|Title:|| ||Legally and Illegally Logged Out: Drivers of Deforestation & Forest Degradation in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||"... Myanmar’s forest and timber sector has been central to the country’s economy and society, particularly over the last century. Since the colonial era, timber has been a major export revenue earner to Burma/Myanmar and thus subject to much political debate (Bryant 1996). In addition to timber export revenues, the forests of Myanmar have always provided timber and non-timber forest products for domestic consumption as well as a range of environmental services including water catchment, habitat for flora and fauna, carbon storage, and soil nutrient recovery in rotational agriculture.
Myanmar’s forests have contained some of the most valued timbers in the world – particularly rosewoods and teak. Now, amidst unprecedented political reforms in Myanmar, the forest and timber sector is currently undergoing a process of reform. This is indicated by a number of policy changes, most significantly:
1. The 2014 Log Export Ban – which has made it illegal to export unprocessed logs
2. The Government’s engagement in a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) process with the European Union’s Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) initiative, requiring transparency and compliance improvements that are mutually agreed upon between the government, the timber sector and civil society.
This policy redirection is essential, although long overdue. Practical implementation is inevitably going to take time and face obstacles as powerful political-economic interests allied to the former military regime will seek to maintain their access to timber and land as well as control over revenue flows associated with the commercial utilisation of these national resources.
Meanwhile the Ministry of Environment Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF) is under strong pressure from international timber traders to increase supply, more evidently recent pressure from China, and also missions from European and US timber sector representatives. This pressure is due to a combination of factors; growing demand around the world, declining supply of tropical hardwood from shrinking forests, and growing stringency around compliance concerning illegal sourcing.
In order to respond to these pressures the authors have tried to clarify the status of the timber industry, the status of the forest resource including its management, and the challenges for reform..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Thorsten Treue, Oliver Springate-Baginski, Kyaw Htun|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.9MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||17 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Myanmar Forest Sector Legality Analysis
|Date of publication:|| ||September 2013|
|Description/subject:|| ||"... This report has been prepared by NEPCon1 on behalf of ETTF, with funding from the UK Government’s Department For International Development, DFID.
The goal of evaluating forest and timber legality issues of Myanmar is to support the development of long term sustainability solutions of the forest and timber industry. With this report ETTF specifically wishes to pinpoint relevant challenges to the Myanmar timber industry with regard to the requirements of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR).
One important question currently posed by stakeholders is: “Will Myanmar be able to export timber to the EU considering the EUTR requirements and definition of legality”?
Trade sanctions imposed on Myanmar were recently suspended, and focus is now being given to the potential for sustainable management of natural resources, including forests. The Myanmar government and timber industry are showing increased interest in improving the management of
forest. Specifically, the Forest Department has invested in a number of staff trainings since 2011.
After a recent visit by ETTF as part of a wider mission organised by the European Forest Institute and the EU Delegation in Bangkok, it is clear that there is a strong will to maintain the forests and develop the local industry. With this in mind the present project will aim to identify:
1. applicable legislation for forest management and transport of timber
2. potential gaps in current forest management practices in Myanmar between the legal
framework requirements and actual practice
3. weaknesses in the existing legal framework (laws and regulations), that hinder effective verification of legality and identification of timber origin at the point of export
The current report aims at providing an overview of potential risks of legal non-compliances in the forest sector in Myanmar, and also to provide inputs for how these risks can be managed and support the efforts to enable Myanmar to export legal and, on the long term, certified sustainable timber to the international markets.
It should be underlined that this report does not provide any formal approval of the forest management practices, timber trade procedures, processing and trade systems of Myanmar.
Based on the EU definition of forest sector legality, this report describes issues affecting the risk that timber from Myanmar has been harvested or traded illegally..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||NEPCon, European Timber Trade Federation (ETTF)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.8MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||17 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Illegal Logging in Indonesia, South East Asia and International Consumption of Illegally Sourced Timber
|Date of publication:|| ||01 September 2001|
|Description/subject:|| ||"The result of in-depth research and extensive on-the-ground investigations, the report exposes the scale of illegal logging and illegal timber trade in East Asia with a special focus on Indonesia. The report also highlights the role played by major tropical timber consuming nations including the US, Europe, Japan and China in driving illegal logging by providing a ready market for illegally sourced timber and timber products. In many of the countries of South-East Asia illegal logging outstrips legal logging, and large quantities of this timber finds its way
to the international markets either direct or via neighbouring countries which often act as laundering points. The destruction
wrought by this commercial scale illegal logging, much of it in National Parks, is resulting in rapidly diminishing forests across the
region and is pushing many species including the Orang-utan, Asia's only Great Ape, closer to extinction.|
|Author/creator:|| ||Dave Currey, Faith Doherty, Sam Lawson, Julian Newman, and A. Ruwindrijarto.|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.49 MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.grida.no/graphicslib/detail/routes-for-exports-of-illegally-logged-ramin-timber-in-indon...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||08 September 2010|