Keywords: tax incentives, auction, monetary policy, withdrawal, holding, equipment, checks, accounting, deposits, local economy, market mechanisms, interest, public investments
Author/creator: Rab, Habib Nasser; Drees-Gross, Alexandra L.; Ariyapruchya, Kiatipong; Zin, May Thet; Zorya, Sergiy; Chavapricha
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 1.46MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/05/26408130/myanmar-economic-monitor
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/05/26/090224b084369997/...
Date of entry/update: 31 May 2016


Title: Institutional Models for a Future Recognition and Registration of Customary (Communal) Tenure in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY, The World Bank - Washington DC, March 14-18, 2016 The paper is based on the study on customary tenure for LCG in Chin and Shan States 2013-2015 in brief periods. The relevance of the topic was grounded in a wish to 1) identify statutory means to protect the livelihood of ethnic upland communities in Myanmar from losing, in particular, their shifting cultivation fallow land to agribusiness concessions; 2) based on results from fieldwork, to guide the Government towards recognizing customary (communal) tenure in the drafting of the National Land Use Policy (NLUP) with the ultimate aim of recommending procedures for customary (communal) land registration in a future new Land Law and associated Rules 3); to define how to recognize boundaries of shifting cultivation parcels in a customary system of fair but variable annual local land sharing. "... In Myanmar land issues are of paramount importance after years of land grabbing by the military and business cronies. A rapid anthropological study 2013-14 in Chin and Shan State for the Land Core Group was carried out to inform the post 2011 government. The study recorded the internal rules of customary communal tenure and identified possible statutory means of protecting untitled land, including fallows, against alienation. The Land Core Group guided the Government Committee during 2014-15 to recognize customary tenure in drafting of the National Land Use Policy, not yet endorsed. The study recommended conversion of the community into a legal entity/organization registering all its agricultural land, while keeping separate and intact its customary internal rules. The study construed a reading of existing regulatory framework in support. The study proved, though, that precise mapping of large tracts of shifting cultivation land is difficult due to annual diversity of fuzzy boundaries... Key Words: land rights, communal tenure, mapping, land registration, indigenous peoples..."
Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: The World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016


Title: Closing the gap: Expanding access to social services (English, Burmese မန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 24 February 2016
Description/subject: "Myanmar has an important opportunity to improve the health status and education outcomes of its people after decades of underspending and institutional neglect in the social sectors. Low access to health, education and social protection services has severely worsened human development outcomes, which ranked among the lowest in the region. Since 2011, there has been a sea change in public policy with rapidly rising social spending to expand access to services and protect families from poverty. The payoffs are immense – in Myanmar, an additional year of schooling is estimated to be associated with 6.7 percent higher income (World Bank, 2014a), which will be compounded with better health and social protection. Although significant progress has been made recently, immense challenges and opportunities remain. Policies to close the gap in access to social services are fundamental to inclusive growth in Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Pyne, Hnin Hnin; Dutta, Puja Vasudeva; Sondergaard, Lars M.; Stevens, James A.; Thwin, Mar Mar; Kham, Nang Mo; Palu, Toomas; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arulpragasam, Jehan;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-Closing_the_Gap-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-Closing_the_Gap-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016


