VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > The UN System and Burma/Myanmar > UN Human Rights entities working on Burma (Myanmar) > United Nations human rights treaties to which Myanmar is a party
Hide Links
Order links by: Reverse Date Title

United Nations human rights treaties to which Myanmar is a party

  • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: CEDAW Main page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


    Individual Documents

    Title: CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Examination of the Initial Report of Myanmar
    Date of publication: 21 January 2000
    Description/subject: 21 January 2000: 1) U Win Mra's Statement; 2) Questions from the Committee; 3) Response by Myanmar; 4) Shadow Report by the Women's Organizations of Burma's Shadow Report Writing Committee: "Burma: The Current State of Women - Conflict Area Specific". Includes recommendations on health, education, violence against women and poverty.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VI, No, 4
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Initial Report of Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 June 1999
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/1)
    Format/size: pdf (203K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CEDAW 2000: (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Concluding Observations on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 28 January 2000
    Description/subject: (CEDAW/C/2000/I/CRP.3/Add.2/Rev.1.)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations.
    Format/size: pdf (51K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 450th meeting (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 21 January 2000
    Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Twenty-second session Summary record of the 450th meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Friday, 21 January 2000, at 10.30 a.m.... Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued) Initial report of Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.450
    Format/size: pdf (128K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


    Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 451st meeting (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 21 January 2000
    Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women Twenty-second session... Summary record of the 451st meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Friday, 21 January 2000, at 3 p.m. Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued) Initial report of Myanmar (continued)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.451)
    Format/size: pdf (139K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


    Title: CEDAW 2000: Summary record of the 452nd meeting (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: 26 January 2000
    Description/subject: Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women... Twenty-second session... Summary record of the 457th meeting Held at Headquarters, New York, on Wednesday, 26 January 2000, at 3 p.m. Chairperson: Ms. González Contents Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention (continued)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/SR.452)
    Format/size: pdf (142K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 December 2007


    Title: CEDAW 2007: (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women): Combined second and third periodic reports of Myanmar
    Date of publication: 04 September 2007
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "...Myanmar women enjoy good life and rights in accordance with the laws or customs since ancient time. The government is carrying out within the limited resources to enable entire Myanmar women to face the challenges of knowledge age and to keep abreast with the world. In so doing, so that all women enjoy full rights and for the comprehensive development of women, conservation of Myanmar traditional culture is also considered seriously."... The report can also be found in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish by searching at http://documents.un.org/ -- paste CEDAW/C/MMR/3 into the Symbol box of the Simple Search.
    Language: English (also Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish on the ODS site -- see Description)
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/3)
    Format/size: pdf (197K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2007


    Title: CEDAW: Response by Myanmar to the recommendations contained in the concluding observations of the Committee following the examination of the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar on 3 November 2008
    Date of publication: 03 December 2010
    Description/subject: Women’s Rights
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3/Add.2
    Format/size: pdf (32K)
    Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G10/470/14/pdf/G1047014.pdf?OpenElement
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


    Title: CEDAW: Response by Myanmar to the recommendations contained in the concluding observations of the Committee following the examination of the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar on 3 November 2008
    Date of publication: 13 September 2011
    Description/subject: Participation of Women in Political and Public Life...Women in Northern Rakhine State
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3/Add.3)
    Format/size: pdf (63K)
    Alternate URLs: http://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/452/94/pdf/G1145294.pdf?OpenElement
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


    Title: Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 07 November 2008
    Description/subject: 1. The Committee considered the combined second and third report of Myanmar (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) at its 864th and 865th meetings, on 3 November 2008 (see CEDAW/C/SR.864 and 865). The Committee's list of issues and questions is contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3 and the responses of Myanmar are contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/CO/3)
    Format/size: pdf (90K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/co/CEDAW-C-MMR-CO-3.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


