Smuggling apart from drugs
|Title:|| ||INFORMAL TRADE AND UNDERGROUND ECONOMY IN MYANMAR - COSTS AND BENEFITS
|Date of publication:|| ||June 2011|
Executive summary ...
1 - Objective ....
2 - Methodology....
Part 1 - Myanmar’s cross-border trade....
1 - Impact of sanctions on cross-border trade....
2 - Local perceptions of cross-border trade....
3 - The context of informal/illegal cross-border trade ....
4 - Illegal versus illicit products....
5 - Costs and benefits of informal cross-border trade....
6 - Case studies related to cross-border trade and its effects......
Part 2 - Cross-border mobility
and human smuggling from Myanmar:
1 - Illegal border crossings...
2 - Causes and effects of cross-border mobility....
3 - Costs and benefits of mobility ....
"Myanmar, the second biggest country in terms of area in mainland
South East Asia, borders five neighboring countries: China, Thailand,
India, Bangladesh, and Lao PDR. Myanmar’s longest borders are with
China (approximately 1,357 miles) and Thailand (approximately
1,314 miles), and it shares coastal waters with Malaysia and Singapore.
Being a member of at least nine Asia and Pacific inter-governmental
organizations that include the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the Greater
Mekong Subregion (GMS), the UN Economic and Social Commission for
Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), the Asian Development Bank (ADB),
Upper Mekong Commercial Navigation, the Asia Pacific Fishery
Commission, Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT), and the Association of
South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Myanmar is actively involved in
various economic cooperation programs.
However, the pace of Myanmar’s economic development still lags
behind that of other members in these organizations. In addition,
informal activities and informal moment of goods and people have been
quite significant due to many factors. Although various policy measures
have been developed to mitigate these informal activities, there has not
been any study regarding the sources of these informal activities, their
costs and benefits, impacts and consequences of the existence and nonexistence of these activities, or how these activities could be mitigated
without having significant negative economic and social impacts on the
local people and the economy as the whole.
Without knowing causes and effects, costs and benefits, and factors
behind informal activities, it is not simple to come up with restrictive
policies to control them. In some cases, restrictive policies have caused
severe adverse social and economic impacts on the community. Hence, it
is very important that proper research is conducted in order to identify multidimensional issues that could effectively be addressed by multidimensional policies through close cooperation among the stakeholders.
This paper attempts to identify factors behind causes and effects of
informal flows in goods and persons across the borders between
Myanmar and its neighboring countries, especially China and Thailand,
and to address related issues and possible policy implications."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Winston Set Aung|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Irasec (Carnet de l’Irasec / Occasional Paper Série Observatoire / Observatory Series No 04)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.54K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||20 September 2012|
|Title:|| ||Smuggling and import duty in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||10 October 2010|
"This paper examines the effects of import duties on smuggling in Myanmar. Following Fisman and Wei (2004), the reporting discrepancies between Myanmar's imports records and corresponding exports recorded by trading partners are regarded as indicative of smuggling. The paper studies whether reporting discrepancies differ across trading partners as well as across time. Our main findings are first, that the hike in import duties in June 2004 helped to widen the reporting discrepancies, which suggests smuggling for tax evasion purposes and second, that reporting discrepancies differ considerably across trading partners: land borders appear to be particularly attractive venues for smugglers."
Keywords: Myanmar (Burma), smuggling, tax evasion, border trade|
|Author/creator:|| ||Koji Kubo and Nu Nu Lwin|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Jetro/IDE (IDE Discussion Paper No. 258)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (319K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||01 June 2011|
|Title:|| ||Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 6: Trafficking and Smuggling
|Date of publication:|| ||23 November 2009|
|Description/subject:|| ||The increase in the rates of trafficking and smuggling from Burma in 2008 is testament to the
seriousness of the economic crisis that threatens to destabilize the country. More
importantly perhaps, it is also indicative of a country in which corruption is widespread and
lawlessness is pervasive. Lawlessness is especially apparent in ethnic rural areas suffering
from conflict and in remote mountainous areas. Transnational crime is estimated to be a
multi-billion dollar industry; however, Burma’s “extra-legal economy, both black market and
illicit border trade, is reportedly so large that an accurate assessment of the size and
structure of the country’s economy is unavailable.” Live animals, commodities, drugs,
arms, and people, particularly women and children, were all trafficked or smuggled within
and from Burma in 2008. Known trafficking and smuggling destinations included: Thailand,
China, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Macau, South Korea, Pakistan, India, Laos, Vietnam,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan.|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (793K)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||05 December 2009|