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Arakanese/Rakhine/Rohingya history

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: UK: Archive of Network Myanmar's collection of material on Rohingya/Muslim issues
Description/subject: Extensive and wide-ranging online collection of useful documents. The archive ends in October 2016 when Network Myanmar closed. The main link here, however, contains some updates beyond the 2016 cut-off.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20160617101212/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-is...
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2014


Individual Documents

Title: Rohingya identity and the limits to history
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "Public discussions around Rohingya people currently fleeing violence in Rakhine state, Myanmar, have often involved arguments about history. While critical historical analysis is useful in offering insights into conflicts, History—if treated as a single, knowable past—is not. This is especially true when dealing with ethnicity. Whatever the past was, no amount of historical research can justify the current violence against Rohingya people..."
Author/creator: Jonathan Saha
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2017


Title: Appointment of Investigation Commision [to investigate the Rakhine State Conflicts 2014]
Date of publication: 07 February 2014
Description/subject: Order: "Republic of the Union of Myanmar, President Office, Order No. 16/2014, 7th Waxing of Tabodwe, 1375 ME(6 February, 2014): Formation of Investigation Commission: Regarding the incidents occurred at Ducheertan village and Ducheertan west village in Maungtaw Town- ship of Rakhine State on 13 January and 28 January, 2014, an “Investigation Commission” comprising the following persons has been formed in order to disclose the real cause of the incidents..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: New Light of Myanmar via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (491K-reduced version; 524K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/NLM-Extract-07022014.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Geopolitics of the Powers and the Bengali Problems in Burma
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: 1. Background: "In 1971 the Independence War in East Pakistan broke out. In Bangladesh this war was officially known as 'Bangladesh Liberation War' which started on 26th March 1971 and ended on 16th December of the same year. At that time, there were about one and a half million to two million Bengali war refugees in Arakan Division of Burma according to BBC . In the mean time, there were more than ten million war refugees on Indian soil. India was open and immediately called international organizations such as International Committee of Red Cross CRC (Red Crescent in Muslim countries), Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), World Food Program (WFP) and United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and others for help. On the other hand, the Revolutionary Council Government of Burma headed by Gen. Ne Win was too much afraid of international organizations entering Burma as he wanted Burma to stay as an isolated state. He also wanted to deal under the table with the newly formed Bangladeshi Government. He recognized Bangladesh immediately, which caused tensions between Pakistan and Burma. He then had to send a special envoy to Pakistan to explain the situation. If the then Burmese Government and Ne Win were wise and open like India, the international organisations would have accepted these war refugees who fled into Arakan as "East Pakistani or Bangladeshi Refugees inside Burma", and not the other way round like now. In fact, most of the people who claim to be the ‘Rohingya’ nowadays are the descendants of those who crossed the border and settled down inside Burma in 1971 during the Bangladesh Liberation War as well as illegal immigrants brought by them at a later period. Evidence of this lies in the fact that this group cannot speak any languages spoken in Burma..."
Author/creator: Khin Maung Saw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (184K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Khin-Maung-Saw-NM-2014-Geopolitics_of_the_Powers_and_the_Bengali...
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: Report of the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission - 2014 (full text, Burmese)
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Full report by the Investigation Commission [on " the incidents occurred at Ducheertan village and Ducheertan west village, Maungtaw Township, Rakhine state on 13-28 January"]
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Investigation Commission via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (6.65MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Analysis of Buchanan's 'Rooingas' and 'Rossawns'
Date of publication: 2013
Author/creator: Khin Maung Saw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (153K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Khin-Maung-Saw-NM-2013-Analysis_of_Buchanan_%20Rooingas_and_Ross...
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: History Behind Arakan State Conflict
Date of publication: 12 July 2012
Description/subject: "Arakan history expert Dr. Jacques P. Leider gives an exclusive interview to The Irrawaddy in light of the recent sectarian strife in western Burma. Leider has been conducting research as well as contributing articles to academic journals on Arakan State for more than two decades. He has worked with SEAMEO-CHAT, the regional center for history and tradition in Rangoon, and is currently head of the French School of Asian Studies in Chiang Mai, Thailand."
Author/creator: Jacques Leider (interviewed by "The Irrawaddy")
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Dilemma
Date of publication: 09 July 2012
Description/subject: "In the past, the people who called themselves “Rohingya” had to contend with successive military governments’ indifference to recognizing — or regularizing - their status as persons living on the territory of Myanmar. The latest incidence of anger against the Rohingyas, however, did not have immigration woes at its source. An unfortunate crime of rape and murder — committed by Muslim men against a Buddhist woman in a strongly nationalistic state — escalated into communal violence fraught with racial and religious undertones. The views, many of them inflammatory, on social media platforms indicate deep-seated prejudices that threaten the unconsolidated stability in Myanmar under President Thein Sein’s reform-minded administration. President Thein Sein made a statement on 10 June to calm seething sentiments on the present conflict. Myanmar also received the visit of United Nations (UN) Special Envoy Vijay Nambiar to the conflict areas. The measures have resulted in lessening tensions somewhat, and won praise from the European Union and the United States2. Responding to questions by media, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi highlighted the importance of handling the situation with “delicacy and sensitivity” while also underscoring the need for the rule of law as “essential [..] to put an end to all conflicts in the country”. However, the Rohingya issue is still far from reaching a lasting solution...".....THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EVOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT...THE ROHINGYA AND THE CITIZENSHIP LAWS...CHALLENGES AHEAD
Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than and Moe Thuzar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ("Perspective")
Format/size: pdf (499K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.academia.edu/3106711/Myanmars_Rohingya_Dilemma
http://web1.iseas.edu.sg/Iseas_Perspective/ISEAS%20Perspective_9jul12.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