    Title: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
    Date of publication: 18 December 1979
    Description/subject: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979; entry into force 3 September 1981. For the jurisprudence under the Convention, visit the site of CEDAW Committee. Myanmar accession: 22 July 1997.
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol, Russian, Arabic, Chinese
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Gathering Strength - Women from Burma on their Rights
    Date of publication: January 2002
    Description/subject: Link to the URLs of the individual chapters (pdf): IMAGES ASIA'S CEDAW PROJECT METHODOLOGY: THE AIM OF THIS REPORT 11; THE INTERVIEW PROCESS 11; OBSTACLES ENCOUNTERED DURING RESEARCH 13; DATA ANALYSIS 14; OTHER PROJECT AIMS 17. THE CEDAW & THE GOVERNMENT'S OBLIGATIONS: THE CEDAW & THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S RIGHTS MOVEMENT; STRUCTURE OF THE CEDAW; GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS; CEDAW MONITORING MECHANISMS; THE SPDC AT THE 22ND SESSION OF THE CEDAW... MEETINGS & MACHINERY: THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE CEDAW: OVERVIEW; THE BURMESE WAY TO EQUALITY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... SOCIAL ROLES & GENDER STEREOTYPES: OVERVIEW; RELIGION & GENDER DISCRIMINATION; PRESERVERS OF CULTURE; FAMILY ROLES; SOCIAL RELATIONS & BEHAVIOURAL NORMS; RESTRICTIONS; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: OVERVIEW; WOMEN IN WAR; RELOCATION & DISPLACEMENT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE & ARMED CONFLICT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN AREAS OF MILITARY OCCUPATION; SEXUAL VIOLENCE ACROSS BORDERS: REFUGEES & MIGRANTS; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE COMMUNITY; REPORTING & PUNISHMENT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE; FORCED MARRIAGE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELOCATION & REFUGE; GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S HEALTH: OVERVIEW; GOVERNMENT HEALTH SPENDING; POLICY, LAW & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATING TO WOMEN'S HEALTH; EDUCATION ABOUT WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUES; ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE; REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH; MATERNAL HEALTH; WOMEN & HIV/AIDS 120 FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... EDUCATION FOR WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; WOMEN & ILLITERACY; CURRENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE & DROP OUT; BARRIERS TO EDUCATION; DISCRIMINATION IN GIRLS' SCHOOLING; INCENTIVES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION; VOCATIONAL TRAINING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... THE ECONOMY & WOMEN'S LABOUR: OVERVIEW; THE ECONOMY; DECISION-MAKING & THE FAMILY INCOME; CULTURAL STEREOTYPES REGARDING WORK; RURAL WOMEN; FORCED LABOUR; EDUCATION & WORK OPPORTUNITIES; WOMEN IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE; THE CIVIL SERVICE; THE INFORMAL SECTOR; THE PRIVATE SECTOR; LACK OF INFORMAL & PRIVATE SECTOR REGULATION; THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN & THE LAW: OVERVIEW; FOUNDATIONS OF THE LAW IN BURMA; LAWS RELATING SPECIFICALLY TO WOMEN; THE PRACTICE OF THE LAW; WOMEN & FAMILY LAW; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTIONS ON POLITICAL FREEDOM; INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION; NATIONAL PARTICIPATION; LOCAL PARTICIPATION; WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS; CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY; WOMEN'S POLITICAL ACTIVITIES IN EXILE; WOMEN IN BURMA'S POLITICAL FUTURE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... CONCLUSION... BIBLIOGRAPHY... ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE.
    Author/creator: Brenda Belak
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia
    Format/size: html (38K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: In the Shadow of the Junta - CEDAW Shadow Report by women of Burma
    Date of publication: 27 October 2008
    Description/subject: (Press RElease, 27 October 2008): CEDAW shadow report reveals systemic gender discrimination in Burma... "Women’s organizations are today launching a shadow report revealing systemic gender discrimination in Burma, which will be used to review Burma at the 42nd Session of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Committee in Geneva on November 3, 2008. The Women’s League of Burma, together with other community-based organizations around Burma’s borders, has compiled extensive data in the report on how the regime’s failed policies have impacted women and girls, particularly in the areas of education, health, rural development, and violence against women. The findings strongly contradict the claims in the country report by the ruling military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), that women in Burma “enjoy their rights even before they are born.” The report exposes how the regime is profiting from the sale of the country’s natural resources to build up the military and its GONGOs, and how systematic militarization and prioritization of military expenditure has reinforced the existing patriarchal system. It analyzes how the regime’s new constitution not only fails to effectively promote gender equality, but guarantees that the armed forces, an almost exclusively male institution, will control a quarter of seats in the government. The report states: “The face of public life in Burma is male, because the culture of Burma today is profoundly militarized. The military presence pervades every village, town and city, every branch and level of its administration, and every situation involving power and status.” The report exposes how national women’s organizations are merely for show. They are led by wives of SPDC commanders, who promote the regime’s policies and abuse their power at every level. The report reiterates that there can be no advancement of the lives of women and girls in Burma, and no protection and promotion of their rights while the military and its proxy organizations remain in power. “The regime’s road map to disciplined democracy is simply a road-map to further patriarchy,” said Nang Yain (General Secretary of the Women’s League of Burma) “We need genuine political reform to work for gender equality in Burma.”"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (5,38MB, original; 4.1MB (alternate URL)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.womenofburma.org
    http://www.womenofburma.org/Report/IntheShadow-Junta-CEDAW2008.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 November 2008


    Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
    Date of publication: October 2008
    Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 2nd and 3rd periodic State party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/3) -MYANMAR-....."...Rohingya women and girls suffer from the devastating consequences of brutal government policies implemented against their minority group but also from socio-religious norms imposed on them by their community, the combined impact of which dramatically impinges on their physical and mental well-being, with long-term effects on their development. a) State-sponsored persecution: The 1982 Citizenship Law renders the Rohingya stateless, thereby supporting arbitrary and discriminatory measures against them. Their freedom of movement is severely limited; they are barred from government employment; marriage restrictions are imposed on them; they are disproportionately subject to forced labour, extortion and other coercive measures. Public services such as health and education are appallingly neglected. Illiteracy is estimated at 80%. The compounded impact of these human right violations also results in household impoverishment and food insecurity, increasing the vulnerability of women and children....Rohingya women and girls are also subject to serious gender-based restrictions due to societal attitudes and conservative interpretation of religious norms in their male-dominated community. The birth of a son is always favoured. Girls’ education is not valued and they are invariably taken out of school at puberty. Women and adolescent girls are usually confined to their homes and discouraged from participating in the economic sphere. They are systematically excluded from decision-making in community matters. Divorced women and widows are looked down upon, exposed to sexual violence and abandoned with little community support..."
    Author/creator: Chris Lewa
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
    Format/size: pdf (179K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 January 2009


    Title: List of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of periodic reports: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 06 March 2008
    Description/subject: The pre-session working group examined the combined second and third periodic report of Myanmar (CEDAW/C/MMR/3)and produced a list of 29 questionw which was sent to the SPDC. The replies to the questions are contained in CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3)
    Format/size: pdf (48K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


    Title: Responses to the list of issues and questions with regard to the consideration of the combined second and third periodic report: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 14 October 2008
    Description/subject: 98 paras in response to the List of Issues CEDAW sent to the SPDC in March 2008.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (CEDAW/C/MMR/Q/3/Add.1)
    Format/size: pdf (45K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 November 2008


  • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN page)
    Description/subject: Myanmar acceded to this treaty on 7 December 2011. It entered into force 30 days after. Myanmar's first report to the committee is due by December 2013.....The Convention in brief: Guiding Principles of the Convention... Entry into Force... Monitoring of Implementation... Conference of States parties... Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities... Convention & Optional Protocol Signatories & Ratification... Civil Society... Timeline of Convention Events... Frequently Asked Questions on the Convention... Negotiation Archives
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 June 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar takes major step in addressing the needs of Landmine Victims
    Date of publication: 12 December 2011
    Description/subject: "Myanmar Accedes to the international Convention on the Rights of Disabled People (CRPD)...The ICBL had previously been informed by Foreign Ministry officials that the legal review of this convention had been completed, but that the Convention would have to forwarded to the new Parliament for debate and approval. On 9 December, the United Nations received the accession from Myanmar, which will go into effect 6 January 2012. Myanmar’s adherence to the CRPD will be significant for increasing assistance to the countries landmine, and other, disabled..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


  • Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

    • The Convention, the Committee, procedure, backround and guideline documents

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: A Guide for Non-Governmental Organizations Reporting to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
      Description/subject: "A step by step guide for NGOs preparing an alternative report for the Committee on the Rights of the Child, an outline of the procedures concerning NGO presentations at the pre-sessional meetings, procedures for follow-up action and background to the work of the NGO Group..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
      Format/size: pdf (47K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=630&flag=report
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
      Description/subject: Monitors the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Receives and examines State Party reports. Search in OBL for CRC to access the various reports, statements and concluding observations when the CRC examined Myanmar's initial report.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
      Description/subject: The NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child is a coalition of international non-governmental organisations, which work together to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It was originally formed in 1983 when members of the NGO Group were actively involved in the drafting of the Convention. An organisational brochure is available [html format]. The NGO Group has a Liaison Unit that supports participation of the NGOs, particularly national coalitions, in the reporting precess to the Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as other activities to ensure the implementation of the Convention. One important area is the management of Alternative Reports that have been submitted to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (as per Article 45a). The NGO Group has the following aims: * To be an advocate on behalf of children by raising awareness about the Convention. * To promote and facilitate, through specific programmes and actions, the full implementation of the Convention. * To facilitate a flow of information between the Committee on the Rights of the Child, concerned United Nations bodies and the NGO community. * To facilitate co-operation and information sharing regarding the monitoring and implementation of the Convention within the NGO community. * To draw up policies and strategies and undertake action in fields covered by the Convention * To contribute to the monitoring work of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. * To facilitate the creation and support the work of National Coalitions for the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Webcasting - the CRC Committee 59th Session
      Description/subject: The CRC meetings on Burma/Myanmar can be watched via this link on the 19th January 10-13hrs and 15-18hrs Geneva time (GMT 9hrs and 14hrs)..... "As part of a pilot project for all treaty bodies, the NGO Group is very pleased to be webcasting the public meetings of the 59th Session of the CRC Committee. In the coming days, the live webcast will be available directly on this page. For now, please click http://ccprcentre.org/home/215 [Alternate URL]to view the live video. To view a complete list of the countries that will come before the Committee at this session, and to view the schedule of meetings, click here. Please check back for more news about how to access archive videos..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
      Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
      Alternate URLs: http://ccprcentre.org/home/215
      Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (Burmese)
      Date of publication: 2003
      Description/subject: "Chapters inside include Article (1) to (40) of Convention on the Rights of the Child which are divided roughly four sections like: survival rights, Development rights, Protection rights and Participation rights of child."
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB)
      Format/size: pdf (1.49MB)
      Date of entry/update: 16 February 2005


      Title: Convention on the Rights of the Child (English)
      Date of publication: 20 November 1989
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (112.4K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


      Title: Membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child as of 1st March 2011
      Date of publication: 01 March 2011
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (272.1K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


      Title: Treaty-specific guidelines regarding the form and content of periodic reports to be submitted by States parties under article 44, paragraph 1 (b), of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: October 2010
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations
      Format/size: pdf (128K)
      Date of entry/update: 07 April 2011