Title: Growing Together: Reducing rural poverty in Myanmar (English, Burmese မန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 16 February 2016
Description/subject: "Policies that enable rural communities to participate in expanding economic opportunities can be central to inclusive growth in Myanmar. Rural communities are home to the majority of Myanmar’s population, the majority of its many ethnic groups, and 70 percent of its poor. Development in rural areas is constrained by low returns to agriculture, and significantly lower levels of public service delivery and human development outcomes relative to urban areas. Reforms to enhance agriculture productivity are necessary though not sufficient for improving the welfare and livelihoods of rural communities. These have to be complemented with increased access to social and economic services that can raise human and physical capacity to create the conditions necessary for the growth of a dynamic rural non-farm sector. These reforms could help to not only reduce the drag on rural growth and poverty reduction, but also contribute to structural economic transformation so that the welfare of all people in Myanmar can grow together..."
Author/creator: Myint, Nikolas;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-English; 1.56MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/16/090224b084187759/...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-Growing_together-Reducing_rural_poverty_in_Myanm...
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: Energizing Myanmar : enhancing access to sustainable energy for all (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 February 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar has the opportunity to significantly enhance energy access, starting from a situation where energy consumption per capita is among the lowest in the world. Two-thirds of the population is not connected to the national electricity grid, and 84 percent of rural households lack access to electricity. The lack of affordable and reliable power is a key constraint to the delivery of vital services such as health, education and finance for rural populations, and for private sector development and job creation more broadly. Also, access to modern fuels for cooking (such as liquefied petroleum gas) is limited to urban areas. Consequently, traditional biomass (wood and animal dung) is widely used and accounts for about 70 percent of primary energy consumption. The Government’s National Electrification Plan aims to electrify more than 7 million households and achieve access to electricity for 36 million people by 2030. Achieving this objective (which is also the UN SDG7 in Myanmar) is vital to poverty reduction and shared prosperity..."
Author/creator: Ostojic, Dejan R.; Chavapricha, Rome; Wang, Xiaoping; Lee, Alan David; Myint, Myoe;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-english; 1.7MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25929970/energizing-myanmar-enhancing-access-sust...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/29/090224b0841bd666/...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-01-Energizing_Myanmar-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: Financing the future : building an open, modern and inclusive financial system (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 February 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar’s financial system is undergoing a rapid transformation. A history of economic isolation has left Myanmar with small and underdeveloped financial institutions and very low access to financial services. Since 2011, however, demands on the financial system have grown exponentially with increased trade and investment, growing household income, and expanding government operations. While recent reforms have stimulated financial sector growth, much more needs to be done to establish a competitive and vibrant financial sector that can meet the needs of Myanmar’s expanding economy, boost incomes, and reduce poverty particularly among those living in rural areas. Increasing access to financial services is critical to achieving shared prosperity in Myanmar."
Author/creator: Drees-Gross, Alexandra L.;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-English; 1.63MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25992752/financing-future-building-open-modern-in...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-01-Financing_the_Future-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: Participating in change : promoting public sector accountability to all (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 February 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar has a unique opportunity to enable people’s participation in change by promoting transparency and accountability throughout the public sector, including in revenue collection, the management of public expenditure, public policy making, and service provision. This can have a pivotal impact on the effectiveness of the public sector and thereby its ability to promote inclusive growth. In Myanmar, the public sector’s historically narrow revenue base and its limited role in public service delivery have led to weak development outcomes. A history of opacity and lack of public engagement in policymaking have fueled corruption and compounded the loss of public trust in government."
Author/creator: Author Mohib, Saiyed Shabih Ali; Zin, May Thet; Boothe, Robert; Davidsen, Soren;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.26MB-English; 1.89MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/23/090224b0841a576b/...
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25992759/participating-change-promoting-public-se...
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: BREAKING BUSINESS AS USUAL: Fostering competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 01 January 2016
Description/subject: "Market-based reforms and the opening up of trade and investment initiated over the past four years have had a positive impact on growth in Myanmar. These have enhanced private sector participation and increased the role of exports in the economy. Reforms have included streamlined business entry procedures, reduced export and import licensing requirements, and enhanced public-private partnerships and dialogue. Promoting private sector competitiveness and inclusion in Myanmar have enormous potential to drive job creation, economic diversification, and structural transformation. This would involve improving the investment climate with an emphasis on transparency and predictability; reducing trade costs and strengthening connectivity for economic integration; enhancing public-private partnerships; and strengthening institutional capacity to drive the reform pro - cess. The ongoing peace process calls for careful sequencing of reforms, starting with reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in trade; consulting with local communities; and supporting vulnerable groups adversely affected by economic changes..."
Author/creator: Schneider, Charles Patrick; Rahardja, Sjamsu; Norbhu, Tenzin Dolma; Haddad, Mona E.;
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-english; 1.6MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/16/090224b084187755/...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-01-Breaking_business_as_usual-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: WORLD BANK EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC ECONOMIC UPDATE OCTOBER 2015 - Myanmar pages
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: Summary: "Myanmar’s economy grew at a strong pace in 2014/15 but is projected to moderate in 2015/16 due to floods and slowing investment during the elections. The current account deficit has widened on account on investment-related imports. Rapid credit growth has fueled monetary expansion. Inflation reached 10 percent in the year to July. Medium-term growth prospects remain strong assuming continued progress on reforms..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (264K-Myanmar pages; 4.5MB-full report)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-10-EAP.pdf (full report)
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2015


Title: WORLD BANK EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC ECONOMIC UPDATE OCTOBER 2015 - Staying the Course
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: "Since the last East Asia and Pacific Economic Update was published in April, greater uncertainty about the global economy has weighed on the performance and prospects of developing East Asia and Pacific (EAP). The pace of recovery in high-income economies has remained gradual while the widespread slowdown in developing economies has intensified, particularly in commodity producers affected by lower commodity prices. Global trade grew at its slowest pace since 2009, as import demand in emerging economies fell. The prospect of monetary tightening in the United States and continued moderation in China’s growth led to greater volatility in financial markets in recent months..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (4.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-10-EAP.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2015