Title: Islamanisation of Burma through Chittagonian Bengalis
Date of publication: September 2011
Author/creator: Khin Maung Saw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (680K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Khin-Maung-Saw-NM-2011-09-Islamanisation_of_Burma_through_Chitta...
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: Burma's Western Border as Reported by the Diplomatic Correspondence
Date of publication: 2011
Author/creator: Aye Chan
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Kanda Journal of Global and Area Studies, Vol.2, 2011 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (920K-reduced version; 1.09MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF13/aye%20chan%20bwb.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: Between India and Southeast Asia- Arakan, Burmas Forgotten Kingdom
Date of publication: 28 December 2008
Description/subject: "For more a millennium the policy we know as Arakan existed as a culturally strategic border state, the only state in Southeast Asia to be connected to India by both land and sea routes. The study of its culture is of particular interest as it reveals which elements of Indian cultural were adopted in Arakan and in the land to its east. We can then ask why some elements and not others were adopted, and attempted to relate this to the political, social and religious developments of the wider region..."
Author/creator: Pamela Gutman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Rakhapura Arakan Information Website
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD
Date of publication: 13 March 2008
Description/subject: Abstract: "The Arakanese kingdom (Rakhine state in modern Myanmar) grew from the fifteenth century AD from a small agrarian state with its nucleus in the hart of the Kaladan valley to a significant local power by the early seventeenth century. Arakan asserted its influence across the northern shores of the Bay of Bengal. In the first decades of the seventeenth century the Arakanese kings of Mrauk U received tribute from local rulers between Dhaka and Pegu, cities more than a thousand miles apart. The Mughal rulers of Bengal were even forced to build a string of forts to defend the areas around Dhaka and Hugli against Arakanese incursions. From the middle of the seventeenth century the Arakanese state was gripped by a seemingly sudden decline that would culminate in civil war at the end of the seventeenth century and the loss of control over south-eastern Bengal, followed by the conquest of Arakan by the Burmese in the eighteenth century. The rapid rise and decline of the Arakanese state between the early fifteenth and the end of the seventeenth century is the subject of this dissertation."... Keywords: Arakan, Bay of Bengal, Bengal, Burma, History, Mrauk U, Mughal, Rakhine, State formation, VOC.
Author/creator: Stephan van Galen
Language: English
Source/publisher: van Galen, S.E.A., 2008, Doctoral thesis, Leiden University
Format/size: html, pdf (17 pdf files accessed from an html page)
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


Title: A Short History of Rohingya and Kamans of Burma
Date of publication: 13 September 2007
Author/creator: M.A Tahir Ba Tha
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kaladan News via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (377KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Ba_Tha-Kaladan-News&Network-Myanmar-2007-09-13-A_Short_History_o...
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2015


Title: Towards Understanding Arakan History (Part I, II and III)
Date of publication: 2007
Description/subject: PREFACE: A mirror reflects exactly any object that stands before it. So does history reflect the past of a people or a nation? History gives us knowledge of past. But history can be a forgotten past, especially for literally less advanced people. After a few generations, history cannot be remembered unless it is written or recorded, and observation of illiterate tribes all over the world shows, that they are helplessly wrong with regard to the events of their history for more than a couple of generations back. Thus recording of history in various forms took place from the early stage of human society. Records of history are very important such as roots are for trees. Without proper records of history it is very difficult for a people to go ahead. For future planning we need the knowledge of past. Hence, I have been studying the history of Arakan in particular and of Myanmar in general and have been collecting some important facts and records related to them. Here some of my friends requested me to compile a brief but precise history of Arakan with special attention to the evaluation of Muslim society there and I complied with their request. Writing a history book needs knowledge and experience. It is a big job for me as it will consume time, mind and energy. At the same time I was not free enough because of my personal engagements. Non-availability of some reference books is another factor. Next most of the history books on Arakan, by Arakanese themselves are found to be irrelevant with the latest researches of scholars. Many facts there are illogical, imaginary and exaggerative in nature. So to bring historical nucleus in to light with authentic references and correct documentations become an essential part of my task here. Further, facts concerning Muslim’s role in Arakan, traditionally have been covered ‘up or distorted. In this treatise my attempt to bring them in to light may be subject to refutation from some circles. Especially three historical nucleuses here may be found deviated from our traditional concept though they are real and true. The main object of this treatise indeed is to shed light on these points.
Author/creator: Abu Anin
Language: English
Source/publisher: A Study on the Issue of Ethnicity in Arakan, Myanmar
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=866:towards-und... (Part II)
http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=900:towards-und... (Part III)
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: The Muslim Rohingya of Burma
Date of publication: 11 October 2006
Description/subject: "A preliminary point I want to highlight is that, while Burma has many complex ethnic problems, the plight of the Muslims of Arakan is by far the most tense and difficult of all the ethnic problems I have encountered in over a decade of writing on the political and ethnic situation in Burma. Firstly, there is a strong element of ethnic communalism, which has resulted in periodic but unpredictable outbreaks of social violence and upheaval; secondly, there are strong religious undercurrents which relate to the situation of all Muslims in Burma at large; and, thirdly, there is an intransigence on the part of many of the main protagonists, which has made the finding of lasting solutions so very difficult. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that, after decades of isolation, the whole crisis is overshadowed by a complete absence of reliable anthropological or social field research, which means that different sides continue to circulate - or even invent - very different versions of the same people's histories. Well, as the whole world is now aware, all these unresolved issues have once again come to a violent head in the seven years since the State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC assumed power in Rangoon - and, sadly, as so often in Burma's troubled past it is innocent civilians and villagers, caught in the middle, who are the main victims..."
Author/creator: Martin Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (43.3K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.kaladanpress.org/scholar-column-mainmenu-36/36-rohingya/194-the-muslim-rohingya-of-burma
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015