    • Burma/Myanmar and the CRC

      • NGO submissions to the CRC on Burma/Myanmar

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: List of NGO submissions on Burma/Myanmar
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Child Rights Information Network (CRIN)
        Format/size: html, pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: CRC 1997: "When Children's Rights are Jeopardized, so is the Future of the Nation." - The Children's Rights situation in Burma
        Date of publication: January 1996
        Description/subject: "This paper is an attempt to investigate how Burma is treating its children. This has been done through collating already existigg material on the situation of children in Burma. No 'nev.' interviews or recordings have been done. The material consists of different reports, papers and books (see bibliography). Because of limited time and language skills this paper is just an attempt to show the differences between the Child Right's Coovention and reality, between what is said by the State Law and Restoration Council (Slorc) and whatthoy are actually doing..."
        Author/creator: Sara Brunnkvist
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Issues" via Norwegian Burma Council
        Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 1997: Burma: Children's Rights and the Rule of Law
        Date of publication: January 1997
        Description/subject: Submitted as an Alternative Report to the CRC. Burma acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1991. Since then, however, there has been little progress towards the implementation of the convention, and the underlying problems which impede implementation have not changed. These include a total lack of the rule of law and accountability of the government, as well as draconian restrictions on freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly which prevent local reporting and monitoring of the human rights situation of children. Events of October and December1996 in Burma, which saw hundreds of high school and university students take to the streets to demand the protection of their rights, especially the right to form student unions, highlight the urgent need for reform. Over three hundred students and youths were arrested during the December demonstrations, at least fifty of whom remain unaccounted for. . .
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CRC 1997: COMMENTS ON THE INITIAL REPORT OF BURMA (MYANMAR) TO THE UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
        Date of publication: July 1996
        Description/subject: Submitted to the Members of the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child by Ethan Taubes, consultant to the International League for Human Rights 432 Park Avenue South New York, New York, 10016, U.S.A July 1996....Executive Summary: "Myanmar's initial report demonstrates a serious lack of understanding for the principles animating the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Through its chronic omission of virtually all relevant information, it describes a country in which children's rights are afforded special protection under national law .With its primary emphasis on reciting enacted legislation, and with little relevant commentary or factual documentation to fill the gaps, the report avoids any substantive discussion of what measures Myan.mar is taking to protect children's rights and enforce existing laws. SLORC attempts to mask its noncompliance with the Committee's reporting guidelinesl by using the subtitle "Implementation" in each section of its report. However, although the term "implementation" is continually waved like a talismanic wand at the reader, the sections usually refer to statutory provisions without providing any material on actual implementation measures the government is taking or, at least, planning to pursue. Implementation of the Convention does not"end simply with mechanical incorporation of the CRC provisions into national law .Legislation is meaningless unless it is accompanied by concrete administrative codes and guidelines for government agencies to follow and apply .Legislation must be bolstered by specific policy decisions and by political will to implement the principles of the Convention.2 Article 44(2) of the CRC requires States parties to include in their reports ". ..sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned," The Myanmar report fails to satisfy this basic requirement. As a result, it will be all but impossible for the Committee to conduct discussions "to analyze progress achieved and factors and difficulties encountered in the implementation of the Convention," as is the responsibility of the Committee under its guidelines,3 The Committee should require that Myanmar submit another report within six months, because the current report is not in compliance with the reporting guidelines established by the Committee and fails to provide the information necessary for the Committee to conduct its discussions. For this purpose, the Committee should: (1) emphasize, and elaborate on, the reporting guidelines previously established in the CRC's Overview on Reporting Procedures, and (2) require that Myanmar be more forthcoming in its reporting, especially in its discussion of implementation measures, and demand that the SLORC not avoid difficult issues about protecting the rights of the Bumiese child."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International League for Human Rights
        Format/size: pdf (893K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 1997: The Situation of Children in Burma
        Date of publication: 01 May 1996
        Description/subject: "[This report was prepared as a submission to the UN Committee which is reviewing SLORC’s observance of the Convention on Rights of the Child, which SLORC ratified in 1991. Under the terms of the Convention, SLORC was required to submit a report to the Committee in 1993, but did not do so until September 1995. Their case comes before the Committee in Oct. 1996 or Jan. 1997. This report was submitted together with a 140-page Annex of excerpts from KHRG reports relating to children. It is reproduced here for general use.] This summary is intended for consideration by the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. It has been prepared partly in response to the report filed by the State Law & Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Burma’s ruling military junta. It does not contain a paragraph-by-paragraph analysis of SLORC’s report, but instead attempts to summarize some of the worst problems facing Burma’s children today and point out some of the most glaring fallacies in the SLORC report. All of the observations and quotations included here are taken from our 4 years of living among and interviewing villagers, refugees and the internally displaced. In Burma the Tatmadaw (Army) exercises absolute power of life and death over every civilian, including children. Soldiers act with complete impunity, particularly in rural areas, and are not answerable to any laws which exist on paper in Rangoon. Children are often shot on sight in free-fire zones, tortured or executed as "suspected rebels", used for forced labour, forcibly conscripted into the Army and otherwise subject to direct abuse. They also suffer from the destruction of the village environment and the economy under SLORC policies, which are leading to widespread malnutrition and the death of children, the lack of educational opportunities, and other factors which rob them of a childhood..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