Title: Myanmar Public Expenditure Review 2015: Realigning the Union Budget to Myanmar's Development Priorities
Date of publication: September 2015
Description/subject: "... Union Budget policies have undergone fundamental shifts since 2011 to accelerate delivery of essential public services. This first ever Public Expenditure Review (PER) for Myanmar tries to better understand these shifts and recommend ways to further align budget policies to development priorities. Decades of government underspending on the back of a very low revenue base with no tax culture have contributed to poor economic and social outcomes. A new government in 2010 sought to redress this by implementing reforms towards a service oriented approach. The PER is a first step in deepening policy dialogue on Union Budget issues. It focuses on general government, and touches on State Economic Enterprises (SEEs) to the extent that they impact general government finances and fiscal policy. The Myanmar PER 2015 is divided into five parts: (i) sustainability of aggregate fiscal policy; (ii) rebalancing the composition of the Union Budget; (iii) improving coverage, quality and equity of education services; (iv) going from more to better government spending on health; and (v) a sound fiscal framework for sub-national service delivery. Findings and recommendations from each part will be discussed in greater detail with government counterparts to help develop a concrete plan of action. The PER is expected to be the start of future systematic analysis of Union Budget policies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The World Bank
Format/size: pdf (4.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2016


Title: Social protection delivery through community-driven development platforms : International experience and key considerations for Myanmar
Date of publication: 07 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Social protection schemes can contribute to poverty reduction objectives pursued through current community-driven development (CDD) platforms in Myanmar by building household and community resilience. In turn, existing CDD platforms provide viable options to promote a transition to government-led social protection delivery. Making infrastructure development more pro-poor andproviding communities with an expanded menu of options, including social protection schemes, can be a first step in enhancing the poverty reduction potential of CDD platforms."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (470K-reduced version; 1.83MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/07/13/090224b082fe36ab/...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/07/13/090224b082fe36ab/...
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: Institutional and regulatory assessment of the extractive industries in Myanmar (Vol. 2) English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 12 May 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones) and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. However, it is not exhaustive with respect to all the sectors that may be considered under a scoping study for EITI .This report is the first in-depth study of the context within which EITI will be implemented in Myanmar, and can inform broader efforts to improve natural resource governance. This includes support for developing natural resource policy, law and regulations, fiscal regime design, tax administration (including support to the Large Tax Payers Office on the extractive industries sector), license management and cadaster systems, community development agreements, strategic environmental and social mitigation and management, training needs assessments and capacity building. The follow-up to this baseline assessment is a scoping study, which will determine which companies should be included within the first MEITI report and what payment flows they will need to report on.".....Since the 167-page English ofiginal is 92MB, OBL produced various smaller versions - though not all equally crisp.
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (English: 5.5MB, 7.6MB-reduced versions; 92MB-original. Burmese: 5.6MB, reduced version; 8.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-Extractive_industries-en-red-to.pdf (7.6MB)
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/05/14/090224b082e8301f/... (original English version - 92MB)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/WB-2015-Extractive_industries-bu-red.pdf (5.6MB)
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/05/14/090224b082e83020/... (original - 8.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: Myanmar - Political economy study of extractive industries : institutional and regulatory assessment of the extractive industries in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: 17 April 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report provides a baseline institutional and regulatory assessment of the oil and gas, mining (including jade and gemstones), and the hydropower sectors in Myanmar. As such the report is an input to extractive industries transparency initiative (EITI) in Myanmar. This report is the first in-depth study of the context within which EITI will be implemented in Myanmar, and can inform broader efforts to improve natural resource governance. This includes support for developing natural resource policy, law and regulations, fiscal regime design, tax administration (including support to the large tax payer’s office on the extractive industries sector), license management and cadastre systems, community development agreements, strategic environmental and social mitigation and management, training needs assessments, and capacity building. The EI sector is still operating within a framework of limited information and relations between government, companies, and civil society (and communities) which are characterized by grievances and disputes about benefit sharing. The implementation of EITI will take several years for the quality of data on the EI sector to live up to international standards and for platforms for dialogue on sector governance to emerge."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (155K-reduced version; 173K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/EAP/2015/05/17/090224b082e940b1...
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2015


Title: East Asia Pacific Update, April 2015: Adjusting to a Changing World
Date of publication: April 2015
Description/subject: "In the six months since the previous East Asia and Pacific Economic Update , the regional economic landscape has been dominated by two key developments in the global economy. First, there has been a sustained decline in world oil prices. This is already exerting, and will likely continue to exert, a differential impact on the performance and prospects of countries, depending on whether they are fuel importers or exporters. Second, there has been a rapid dollar appreciation against the euro and the yen. Most regional currencies have depreciated to only a limited extent against the dollar, implying significant appreciations in real, trade-weighted terms. Growth in developing East Asia and Pacific moderated from 7.2 percent in 2013 to 6.9 percent in 2014, reflecting slowdowns in China and some ASEAN-4 economies. Nonetheless, the region still accounted for more than one-third of global growth, twice the combined contribution of all other developing regions. In China, growth decelerated by 0.3 percentage points, as attempts to contain credit growth and reduce overcapacity were partly offset by measures to avoid a sharp slowdown. In the rest of the region, growth fell by 0.6 percentage points. Within the ASEAN-4, growth dropped most sharply in Thailand, to 0.7 percent, as a result of prolonged political turmoil; the economy began to recover only in late 2014. Indonesia was affected by weakness in its terms of trade and commodity exports, and by the continued impact of policy tightening aimed at addressing external financing constraints. Growth remained generally robust in the region’s smaller economies, including Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar. Most countries continued to rebuild the fiscal buffers eroded by stimulus spending in the wake of the global financial crisis, but challenges remain. Fiscal balances broadly continued to improve, particularly in Malaysia and the Philippines. Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam further rationalized fuel subsidies or raised fuel taxes. However, in Mongolia and to a lesser extent Lao PDR, both deficit and debt levels remain elevated; in Myanmar, a sizable deficit has emerged; in Vietnam, public debt continues to rise; and Malaysia’s public debt remains high..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 May 2015