Title: The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: September 2005
Description/subject: Conclusion: "After Burma gained independence, a concentration of nearly ninety percent of the area’s population, the distinguishing characteristics of their own culture and the Islamic faith formed an ethnic and religious minority group in the western fringe of the republic. For successive generations their ethnicity and Islam have been practically not distinguishable. At the beginning they adopted the slogan, “Pakistan Jindabad,” (Victory to Pakistan). This policy faded away when they could not gain support from the government of Pakistan. Later they began to call for the establishment of an autonomous region instead. Pakistan’s attitude toward the Muslims in Arakan was different from the Islamabad’s policy toward Kashmiris. During the Independence War in Bangladesh most of the Muslims in Arakan supported West Pakistan. After Bangladesh gained independence Dhaka followed the policy of disowning those Chittagonians. Consequently they had to insist firmly on their identity as Rohingyas. Their leaders began to complain that the term “Chittagonian Bengali” had arbitrarily been applied to them. But the majority of the ethnic group, being illiterate agriculturalists in the rural areas, still prefers their identity as Bengali Muslims. Although they have showed the collective political interest for more than five decades since Burma gained independence, their political and cultural rights have not so far been recognized and guaranteed. On the contrary the demand for the recognition of their rights sounds a direct challenge to the right of autonomy and the myth of survival for the Arakanese majority in their homeland. A symbiotic coexistence has so far been inconceivable because of the political climate of mistrust and fear between the two races and the policy of the military junta. The Muslims from the other parts of Arakan kept themselves aloof from the Rohingya cause as well. Thus the cause of Rohingyas finds a little support outside their own community, and their claims of an earlier historical tie to Burma are insupportable."
Author/creator: Aye Chan
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005, ISSN 1479-
Format/size: pdf (246K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