        Format/size: html, pdf (115.54 K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg96/596child.html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CRC 2004: BURMA (MYANMAR): Right to Education Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers -
        Date of publication: October 2003
        Description/subject: Submission by Human Rights Watch to the Committee ion the Rights of the Child... SUMMARY: "Many children in Burma (Myanmar) are denied their right to education under article 28 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Many are out of school because their families cannot afford school fees. Large numbers of children, particularly in ethnic minority areas, are also denied access to education, as armed conflict has resulted in the closure or destruction of many schools. Large numbers of children in these areas have been forcibly displaced by the Burma army, with little or no access to education. In violation of article 38 of the Convention, forced recruitment of children into Burma’s national army is systematic and widespread. Children as young as eleven are forcibly recruited from public places, including marketplaces, bus, ferry, and rail stations, and the street. During training, these children are subject to routine and often brutal beatings and systematic humiliation. Once deployed, they often engage in combat against ethnic armed opposition groups, and are forced to participate in human rights abuses against civilians. They are frequently beaten and abused by their commanders and cheated of their wages. They are refused contact with their families and face severe reprisals if they try to escape. In violation of article 39, the government makes no programs or assistance available for the recovery and social reintegration of children who have been recruited or used as child soldiers."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (75K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2004: BURMA'S CHILD IN EDUCATION
        Date of publication: August 2003
        Description/subject: Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child...Conclusion: "Though Burma became a state party of CRC and promulgated a Child Law, the situation of children in education is not progressed. Their right to education is abused due to the lack of government obligation to child welfare. The poverty, political instability and internal wars are largely impacted to the education life of children in Burma. Many children are dropouts from school because of family's financial situation and poverty, while many children in minority areas were abused the right to education in consequence of internal wars and military operation in these areas."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs Committee All Burma Federation of Student Unions (ABSFU)
        Format/size: pdf (85K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2004: Child Soldiers : CRC Country Briefs : Myanmar
        Date of publication: 17 February 2004
        Description/subject: "...Myanmar is estimated to have one of the largest numbers of child soldiers of any country in the world, with the overwhelming majority serving in the national army, the Tatmadaw.1 Although the minimum age for conscripts is 18, Human Rights Watch has estimated that children may account for 35 to 45 per cent of new recruits into the national army, or 70,000 or more of Myanmar’s estimated 350,000 soldiers. The government has not ratified the OP-CRC-CAC. Child soldiers, including those under the age of 15, are also present in armed opposition groups..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (re-named Child Soldiers International)
        Format/size: pdf (48K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=4008&flag=legal
        http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_CSCS_ngo_report.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2004: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
        Date of publication: November 2003
        Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report -MYANMAR..... "...The Muslim population of Rakhine State, known as Rohingya2 and closely related to the Chittagonian people of Southern Bangladesh, is being discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity and religion. They have been excluded from the nationbuilding process in Myanmar and the military regime has implemented policies of exclusion and discrimination against this group aimed at encouraging them to leave the country. These systematic policies have maintained underdevelopment and have been the driving force behind two mass refugee exoduses to Bangladesh, in 1978 and again in 1991/92. The combination of human right violations the Rohingya face -- from the denial of legal status to restriction of movement and economic constraints -- creates food insecurity and makes life in Northern Rakhine State untenable for many. Rohingya children, in particular, are innocent victims suffering from the debilitating consequences of these government policies, which dramatically affect their physical and mental development, and will have long-lasting effects for the future of the Rohingya community..."
        Author/creator: Chris Lewa
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Forum Asia
        Format/size: pdf (151K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/find.asp?country=35&categoryID=Any6
        http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.36/myanmar_ForumAsia_ngo_report.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: Attacks on education and health facilities and related personnel: Trends and recent incidents from eastern Burma (submission to the CRC)
        Date of publication: 21 September 2011