Title: Myanmar: Ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a time of transition (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 18 February 2015
Description/subject: "A New World Bank Group report urges universal access to basic services and expanded private sector-led growth to create more jobs...Raising farm productivity and incomes, more and better basic services for all, and a better business climate are critical to ending poverty in Myanmar, according to a new World Bank report, Ending Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity in a Time of Transition. The report, which is the World Bank Group’s first Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD), traces Myanmar’s untapped growth potential and widespread poverty to landlessness, low labor and agricultural productivity, lack of access to markets, on-going conflict and communal violence, and a legacy of weak institutions and policies. Coming off decades of military rule and international isolation, Myanmar has a GDP per capita of $1,105 and poverty is high. Most poor people – around 76 percent of all poor – live in rural areas. Among ASEAN countries, Myanmar has the lowest life expectancy at birth (65 years) and the second-highest rate of infant (40 per 1000 live births) and under 5 child deaths (51 per 1000 live births)..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB-English; 6.8MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/02/03/090224b08413e758/...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2015-02-18-Myanmar-Ending_poverty_and_boosting_shared...
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2016


Title: Myanmar Investment Climate Assessment - Sustaining reforms in a time of transition
Date of publication: 01 January 2015
Description/subject: RECOMMENDATIONS: *Additional attention is needed on implementation, especially as the pace of reforms remains high. The importance of careful implementation and even the prioritization of implementation over further reforms should be emphasized. The need for a fast pace of reform across the different areas needs to be tempered with the dangers of attempting to push the reform process too far too fast. The capacity of the government to implement reforms is clearly (still) limited. In building not only the capacity but also the reputation as a capable overseer of the economy, consistent and steady reform is vital, more so than a high pace... * The formation of a permanent dialogue mechanism for investment climate reform marks a significant milestone. The private sector has taken steps to create a dialogue mechanism through the Union of Myanmar Chambers of Commerce and Industry (UMFCCI), which has established the Myanmar Business Forum (MBF). The Ministry of Commerce has been assigned the role of government MBF focal point. Both the private and public sector participants seem committed to making MBF a success and a forum through which frank discussions of the issues, as well as diligent follow-up of initiated reforms, can be carried out. In order to sustain the reform effort in the coming years great care will have to be taken to continually strengthen the leadership and buy-in for the MBF... *While comprehensive reforms for improving access to finance and electricity have been initiated, improving access to land and to skilled labor are areas where additional attention is warranted. On land, broad reforms are underway, including a new national land use policy. The process for transferring land use rights, for example, as captured by the Doing Business indicator ‘registering property’ could be made more transparent, simpler, faster, and cheaper. More complicated reforms can then follow such initial reforms. For skilled workers, additional analytical work is needed first, and a discussion about what role the government will take in supporting firms in finding skilled workers. Examples of helpful analytical work include the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) workforce development and the Skills Toward Employability and Productivity (STEP) household and firm surveys. In order to assess what the appropriate role of the government should be in fostering vocational training and similar programs to improve workplace readiness, more analysis is needed... *The reform agendas in place to improve regulation, taxation and eliminate corruption should be continued and expanded. While the ICA makes a number of specific recommendations, the full implementation in these categories will be neither easy nor quick. Persistent effort is needed to make sure that the various government agencies, as well as the civil servants themselves, become engaged actors of change in this new role of the government in the economy. This is a long-term endeavor and capacity building in change management will be critical. As a recommendation that is very easy to implement: any old mandates or rules favoring state economic enterprises (SEEs) over private firms as suppliers of goods or services to the government should be eliminated. If Myanmar’s private firms are to be encouraged, then opening government contracts to competition will improve not only the efficiency of scarce public funds, but will also give private firms and investors increased confidence in the government’s commitment to a strong and dynamic market economy in Myanmar... *Ultimately, the real challenge in completing the reform agenda will be political. The reform agenda is broad and ambitious. A great deal has already been accomplished, but much more remains to be done. The real challenge in fully implementing reforms will be political. This is the common tension in countries seeking to transition to modern economies and to a fair, transparent investment climate. Only with an empowered group of capable and non-corrupt regulators is such a transition possible. The government needs to reconcile this imperative for professionalism within its ranks, on the one hand, with the legacy and the demands of formidable patronage networks, on the other. How this tension is reconciled will ultimately determine whether Myanmar’s staggering potential is realized..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 2.35MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/01/24222884/myanmar-investment-climate-assessment-su...
Date of entry/update: 27 March 2015