Title: Influx Viruses: The Illegal Muslims in Arakan
Date of publication: August 2005
Author/creator: U Shw zan and Dr. Aye Chan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Published by Arakanes in United States by Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (381K-reduced version; 501K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF15/Influx-Virus.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: On the Evolution of Rohingya Problems in Rakhine State of Burma
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: Introduction: "The monsoon season in South and Southeast Asia brings catastrophes to these regions every year. Storms, cyclones and floods are yearly events which bring about loss of crops and lives and heavy human migrations, particularly in certain areas. At such a time in the year 1991, news of Muslims fleeing from Arakan (Rakhine State of Burma) to Bangladesh broke out. The Burmese Army as well as the Bangladeshi Army posted along the Arakan- Bangladesh border was increased, and both sides accused each other of violating the peaceful co-existence of neighbours. Consequently, the issue of military abuses against the "Rohingyas" in Arakan was raised. This was vehemently denied by the military government in Rangoon (Yangon). They stated that Burmese immigration authorities were undertaking a routine check of illegal immi grants along the country's different borders and claimed that most of the "Rohingyas" were illegal immigrants or new settlers coming from overpopulated Bangladesh because of natural catastrophes, hunger and other reasons. This was also vehemently denied by the Bangladeshi authorities. In the mean time, the number of people on the Bangladeshi side grew so that in December 1991 some newspapers reported t hat about 200,000 (two hundr ed thousand) were already concentrated there. However, the number of refugees according to Bertil Lintner was nearly 20,000 (twenty thousand)2. It can not be ruled out becaus e of printing error one zero was not there (by Bertil Lintner) and therefore, it became twenty thousand instead of two hundred thousand..."
Author/creator: U Khin Maung Saw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (373K-reduced version; 500K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF14/Illegal_Kular_Problem_in_Arakan.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: Interview with Guest Editor Stephan van Galen
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "By the time of his first visit to Arakan in 1999, Van Galen had already read about Southeast Asia and Arakan for several years. At a young age, he had read the children's book, De Scheepsjongens van Bontekoe, which was based on the seventeenth-century travel logs of an East India ship's captain named Bontekoe, who was shipwrecked in the Indian Ocean. 'The story had become a classic already during the seventeenth century. Of course, I never realized just to what extent the stories were true until I started doing my research on Arakan, and going through the archival material I came across his name again,' he recalls. But visiting the country one studies as a historian is felt by Van Galen to be a vital part in the process of understanding it..."
Author/creator: Tanja Chute
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rediscovering Arakan: Studying cultural change on an Asian frontier
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "Covering the biggest part of Myanmar's northwestern sea coast, Arakan faces the Bay of Bengal and shares its northern border with Bangladesh and India. Called either Roshang (in Bengal), Rakhangapura (in Sri Lankan chronicles), Yakhai (in Ayutthayan chronicles), or Rakhine by its own inhabitants, the study of the history of Arakan has suffered from the area's peripheral situation, at least in the divisions of Asia familiar to us..."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan, 15th-19th Centuries.
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (History) in The University of Michigan 1999.....1. INTRODUCTION: Arakan, "The Palestine of the Farther East"; Previous Historiography; Structure of Argument... 2. IN THE REALM OF DANGERS AND STRANGERS: THE ROOTS OF ARAKANESE CULTURE AND SOCIETY: The Five Zones of the Arakanese Kingdom; The Realm of Dangers: Environmental Threats in Danra-waddy and Banga; Responses to the Natural Environment: Human Settlement, Mobility, and Migration; The Realm of Strangers: Migrations From the Irrawaddy Valley; Coping With the Human Environment: Charisma and Patron- client Ties; The Familial State and Political Devolution in Early Modem Arakan; Summary... 3. BUDDHIST OR MUSLIM RULERS? MODELS OF KINGSHIP IN ARAKAN IN THE FOURTEENTH TO SIXTEENTH CENTURIES: Strengthening Central Kingship; The Spread of the Irra-waddy Valley (Burman) Model of of Rulership; Sultanship: Islamic or Bengali Model of Rulership? Summary... 4. MONKS, TEXTS, AND SECTS: THE EMERGENCE OF THERAVADA: The Introduction of Buddhism into the Arakan Littoral; Arakanese Buddhist Interaction With Sri Lanka and the Irra-waddy Valley; Maritime Connections; Trans-Roma Connections; The Troubled Sangha: Tensions Between Gama-vasi and Aranya-vasi Sect;s Gama-vasi Monks; Aranya-vasi Monks; Min-raza-kri and Sasana "Reform"; Summary... 5. RELIGION BEYOND THE ROYAL CITY: THE EMERGENCE OF THERAVADA BUDDHISM AND ROYAL PATRONAGE IN THE RURAL: Expansion of Theravada Buddhist Influence; Bringing the People to Buddha; Bringing Buddha to the People; Forest Monks and Village Monks; Buddhist Festivals; Making the Buddha Local; Royal Patronage in the Countryside: Embedding Royal Authority; The Catholic Priest as Pawn: Royal Patronage and Coastal Luso-Arakanese Communities; Summary... 6.FROM CAPTIVES TO LORDS AND LABORERS: MUSLIMS IN ARAKAN IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES: Early Muslims and Itinerant Muslim Traders in the Arakan Littoral; Captive Raids; The Purposes and Organization of the Luso-Arakanese Slave-Raids; The Demographics of Slave-Raiding: the Banglacization of Danra-waddy; Original Locale and Religious "Identities" of the Captives; Muslims in Danra-waddy; Servants to the Soil; Muslims in the Court and Capital; Summary... 7. THE TIME OF TROUBLES: THE DECLINE OF CENTRAL KINGSHIP AND RELIGIOUS PATRONAGE, 1630s-1690s: Arakan: Within or Without the Islamic World? The Decimation of Mrauk-U's Upper Elite Strata in the Late 1630s; Shah Shuja and the Muslim "Other"; Mughal Conquest of the Northern Littoral; Heightened Royal Patronage of Buddhism under Sanda-thu-dhamma-raza and Ukka-bala; Decline of the Central Court and the Rise of the Ko-rans; Summary... 8. WHEN THINGS FALL APART: THE DEVOLUTION OF POLITICS AND RELIGIOUS PATRONAGE IN THE LATE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES : The Aggrandizement of the Rural Gentry; When Things Fell Apart: Rural Rebellion and Warfare in the Arakan Littoral; Natural Chaos; Forging New Communities; Flight and External Religious and Cultural Influence; Religious Devotion and Millennialism; The Rural Gentry as New Centralizers; Order From the Outside; Summary... 9. THE BURMANIZATION OF ARAKAN, 1780s-1820s : Burman Interest in the Arakanese and Arakanese Buddhism; From Attraction to Rule: The Political Impact of Burman Expansion Into Arakan, 1784-5; Dismantling the Attractive Center; From Attraction to Political Centralization; Religious Centralization and Control; Colonizing Tradition; Summary... 10. ONE LAND, TWO PEOPLES: THE EMERGENCE OF RELIGIOUS COMMUNALISM IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ARAKAN: Continuity and Change of the Rural Gentry; Competition for Agricultural Land; British Colonial Favoritism in Land Settlement; Necessity of Collective Action; Collective Action; Changes in Religious Patronage; Communalism; Summary... 11. CONCLUSION... APPENDICES... BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Author/creator: Charney, Michael W
Language: English
Source/publisher: PhD thesis. University of Michigan.
Format/size: pdf (9.5MB-reduced version; 48MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/6119/1/Charney%201999%20Where%20Jambudipa%20and%20Islamdom%20Converged%20...
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2015