        Description/subject: "The UN Security Council (UNSC) has repeatedly recognised the importance of protecting health and education facilities and related personnel from attack, with the passage of resolutions 1612 (2005) and 1998 (2011). Unfortunately, in the context of eastern Burma, UN-led monitoring and reporting pursuant to these resolutions has to date gathered only minimal information regarding such attacks. This briefer is thus designed to contribute information on this question, in the hope that it prompts more systematic international monitoring. After a short introduction, Section I of this briefer details KHRG research methodology; Section II analyses general trends in armed conflict and related violations during the reporting period and Section III analyses 16 particularly illustrative incidents that entailed attacks on schools, clinics and related personnel or children. These incidents were selected from a database detailing 59 recent attacks monitored by KHRG that did or could have placed educational or medical facilities and related personnel at risk of attack. Appendix 1 presents legal analysis to support monitoring attacks in eastern Burma..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
        Format/size: pdf (169K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=26524&flag=legal
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/CRC2012-Myanmar-NGO-KHRG.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: Briefing for the CRC on corporal punishment in Myanmar
        Date of publication: June 2011
        Description/subject: "This report provides supplementary information on the 3rd and 4th report of Myanmar on the implementation of the CRC. The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children submits a briefing to each Pre-sessional Working Group of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The briefings summarize the legal status of corporal punishment in each of the States to be examined, together with any research evidence of prevalence of corporal punishment. The briefing covers corporal punishment in all settings - the home, alternative care, schools and penal systems."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children
        Format/size: pdf (134K)
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
        Date of publication: 19 January 2012
        Description/subject: For the Examination of the combined 3rd and 4th periodic State Party Reports (CRC/C/MMR/3-4) -MYANMAR - Updated in January 2012....."...The Muslim population of Northern Rakhine State, known as Rohingya2, constitutes an ethnic, linguistic and religious minority group in Myanmar. Their number is estimated at 735,000 or about 91% of the total population of that area3. They are ethnically related to the Chittagonian Bengalis just across the border in Bangladesh. The Rohingya are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity and religion, and are subject to systematic state policies of exclusion, restrictions and arbitrary treatment imposed on them by successive governments over the last few decades. These policies were the root causes of two mass refugee exoduses to Bangladesh, in 1978 and again in 1991/92. The outflow has not stopped and today Rohingyas continue to flee from Myanmar. In addition to 29,000 registered refugees housed in two refugee camps, Bangladesh currently hosts 200,000 or more unregistered Rohingya refugees living among local communities. Tens of thousands have also migrated to Malaysia and the Middle-East, including thousands of boat people. Rohingya children, in particular, bear the full brunt of the devastating impact of these policies, which gravely impair their physical and mental development as children and will affect the long-term future of their community..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
        Format/size: pdf (712K)
        Date of entry/update: 16 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: Myanmar: Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in advance of the examination of Myanmar’s report on the Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Date of publication: May 2011
        Description/subject: The government claims that the Tatmadaw Kyi is an all-volunteer force and that the minimum age for recruitment is 18. However, low salaries and extremely poor working conditions have combined to create disincentives for voluntary recruitment into the army. The Tatmadaw Kyi military officers and informal recruiting agents continue to use intimidation, coercion, and physical violence to gain new recruits, a sizeable number of which are underage. There are no reliable figures on the number of underage soldiers in the Myanmar army. The Coalition‘s information indicates that patterns of underage recruitment by the Tatmadaw Kyi remain unchanged from those reported previously by UN and NGO sources, including forced recruitment directly by military officers and informal recruiting agents. A system of incentives to reward recruiters still exists and the use of tricks, bribery, threats and force are widely reported. On 4 November 2010, the government gazetted a new military law, the 2010 People‘s Military Service Law, which contains provisions for eligible citizens to be called up for two years military service (or three years‘ for those with technical skills). It is widely perceived that this law will not contribute to preventing child recruitment, unless adequate safeguards are implemented to regulate and professionalise the conscription process.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (Child Soldiers International)
        Format/size: pdf (733K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=25369&flag=legal
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/CRC2012-Myanmar-NGO-CSI.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: Suggestions for disability-relevant questions to be included in the list of issues for Pre-sessional Working Group, CRC 58th Session
        Date of publication: 01 February 2011
        Description/subject: "Suggestions for disability-relevant questions to be included in the list of issues for pre-sessional working group CRC 58th session. IDA submissions to the CRC Committee highlight the rights of children with disabilities and aim to promote and mainstream the standards of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities into the Committee’s work. "
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Disability Alliance (IDA)
        Format/size: pdf (218K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/resources/find.asp?country=35&categoryID=Any6
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