Title: MYANMAR: CAPITALIZING ON RICE EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES
Date of publication: 28 February 2014
Description/subject: Conclusions: "Myanmar has new global and regional rice market opportunities. Should they be captured, higher rice exports could eventually stimulate agricultural growth, which in turn could reduce poverty and boost shared prosperity. Better export opportunities and more stable prices, to which a more efficient export system could contribute, would trigger an increase of rice sector productivity and eventually overall agricultural productivity, given the large share of rice in Myanmar’s planted area, production, trade, and consumption. Higher agricultural productivity would also help the landless, who often work as seasonal farm workers. With more and better quality paddy, the milling industry would accelerate its modernization, creating non-farm jobs and stimulating economic growth. Net buyers of rice in rural and urban areas would benefit from a larger variety and improved quality of rice, potentially at lower prices. 109. Yet several big challenges lie ahead. Strong competition from other exporters and constantly rising demands for the safety and quality of rice on world markets puts pressure on Myanmar’s rice sector. While field yields are only half of those realized by other exporters, significantly expanding the current exportable surplus will take time and can only be realized if rice farming profitability is considerably increased. With reduced carryover stocks, rice exports in 2013/14 are currently trailing the same period in 2012/13, illustrating the importance of addressing structural weaknesses along the value chain if Myanmar is to become a reliable rice exporter. A significant increase in exports also necessitates that Myanmar diversify both its overseas markets and the quality of its rice exports. 110. Taken as a whole, the policy recommendations will go a long way towards improving the prospects for more profitable rice farming. Policymakers need to understand that the rice milling sector and exporters also need a conducive policy environment without an anti-export bias to ensure that their performance is upgraded to become internationally competitive. While public spending programs take time to materialize, policies can have an immediate effect. A small change of policy or even its clear communication and implementation can have a lasting positive impact without any cost to stretched national or local budgets. With this in mind, policies should be considered the most effective vehicle for attracting private investment in the rice value chain in the short run and should be utilized strategically. 111. With more consistent enabling economic policies, alignment of public investment with the strategic objective of export promotion is the key to the long-term prospects for rice exports. The focus should change from producing and selling more low-quality rice to producing and selling increased quantities of different qualities of rice and doing so more efficiently. This strategy would allow Myanmar’s rice value chain participants to earn higher incomes, capture the growing market of higher value rice, and diversify risks in different markets..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (938K-reduced version; 1.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://lift-fund.org/Publications/Myanmar_Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs18/WB-Myanmar-Capitalizing_on_Rice_Export_Opportunities-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 July 2014


Title: Project Information Document (Appraisal Stage) - MM: Telecommunications Sector Reform - P145534 (English)
Date of publication: 06 December 2013
Author/creator: Norbhu,Tenzin Dolma;
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (28K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/SDN/2013/12/09/090224b0821127d6...
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


Title: Myanmar Economic Monitor
Date of publication: October 2013
Description/subject: Overview  The economy grew at 6.5 percent in 2012/13. The main drivers of growth were increased gas production, services, construction, foreign direct investment, and strong commodity exports. Inflation has been on the rise in recent months, reaching 7.3 percent in August 2013...  The budget deficit declined to 3.7 percent of GDP in 2012/13, from 4.6 percent in 2011/12. The 2013/14 budget provides for increased spending on social sectors, although the defense budget remains high...  The nominal exchange rate has been depreciating since the turn of the year, reaching K975 to one US dollar in July 2013 with some reversal of this trend between August and September. The current account deficit increased to 4.4 percent of GDP in 2012/13, up from 2.4 percent in 2011/12, due to import liberalization and lifting of some exchange restrictions...  Gross international reserves reached US$4.6 billion at the end of 2012/13, equivalent to 3.7 months of imports, up from US$4.0 billion in 2011/12...  The outlook is positive, with the economy projected to grow at 6.8 percent in 2013/14 and rising further to 6.9 percent in the medium-term. This will be on account of a continued increase in gas production, increased trade, and stronger performance in agriculture...  Risks to the outlook include the challenge of maintaining the reform momentum. Externally, a slowdown in Chinese domestic investment and a decline in global commodity prices would hurt commodity exporting countries such as Myanmar...  The Policy Watch section presents a number of planned or recently implemented policy reforms which reflect the country’s continuing drive to improve the business environment...  A Special Feature Article presents a summary of findings from a recent assessment of Myanmar’s Public Financial Management (PFM).
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: pdf (838K)
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2013