Title: Rise of a Mainland Trading State: Rahkaing Under the Early Mrauk-U Kings, c. 1430-1603
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: This study of the rise of the maritime kingdom of Rahkaing (Arakan) in the 15th and 16th centuries attempts to demonstrate how the kings of Danya-wati gradually drew other power centers in the Rahkaing littoral (including Mekha-wati, Dwara-wati, and Chittagong) into its political orbit. Vital to this political centralization were the collateral processes of increasing maritime trade, demographic growth spurred by resettled war captives, the suppression of rival lowland tribes, supplies of firearms, and the development of a multi-directional system of religious patronage. By the end of the 16th century, Mrauk-U rulers, as both Buddhist kings and Islamic sultans, controlled the entire Rahkaing littoral as one kingdom and had begun their expansion into neighboring regions as distant as Dacca in Bengal and Pegu in Burma.
Author/creator: Michael W. Charney
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
Format/size: pdf (2.19MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol3.html
Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


Title: Brief account of the Muslim population in Arakan
Date of publication: 04 August 1995
Author/creator: Peter Nicolaus
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.35MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Nicolaus-Peter-NM-Brief_account%20_of_the_Muslim_population_in_A...
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015


Title: A History of Arakan
Date of publication: 1994
Description/subject: "A History of Arakan: Past and Present, by Dr. Mohammad Yunus, President of the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO), Arakan, is a a welcome addition to the present stock of our knowledge about the history of Arakan and her interrelation with neighbouring lands of Burma and Bengal. It deals mainly with the advent of Islam in Arakan about 800 C.E. and the eventual growth of Muslim community through thick and thin into a major Rohingya community of the country. One can say unhasitatingly that for the first time Dr. Yunus has been able to offer, even if in a skeleton form, a connected and continuous history of the Rohingya community of Arakan from the earliest down to the present time. He has explored an enormously wide field in digging up a great variety of new materials drawn from an impressive number of references. Specially commendable in this work is the forging of all the material under his command towards a new direction of studying the history of the Rohingya Muslim community in the perspective of the impact of Islamic civilization on Southeast Asia, not merely considering it as a part of the national or political history of Burma or Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Mohammed Yunus
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.05MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Yunus-NM-1994-History_of_Arakan-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015


Title: ARAKAN, MIN YAZAGYI, AND THE PORTUGUESE:
Date of publication: June 1993
Description/subject: "A thesis presented to the Faculty of The College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts Michael W. Charney (June 1993)..."Until Min Yazagyi’s reign, then, I think that the Arakanese were the dominant partner in the Arakanese-Portuguese relationship. When Min Yazagyi forgot the importance of the Arakanese king’s role in maintaining this dominance in their relationship, however, the Portuguese were given the opportunity to declare themselves independent. In response, Min Yazagyi, preoccupied with himself and his royal regalia, allowed his royal court to “fall prey” to factionalism and wasted the best of the Arakanese military forces in poorly-crafted campaigns under the command of local military leaders of doubtful abilities. This hurt Arakan’s credibility as a powerful empire and weakened the international alliance system, which had been carefully constructed by past Arakanese kings. Further, the repeated Arakanese military disasters presented a tremendous drain on Arakanese economic resources which Min Yazagyi was not able to remedy. The collapse of Arakanese dominance in the Arakanese-Portuguese relationship, however, was short-lived. Min Khamaung, Min Yazagyi’s son and successor, brought the Arakanese government back firmly under monarchical control through his careful selection of new, capable military and civilian leaders. Min Yazagyi, in the tradition of Min Bin, sought a new foreign model, the Dutch, to help him defeat the Portuguese. But Min Khamaung deserves full credit for crushing the rebellious Portuguese who served the pirate “king” Sebastião Gonsalves y Tibau and brought an end to the last of the Portuguese rebellions. In Pegu, however, Min Khamaung was too late to reassert Arakanese dominance, since the Avan king, Anaukpetlun, had already crushed De Brito at Syriam and had brought Pegu under firm Avan control. Thus, a combination of new Arakanese leaders, the selection of a new foreign model, the resurrection of the nearly-destroyed maritime-based Arakanese economy, and Min Khamaung’s military genius, saved Arakan at least partially from the damage it had suffered under Min Yazagyi and the attendant Portuguese revolts. I think it should also be mentioned that the Portuguese mercenaries captured in both Syriam and the Sundiva campaigns, by Ava and Arakan, were forced to continue their service to both kingdoms as slaves. Anaukpetlun turned his Portuguese captives into a hereditary class of artillerymen whose descendants served in the Avan army for several centuries.595 In the case of Arakan, Min Khamaung, once himself a prisoner of the Portuguese, placed his Portuguese captives into Arakanese military units which guarded the northwestern border of Arakan in Bengal. The Arakanese-Portuguese relationship thus can be seen as a continuum of Arakanese dominance, with the exception of the hiatus of the reign of Min Yazagyi..."
Author/creator: Michael W. Charney
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ohio University
Format/size: pdf (800K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/ArakanMinYazagyiAndThePortuguese1993
http://ia310814.us.archive.org/2/items/ArakanMinYazagyiAndThePortuguese1993/22Charney1993thesis.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: The origin of the name "Rohingya"
Date of publication: 09 May 1993
Author/creator: U Khin Maung Saw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference, Bernlin, 7-9 May, 1993 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (630K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Khin-Maung-Saw-NM-1993-05-09-The_origin_of_the_name_Rohingya-en....
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: Ancient Arakan
Date of publication: 1976
Description/subject: Abstract: "The early history of Arakan has been generally considered to be that of a province of eastern India, and hence its study has been neglected by both Indian and Southeast Asian historians. This dissertation seeks to examine the dynamics of the history from the beginnings of urbanization until the rise of the Burmese empire which subsequently dominated Arakanese culture. The first chapter deals with the geographical and ethnolinguistic background to the development of the earliest cities. In the second, all the inscriptions of the period, in Sanskrit, Pali and Pyu are catalogued and edited. The inscriptions issued by the kings establish a chronology for the period and illustrate the nature of the cult surrounding the institution of kingship, while copper-plate and votive inscriptions elucidate the nature of state organisation and the popular religion. Chapter Three deals with the coinage which emerged following the development of a centralised economy, and discusses the impetus for this and the role of the king on whom the prosperity of the country depended. A comparison with similar coin types in Southeast Asia is made and the catalogue includes all the coins yet discovered. The sites of the most important monuments are discussed in Chapter Four, which catalogues all the architectural and sculptural remains. A comparative analysis of the Buddhist and Hindu images and of the minor arts reveals, to a greater extent that do the inscriptions, the nature of contact with India and the rest of Southeast Asia. The conclusion deals with the political and cultural history which thus emerges, examining in detail the rationale behind the development of the concept of divine kingship in Arakan."
Author/creator: Pamela Gutman
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Australian National University
Format/size: html page with links to pdf sections
Alternate URLs: http://hdl.handle.net/1885/47122
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2007