        Title: CRC 2012: The plight of children under military rule in Burma - CRC Shadow Report, Burma
        Date of publication: 29 April 2011
        Description/subject: Executive Summary: The Child Rights Forum of Burma (CRFB) is submitting the following report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for its review of Burma. Children in Burma face numerous challenges to their survival and development. For the majority of children access to basic rights such as health care, food, education, protection from abuse and exploitation are almost non-existent. CRFB wishes to bring to the Committee’s attention information regarding the following children’s rights violations by the State Party, all of which impede their chances of development and survival: • the denial of health care and an adequate standard of living; • the denial of free and accessible education, and discrimination in access to education; • pervasive and widespread child labour and forced labour, including portering in the army; • a failure to protect children from sexual exploitation and trafficking; • a failure to accord special protection to children affected by armed conflict, including from ongoing violations of international humanitarian law by the armed forces; • the recruitment and participation of children in armed conflict; • the denial of rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly; • arbitrary arrest, detention and torture, and denial of the rights to a fair trial."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Child Rights Forum of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (1.6MB - OBL version; 2.4MB - original)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.crin.org/docs/Myanmar_CRFB_CRC%20Report.pdf
        http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=25397&flag=legal
        Date of entry/update: 17 January 2012


    • The CRC and Thailand

      Individual Documents

      Title: Thailand's 1st State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: 30 September 1996
      Description/subject: I. GENERAL MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION 1 - 75:- A. Report preparation and dissemination of the Convention 2 - 16; B. The promotion of child rights 17 - 34; C. Implementing the provisions of the Convention 35 - 75... II. DEFINITION OF A "CHILD" 76 - 122:- A. The meaning of the word "child" 76 - 81; B. Age and criminal responsibility 82 - 88; C. Counselling services 89 - 95; D. Age of compulsory education 96 - 99; E. Age of sexual consent 100 - 103; F. Age of marriage 104 - 106; G. Age of military conscription 107 - 108; H. Age and imprisonment 109 - 112; I. Age for admission to employment 113 - 119; J. Discrimination between boys and girls 120 - 122... III. GENERAL PRINCIPLES 123 - 142:- A. Non-discrimination 124 - 125; B. Best interests of the child 126 - 127; C. The rights to life, survival and development 128; D. Respect for children's viewpoints 129 - 142... IV. CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS 143 - 193:- A. Nationality and birth registration 143 - 150; B. Publication and distribution of children's literature 151 - 154; C. Protecting children from media violence 155 - 160; D. Child protection procedures 161 - 167; E. Investigation and interrogation procedures in child cruelty cases and its prevention 168 - 182; F. Corporal punishment 183 - 193... V. THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND RELATED FACTORS 194 - 311:- A. Children in impoverished families 196 - 204; B. Children born out of wedlock 205 - 216; C. Children of separated or divorced parents 217 - 229; D. Child neglect, child abandonment, child abuse and family violence 230 - 278; E. Children in other types of care 279 - 295; F. Children with disabilities 296 - 311... VI. BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES 312 - 341... VII. EDUCATION, LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES 342 - 372:- A. Education 342 - 354; B. Leisure time 355 - 365; C. Cultural activities 366 - 372... VIII. SPECIAL PROTECTION MEASURES 373 - 529:- A. Children in emergency situations 373 - 389; B. Children in conflict with the law 390 - 434; C. Children in situations of exploitation 435 - 514; D. Children of minority or ethnic groups 515 - 529... IX. CONCLUSION 530 - 532.
      Language: English, Francais, French
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/11/Add.13)
      Format/size: html (299K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.11.Add.13.Fr?Opendocument (Francais)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


      Title: Thailand’s Second State Party Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: 07 June 2004
      Description/subject: Thailand’s Second Report On The Implementation of the Convention On the Rights of the Child Submitted to The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child... by The Sub-committee on the Rights of the Child; The National Youth Commission; The Office of Welfare Promotion, Protection and Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups; Ministry of Social Development and Human Security... Contents: Introduction; 1. General Measures of Implementation; 2. Definition of the Child; 3. General Principles; 4. Civil Rights and Freedoms; 5. Family Environment and Alternative Care; 6. Basic Health and Welfare; 7. Education, Leisure and Cultural Activities; 8. Special Protection Measures.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: United Nations (CRC/C/83/Add.15)
      Format/size: pdf (923K), Word (884K)
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2004


  • Human Rights Committee
    Though Burma/Myanmar is not party to the ICCPR, Thailand is, and since there are very many Burmese in Thailand, their situation is of interest to the Committee.