Title: Burma groups detect flaws in World Bank's re-engagement move
Date of publication: 07 September 2012
Description/subject: "After pressure from civil society in Burma, the World Bank released a draft summary of its Interim Strategy Note (ISN) last month, an outline of its re-engagement plans with Burma over the next 18 months. The move comes after local and international NGOs claimed that the Bank had not adequately engaged in consultation with civil society. The draft ISN is meant to inform the consultation process, and the final ISN is due to be released by the Bank in the end of October..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Bank Information Center (IF-Eye Issue #54):
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


Title: Burma: World Bank Grant Could ‘Exacerbate’ Problems In Border Regions
Date of publication: 10 August 2012
Description/subject: "Civil society groups have urged the World Bank to exercise caution before pressing ahead with their plans to pump $85 million into community projects in Burma’s conflict-torn border regions or risk “exacerbating” local problems. Campaigners have criticised the Bank for claiming that locals will be able to “decide whether to invest in schools, roads, water or other projects” without disclosing details of their consultation plans, transparency provisions and whether they have conducted a conflict-assessment. “Burma’s ethnic conflicts are complex and the ongoing ceasefire negotiations are fragile, so if the World Bank is looking into providing assistance they need to publish this information,” said Khin Ohmar from Burma Partnership. “That kind of money can easily exacerbate problems or even create more different types of conflicts within the communities..."
Author/creator: Hanna Hindstrom
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


Title: World Bank Prepares Interim Strategy Note for Myanmar
Date of publication: 10 August 2012
Description/subject: "...In describing the country context in which the Bank’s re-engagement with Myanmar is taking place, the ISN reviews the significant and far-reaching changes that have taken place in Myanmar over the past 18 months, including the political and civil reforms (the release of political prisoners, the progress in ceasefire negotiations with non-state armed groups, the release of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the re-entry of her National League for Democracy Party into the country’s political system) as well as the important economic reforms have been undertaken, including floating of the currency, legalization of trade unions, tax reform and forthcoming legislation on foreign investment and banking reform, while acknowledging remaining challenges in each of these areas. The ISN describes Myanmar as embarking on a triple transition: from an authoritarian military system to democratic governance; from a centrally-directed economy to market-oriented reforms; and from 60 years of conflict to peace in the border areas. These transitions offer hope to the people of Myanmar for better, safer and more productive lives, but also pose the risk that setbacks in one of the transitions will affect the others. The proposed program of the World Bank Group (WBG) will thus focus on activities that can support the success of these three transitions and prepare the way for the resumption of a full country program..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2012


Title: Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President
Date of publication: 26 April 2012
Description/subject: " Statement on Myanmar: Pamela Cox, World Bank East Asia and Pacific Regional Vice President Available in: Español, 日本語 WASHINGTON, April 26, 2012 - The World Bank today released the following statement from World Bank Vice President for East Asia, Pamela Cox, on the Bank's steps toward re-engagement with the Government of Myanmar: “I want to update you on where the World Bank Group stands in relation to Myanmar. We are working closely with our Board and shareholders on our plans moving forward. As you’re aware, we have re-engaged with the government in Myanmar, with the aim of supporting reforms that will benefit all the people of Myanmar, especially the poor and vulnerable. In early June, we will be opening an office in Myanmar, which will be led by a new country manager. Also in June, I’ll be travelling to Myanmar to gain a firsthand assessment of the situation. The vice presidents of our private sector arm, IFC and our insurance arm, MIGA, will join me on that visit..."
Language: English (Spanish also available)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (91K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/WB_Myanmar_Statement2012-04-26.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2012


Title: Multilaterals Warned Not to Go Too Far, Too Fast in Myanmar
Date of publication: 18 April 2012
Description/subject: "WASHINGTON, Apr 18, 2012 (IPS) - As multilateral lending agencies prepare to seriously re- engage with Myanmar for the first time in decades, observers at the spring meetings of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are warning that a poor understanding of ground conditions in the country could jeopardise many of the early opportunities created by government-initiated reforms. While international economic sanctions, particularly those put in place by the United States and European Union, have significantly limited the ability of multilateral agencies to operate in Myanmar, recent weeks have seen several governments move to ease these measures. This week the U.S. announced a second round of loosening, while officials in both Australia and the EU are currently engaged in similar discussions..."
Author/creator: Carey L. Biron
Language: English
Source/publisher: Inter-Press Service (IPS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 May 2012


Title: Human Rights Watch Letter to World Bank President Zoellick on Burma
Date of publication: 08 February 2012
Description/subject: World Bank: Emphasize Civic Participation in Burma; Encourage Transparency, Accountability in Exploring Reengagement
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (203K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Download%20Human%20Rights%20Watch%20letter%...
Date of entry/update: 26 February 2012