Title: Record of call on Bangladeshi Ambassador in Rangoon by British Ambassador
Date of publication: 23 December 1975
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (646K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: The Muslims of Burma - A Study of a Minority Group
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: CONTENTS: I. Muslims in Burma in the Days of the Kings... The Beginnings of Muslim Settlement in the Irrawaddy Valley... Muslim Settlement in Arakan... Why Burma Did Not Become Muslim ...... II. Muslims in Burma During British Rule: Immigration from India... Organizations of Muslim Immigrants from India.. Organizations of Burmese Muslims.... The Burma Moslem Society... The General Council of Burma Moslem Associations... The Renaissance Movement... The Japanese Occupation...... III. Muslims in Burma Since Independence: Structural Changes in the Muslim Community... The General Council of Burman Moslem Associations... The Burma Muslim Congress... The Burma Muslim Organization... The Indian Muslims after World War II... Religious Activities... The Arakanese Muslims...... IV. Conclusion: Major Aspects of Muslim Community Life...... Appendices: A. How Many Muslims Are There in Burma?... B. Legislation on Islamic Subjects ... C. Various Documents of the General Council of Burman Moslem Associations ... D. Muslim Press ... E. Persons Interviewed ... F. Burma Newspapers Consulted... Bibliography... Indices... Personal Names... Geographical Names... Institutions... Groups.
Author/creator: Moshe Yegar
Language: English
Source/publisher: NetIPR
Format/size: pdf (4.66MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


Title: Muslims in Arakan: A Brief Study of Rohingyas, a Muslim Racial Group of Arab Descent in Arakan
Date of publication: April 1966
Author/creator: Ba Tha (Buthidaung)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Islamic Review, England via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.20MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Ba_Tha-The-Islamic-Review-1966-04-Muslims_in_Arakan-A_Brief_Stud...
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2015


Title: The coming of Islam to Arakan
Date of publication: March 1965
Author/creator: Ba Tha (Buthidaung)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Guardian Magazine March 1965 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.43MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Ba_Tha-Guardian_Magazine-1965-The_coming_of_Islam_to_Arakan-en.p...
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2015


Title: The early Hindus and Tibeto-Burmans in Arakan
Date of publication: November 1964
Author/creator: Ba Tha (Buthidaung)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.46MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1964-11-The_early_Hindus_and_Tibeto-Burmans_in_Arakan-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 October 2015


Title: Despatch on visit to Burma by Pakistan Foreign Minister: Problems of Arakan Muslims
Date of publication: 28 January 1964
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reducedn version; 6.01MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf'>http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf'>http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: Rohingya as Burmese Ethnic in Army Tatmadaw Journal of 1961
Date of publication: 18 July 1961
Description/subject: Mujahideen surrender to Burma Army in 1961 at Buthi Daung township of Rakhine State, Robbi Hular lead to Mujahid group and General Aung Gyi accepted and welcome to surrender group.... ၁၉၆၁ ခုႏွစ္က ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ ဘူးသီးေတာင္ ၿမိဳ႔နယ္ တြင္ မူဂ်ာဟီဒင္ သူပုန္အုပ္စုကို ေရာ္ဘီဟူလာ ဦးေဆာင္၍ လက္နက္ ခ်၊ ဗုိလ္ မွဴးခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ႀကီးမွ လက္နက္ခ် သူမ်ားကို လက္ခံႀကိဳဆို။
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Burma Army
Format/size: pdf (1.98MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 September 2012


Title: Rowengya Fine Arts
Date of publication: February 1961
Author/creator: Ba Tha (Buthidaung)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 2 ( February 1961 ) via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (424K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF20/Ba-Tha-1961.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 October 2015


Title: ARAKAN MUSLIMS ASK FOR CONSTITUTIONAL SAFEGUARDS
Date of publication: 27 October 1960
Language: English
Source/publisher: “The Nation” (Volume No. XIII Regd No. 177, No.105, Rangoon, Burma) via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (202K-reduced version; 380K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF20/Extract-The-Nation-27101960.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 October 2015


Title: SLAVE RAIDS IN BENGAL or HEINS IN ARAKAN
Date of publication: October 1960
Description/subject: "I wrote about the Roewengyas, the descendants of Arabs, Pathans and the then immigrants from Bengal in a previous article entitled "Roewengyasn Arakan" which was published in this magazine's Vol: VII, No. 5 for May 1960. Now I take great pleasure in writing about the North Arakan people who descended from the captives of Bengal who were captured by the Portuguese and the Arakanese pirates. Slave raids were made by the Arakanese Mughs and Portuguese. The Portuguese were crusaders, conquerors and traders. They came to eastern countries after Vasco da Gama had found the sea route to India. Vasco da Gama with 160 men in three small ships sailed to India on the 8th of July 1497, and at Melinde on the African coast he engaged an India pilot with whose assistance they crossed the Arabian Sea, and on the 20th May 1498 they arrived at Calicut, the port on the West Coast of India, and the capital of an independent Hindu Kingdom..."
Author/creator: U Ba Tha
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian Magazine, Rangoon, Vol VII, No. 10 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (243K-reduced version; 389K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/Guardian-October-1960-rev2.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: "Unity among ourselves"
Date of publication: August 1960
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian Magazine via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (337K-reduced version; 576K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/M-Ali.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: ROEWENGYAS IN ARAKAN
Date of publication: May 1960
Description/subject: "I wrote about Rakhaing Kaman Muslims, the descendants of Shah Shujah's followers in a previous article entitled "Shah Shujah in Arakan" which was published in this magazine Vol VI, No. 9 for the month of September 1959. Now I take great pleasure in writing about the Muslims who stepped into the soil of Arakan and settled in the country before Shah Shujah took refuge with the Arakanese king Sandathudamma (1652-1684) in 1660. History says that the early Muslims had entered Arakan firstly through its coastal parts and secondly through its mountain passes. They were all military races of Arabia and India. They came to Arakan as traders, missionaries, warriors and refugees. They were welcomed and well treated by their honesty, loyalty, bravery and the good services rendered by them. While the Arabs were masters of both Western and Eastern Waters they had found Arakan a suitable land for many purposes. Arakan, as history says it, became a developed and economical country establishing active commercial relations with Arab traders. Many historical edifices known as Badermakans are still found in Arakan..."
Author/creator: U Ba Tha
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian, Rangoon Vol VII., No. 5 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (182K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/The-Guardian-1960-05-Roewengyas_in_Arakan-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: The Guardian Rangoon Vol VII. No. 5 - May 1960
Date of publication: May 1960
Description/subject: "I wrote about Rakhaing Kaman Muslims, the descendants of Shah Shujah's followers in a previous article entitled "Shah Shujah in Arakan" which was published in this magazine Vol VI, No. 9 for the month of September 1959. Now I take great pleasure in writing about the Muslims who stepped into the soil of Arakan and settled in the country before Shah Shujah took refuge with the Arakanese king Sandathudamma (1652-1684) in 1660. History says that the early Muslims had entered Arakan firstly through its coastal parts and secondly through its mountain passes. They were all military races of Arabia and India. They came to Arakan as traders, missionaries, warriors and refugees. They were welcomed and well treated by their honesty, loyalty, bravery and the good services rendered by them. While the Arabs were masters of both Western and Eastern Waters they had found Arakan a suitable land for many purposes. Arakan, as history says it, became a developed and economical country establishing active commercial relations with Arab traders. Many historical edifices known as Badermakans are still found in Arakan. From the 8th to the 16th century Muslim influence was very strong and they controlled the maritime trade between the Persian Gulf and Indonesia, including Arakan. Ibn Khurdad Zabeh (844-8480, one of the Arab geographers, mentions Lower Burma under the name of Rahmanyadesa. The Arab missionaries and historians, Sulaiman (851 A.D.), Ibn Faquih (902 A.D.) named Arakan as Rahma while Ibn Batuta called it as Arcan which was corrupted from the Arabic original word "Al-recon", meaning discipline. Under the British Rule people wrote it as Arakan..."
Author/creator: U Ba Tha
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian, Vol VII., No. 5 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (182K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: Shah Shujah in Arakan
Date of publication: September 1956
Author/creator: U Ba Tha
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guardian Magazine via Net Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.35MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/The-Guardian-Magazine-1959-09-Shah_Shujah_in_Arakan-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: Charter of Constitutional Demands of Arakani Muslims
Date of publication: 16 June 1951
Language: English
Source/publisher: Arakan Muslim Conference, Ethangyaw District, Akyab, Arakan, Burma via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (292K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1951-06-16-Charter_of_Constitutional_Demands_of_Arakani_Musli...
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: Central Arakanese Muslim Refugee Organisation: Resolution 1 - 1949
Date of publication: 22 December 1949
Language: English
Source/publisher: Central Arakanese Muslim Refugee Organisation via Network Myanmar
Format/size: jpg
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1949-12-22-The-Central_Arakanese_Muslim_Refugee_Organisation-...
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Central Arakanese Muslim Refugee Organisation: Resolution 2 - 1949
Date of publication: 22 December 1949
Language: English
Source/publisher: Central Arakanese Muslim Refugee Organisation via Network Myanmar
Format/size: jpg
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1949-12-22-The-Central_Arakanese_Muslim_Refugee_Organisation-...
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Address by the Jamiat Ul Ulema North Arakan on 25 October 1948 to Prime Minister U Nu
Date of publication: 25 October 1948
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.13MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: ROHINGYA BELONG TO BURMA
Date of publication: 18 June 1948
Description/subject: "Text of Memorandum by the Jamait-e-Ulema to the Burmese Government - 18 June 1948"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (82K-reduced version; 99.5K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/ARNO-2009.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Representations to Mr. Bottomley (PUS) by the Jamiat Ul Ulema North Arakan
Date of publication: 24 February 1947
Description/subject: Representations to Mr Bottomley (PUS) by the Jamiat Ul Ulema North Arakan - 24 February1947
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.09MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1947-02-24-Jamiat-Ul_Ulema_of_N.Arakan-Representations_to_Mr_...
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: Related to No. 26: Notification No. 110 A-CC/42 dated 31 December 1942
Date of publication: 31 December 1942
Description/subject: Related to No. 26: Notification No. 110 A-CC/42 dated 31 December 1942
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (146K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/NM-1942-12-31-Order_re_Muslim_Area_of_N_Arakan-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 2.67MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (392K)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Date of publication: 1921
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.7MB-reduced version; 8.79MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/Censu...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract from the 1917 Gazetteer of Akyab (Sittwe + Maungdaw Districts)
Date of publication: 1917
Description/subject: British Gazeteers and Other Reports: Extract from the 1917 Gazetteer of Akyab (Sittwe + Maungdaw Districts): R B Smart
Author/creator: Mr. R. B. Smart
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma gazetteer, Volume A, Rangoon 1917 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (504K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2015