Title: Free trade area membership as a stepping stone to development: the case of ASEAN
Date of publication: 28 February 2001
Description/subject: World Bank Discussion Paper. "This study investigates the economic impacts of accession to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) by the new member countries of Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The trade policies of these countries are examined, and a series of quantitative analyses were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of accession. The results showed that the static impacts of reducing tariffs against ASEAN members are beneficial, although the magnitude of the net gains is diminished by the trade diversion resulting from the discriminatory nature of the reforms. The binding commitments on protection rates under the AFTA plan provide an important initial step to more broader and more beneficial trade reforms. The study focuses on some of the key country-specific policy challenges associated with trade liberalization--such as declining tariff revenues in Cambodia, and the negative impacts on sensitive domestic industries in Vietnam. The study recommends that accession to AFTA be viewed as an important transitional step in the broader process of trade reform and institutional development needed for successful development and poverty alleviation. Keywords: Free trade areas; Trade policy; Tariff reductions; Trade liberalization; Comparative advantage.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Text (586K), PDF (11979K), Page.
Alternate URLs: http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/0-8213-4887-6
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Power trade strategy for the Greater Mekong Sub-region
Date of publication: 31 March 1999
Description/subject: Sector Report. "The main objectives of the study are to: a) assess options and formulate a strategy for power trade among the Greater Mekong countries, paying special attention to the barriers to trade and the policy, institutional and commercial framework required to develop and operate efficiently a regional power network; and b) establish the rationale and options for donors ' support to power trading and transmission network investment needs within the region. Although power trade among the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) countries is beginning to grow, there are important barriers that could prevent its development: 1) policy barriers, 2) technical barriers, 3) institutional barriers, and 4) commercial and financial barriers. The strategy proposed in the study addresses the following overarching issues: 1) Regional electricity trade should be second to national and local needs. 2) Conditions must be established for a public-private partnership to develop power trade in the region. 3) Conflicts must be resolved between short- and long-term objectives, between national and regional views, and eventually, between specific projects. 4) There must be a common path of fundamental economic practices to allow open access to transmission. 5) Financial and technical assistance must be secured. 6) There must be a regional agreement on policy issues and an institutional framework to address market uncertainties and potential conflicts, and to promote regional trade. Keywords: Electricity trade; Regional trade; Electric networks; Transmission; Mekong river; Trade barriers; Private-public partnerships; Technical assistance; Institutional framework; Trade policy; Greenhouse gas emissions; Sectoral reforms; Government policy; Power sector reform; Wholesale trade; Open access; Tariffs; Risks; Taxes; Royalties; Financial instruments; Thermal power; Watershed management
Language: Text (261K), PDF (6529K), Page
Source/publisher: World Bank
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/12/11/000094946_99041505302543/R...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000094946_99041505302543
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Counting the full cost : parental and community financing of education in East Asia
Date of publication: 30 November 1996
Description/subject: Publication. "This study highlights the need for much more detailed attention to the cost of schooling incurred by parents and communities. In some societies these costs are greater than even the costs to governments. Quite apart from overt forms of privatization, the growth of household resourcing of public education has been a hidden form of privatization of enormous influence. This study presents empirical findings, and primarily focuses on nine East Asian countries -Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People ' s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam -although clear parallels can be drawn with experiences in some other parts of the world. While patterns are far from uniform, one striking feature from this study is that costs to households have increased in long-standing capitalist countries as well as in former socialist countries. The scale of the increase varies widely, but it is significant that in these countries there is an increase at all. The study concludes that governments seeking to achieve universal primary education and expanded enrollments in secondary education must consider the costs and benefits at the household level. Their resulting policies must focus not only on supply but also on demand for education. Included in demand will be complex considerations of the quality and the price of education. When assessing the cost side of the equation, policy analysts must count the full cost -not only to governments, but also to parents and communities- and not only the monetary costs of donated labor, materials, and land." Keywords: Educational financing; Human capital; Cost of education; Resources mobilization; Resources utilization; Parent-child relationships; School-community relationships; Public education; Denationalization; Human rights; Private schools; Private education; Household budgets; Enrolment ratio
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (223K), PDF (5289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Irrigation O & M and system performance in Southeast Asia: an OED impact study
Date of publication: 27 June 1996
Description/subject: Operations Evaluation Study. "This report discusses six gravity irrigation schemes supported by the World Bank in the paddy lands of Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Its main objective is to assess: (i) the agro-economic impacts of these schemes at least five years after completion of the investment operations, and (ii) the influence of operation and maintenance (O & M) performance on the sustainability of those impacts. The finding that dominates the study has little to do with O & M. Offering poor economics and low incomes, these paddy irrigation schemes face an uncertain future. Improved O & M performance will not rescue them. In fact, the study finds that this causality is being reversed. As the uncompetitiveness of paddy farming drives the younger members off farms and the older members to stay behind and concentrate on basic subsistence crops, social capital will erode and O & M standards are likely to suffer. Based on the study of the six schemes, several recommendations have been made and grouped into the following general categories, then expanded on: (1) to sharpen the response to O & M failures; (2) to simplify the technology of infrastructure and operations; (3) to promote the transfer of management to farmers and their Water User Groups; and (4) to improve household earnings." Keywords: Gravity irrigation; Paddyland; Competitiveness; Agricultural productivity; Household income; Subsistence farming; Traditional farming; Farm management; Rural infrastructure; Agro-economic impacts; Operation & maintenance; Water user groups