Title: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB-reduced version; 3.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 2.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1911-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Date of publication: 1901
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (579K-reduced version; 873K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1901-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Date of publication: 1891
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (366K-reduced version; 645K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Date of publication: 1881
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 1.95MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Date of publication: 1872
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB-reduced version; 4.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF20/1872-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: NOTES ON ARKAN: BY THE LATE REV. G. S. COMSTOCK, AMERICAN BAPITIST MISSIONARY IN THAT COUNTRY FROM 1834 TO 1844
Date of publication: 1844
Description/subject: "Notes on Arakan 1834-1844 - Rev. GS Comstock American Baptist Missionary in That Country from 1834 to 1844"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB-reduced version; 8.44MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/Comstock.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2015


Title: An Account of the Frontier Between Ava and the Part of Bengal Adjacent to the Karnaphuli River
Date of publication: 1825
Description/subject: Editor’s note: This article by Francis Hamilton, also known as Francis Buchanan, first appeared in The Edinburgh Journal of Science (vol. 3, April-October, 1825, pp. 32-44). Despite its relatively late dating, Hamilton’s understanding of the area and the people were not substantially different from those found in the his earlier diaries during his travels in the area in 1798. M.W. C. ... "...The river called Naaf by Europeans, which enters the sea in about 20º 50’ north, for a short way forms the boundary between Ava and Bengal; and across it is the only communication known between the kingdom of Arakan subject to Ava and Chatigang subject to Britain. North from the forks of this river, so far as I could learn in 1798, there was no district boundary; but there extends north, along the whole of the Chatigang district, a mountainous frontier occupied by several rude tribes. Through this region flow many rivers; some into the sea, either through Chatigang or Arakan, and some into the Erawadi; and the high land at the sources of such of these rivers as run through the district of Chatigang was commonly supposed to be the actual boundary. The rude tribes indeed, which occupy the hilly countries on both sides of the central eight, claim independence, and support it, so far as their slender means will admit..."
Author/creator: Francis Buchanan (aka Francis Hamilton)
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
Format/size: pdf (51K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: The Classical Journal for September and December, 1811
Date of publication: December 1811
Language: English
Format/size: pdf (576K)
Date of entry/update: 30 September 2012


Title: A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the languages spoken in the Burma Empire
Date of publication: 1799
Description/subject: Reprint: Original date of publication 1799... "Francis Buchanan published his “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire” in 1799, in the fifth volume of Asiatic Researches. This piece provides one of the first major Western surveys of the languages of Burma. But the article goes beyond this and provides important data on the ethno-cultural identities and identifications of the various population groups in the first half of Bò-daw-hpayà’s reign (1782-1819). For these reasons, the article is republished here. The article is reproduced in its entirety, with slight modifications as follows... The original citation for the article is as follows: Francis Buchanan. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the languages spoken in the Burma Empire.” Asiatic Researches 5 (1799): 219-240. M. W. C.
Author/creator: Francis Buchanan (aka Francis Hamilton)
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1 (March 2003)
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Alternate URLs: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/8050/
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2010