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (609K), PDF (12415K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Re...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/06/27/000009265_3961214172549/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar-- Policies for Sustaining Economic Reform
Date of publication: 16 October 1995
Description/subject: Important report, which criticises the SLORC's economic and social policies, including paddy procurement policies."A significant program of economic reforms has been instituted in Myanmar since the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) assumed power in late-1988. This shift in economic policies followed almost a quarter century of economic decline during which the prevalent development paradigm was termed " the Burmese way of socialism " . Under that model, economic development was to be achieved through rapid industrialization and self sufficiency, and led by the State Enterprise (SE) sector. Economic performance under that policy regime was poor. During 1962-77, real GDP growth barely kept up with population expansion and, as a result, living standards stagnated. Investment levels remained low, agricultural output grew slowly, and the economy grew more inward looking. The initial attempts at economic reform in the mid-1970s succeeded at first but could not be sustained due to macroeconomic and structural factors, which were reflected in widening budget and current account deficits, rising inflation, and stagnant agricultural output and exports. Faced with these serious external and internal imbalances in the early-1980s the Government's stabilization attempts relied on tightening import controls, cutting public investment, and demonetization but were ineffective in reversing the economic decline. Following the anti-government demonstrations of 1988, the SLORC assumed power and announced that many key aspects of the earlier model would be abandoned in its economic reform program. With over seven years having elapsed since those reforms were initiated, it is an opportune time to take stock. Specifically, this report examines the impacts of the policy changes, with a view to identifying the areas in which progress has been made, as well as the gaps that still remain in the program. This analysis would then underpin the report's recommendations concernng areas in which additional reforms are required and how these measures should be phased. Keywords: Economic growth; Economic reform; Economic stabilization; Government role; Policy making
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Text (456K)or PDF (8416K) Page.
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/10/16/000009265_3961019103423/Re...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000009265_3961019103423
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma and the CGIAR centers: a study of their collaboration in agricultural research
Date of publication: 30 November 1986
Description/subject: CGIAR Study Paper "This report on the collaboration between international agricultural research centers (IARCs) and the agricultural research system of Burma was undertaken at the request of the CGIAR impact study and includes several objectives. They entail providing (1) a picture of the collaboration between CGIAR-supported IARCs and Burma; (2) an assessment of how international inputs have contributed to national research capacity; and (3) an evaluation of the relevance and impact of the centers ' training programs. Further to this, the report involves (4) a summary of the impact on food production; and (5) a discussion of the way in which selected technologies originating in the centers have been transmitted through national programs to farmers. By cooperating with various IARCs, Burma ' s agricultural research departments and other agencies under the Agriculture Corporation have greatly increased yields of rice, maize, sorghum, wheat, cotton, jute, sugarcane and food legumes in Burma. In addition, Burma has received genetic materials, training fellowships and opportunities to establish contacts with research workers and scientists in other countries to permit the continuous exchange of ideas." Keywords: International agricultural research coordination; Food production; Agricultural inputs; Food crops; Research centers; Training programs
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Text (164K), PDF (4315K), Page.
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/01/24/000178830_98101901560884/R...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000178830_98101901560884
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma - Issues and options in the energy sector
Date of publication: 30 June 1985
Description/subject: Sector Report. Burma' s energy resources are large and varied. While the Government has done a commendable job of developing these resources largely on its own, their development has nevertheless been comparatively slow. While this may have constrained economic growth to date, it also provides a ready basis for an acceleration in future economic growth and increased exports. This report analyzes the technical, financial and institutional requirements for realizing that potential through the turn of the century in the context of two scenarios - a Planned Growth scenario which reflects the official growth targets, and an Economic Growth scenario under which public finance and balance of payments constraints result in somewhat slower economic growth. Under either scenario a major investment program and infusion of current technology will be needed. The report recommends considerable technical assistance and studies to help effect this transfer of technology. To help finance these requirements, it will be necessary to improve the financial footing of the public corporations in the sector; this would entail price increases for many energy products. There is also a need to strengthen energy planning and inter-ministerial coordination on energy matters. Keywords: Hydroelectric power; Petroleum; Natural gas; Coal; Fuelwood; Biomass energy; Petroleum exports; Technical assistance; Technology transfer; Deforestation; Offshore gas fields; Energy planning
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (432K), PDF (8531K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Re...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/09/17/000009265_3970723102606/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003