VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Administration and administrative areas of Burma/Myanmar > Arakan (Rakhine) State > Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Arakan (Rakhine) State - reports etc. by date (latest first)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Myanmar building military bases over Rohingya villages: Amnesty
Date of publication: 13 March 2018
Description/subject: Myanmar clearing Rohingya villages to make way for construction of military installations, rights group says...Security forces have bulldozed houses and started constructing at least three new security facilities in Myanmar's western Rakhine state, said Amnesty International's Remaking Rakhine State report, which was published on Monday. The report, which said construction of the three army outposts began in January, is based on satellite imagery and witness statements from Rohingya refugees. "What we are seeing in Rakhine state is a land grab by the military on a dramatic scale. New bases are being erected to house the very same security forces that have committed crimes against humanity against Rohingya," Tirana Hassan, Amnesty's crisis response director, said..."
Author/creator: David Child
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018


Title: Remaking Rakhine State
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "Six months after the start of a brutal military campaign which forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya women, men and children from their homes and left hundreds of Rohingya villages burned the ground, Myanmar’s authorities are remaking northern Rakhine State in their absence. Based on in-depth analysis of satellite imagery; a review of recent photographs and videos showing destruction in specific Rohingya villages; and interviews with Rohingya in northern Rakhine State and across the border in Bangladesh, as well as with activists and other experts, this briefing sheds light on the ongoing efforts to rebuild and reshape northern Rakhine State.Through eyewitness testimony and expert analysis of satellite images, Remaking Rakhine State reveals how flattening of Rohingya villages and new construction have intensified since January in areas where hundreds of thousands fled the military’s campaign of ethnic cleansing last year. New roads and structures are being built over burned Rohingya villages and land, making it even less likely for refugees to return to their homes... “What we are seeing in Rakhine State is a land grab by the military on a dramatic scale. New bases are being erected to house the very same security forces that have committed crimes against humanity against Rohingya,” said Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response Director. “This makes the voluntary, safe and dignified return of Rohingya refugees an even more distant prospect. Not only are their homes gone, but the new construction is entrenching the already dehumanizing discrimination they have faced in Myanmar...”
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/8018/2018 )
Format/size: html, pdf (2.6MB)
Alternate URLs: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/03/myanmar-military-land-grab-as-security-forces-build-...
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa16/8018/2018/en/ (Press release)
Date of entry/update: 13 March 2018


Title: Who are the Rohingya Muslims? Why are the more than one million Rohingya in Myanmar considered the 'world's most persecuted minority'?
Date of publication: September 2017
Description/subject: Useful collection of material on the Rohingya and their situation.... "The Rohingya are often described as "the world's most persecuted minority". They are an ethnic Muslim group who have lived for centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar. Currently, there are about 1.1 million Rohingya Muslims who live in the Southeast Asian country. The Rohingya speak Rohingya or Ruaingga, a dialect that is distinct to others spoken in Rakhine State and throughout Myanmar. They are not considered one of the country's 135 official ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively rendered them stateless..."....Analysis/description under several headings interspersed with 11 videos, texts, pictures...: Who are the Rohingya?...Where are the Rohingya from?...How and why are they being persecuted? And why aren't they recognised?...How many Rohingya have fled Myanmar and where have they gone?...Chart showing Rohingya movement since the late '70s...What do Aung San Suu Kyi and the Myanmar government say about the Rohingya?...What does Bangladesh say about the Rohingya?...What does the international community say about the Rohingya?...What is the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army?...
Author/creator: Al Jazeera Staff
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/Search/?q=rohingya
http://www.aljazeera.com/topics/country/bangladesh.html
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2017


Title: *Google search for "Rohingya"
Description/subject: About 7,390,000 results (August 2017) About 26,800,000 results (February 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: www via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2017


Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - Rohingya*" (video)
Description/subject: About 153,000 results (August 2017)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2017


Title: Advisory Commission on Rakhine State
Description/subject: "The Advisory Commission on Rakhine State was founded [on August 23, 2016] as a neutral and impartial body which aims to propose concrete measures for improving the welfare of all people in Rakhine state. It is composed of six local and three international experts, and is chaired by Kofi Anna...At the behest of the Ministry of the Office of the State Counsellor of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and in collaboration with the Kofi Annan Foundation, the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State has been founded as a neutral and impartial body which aims to propose concrete measures for improving the welfare of all people in Rakhine state. It is composed of six local and three international experts, and is chaired by Kofi Annan. In its work, it considers humanitarian and developmental issues, access to basic services, legal questions including citizenship and the assurance of basic rights, and security to all people in all communities. It will submit its final report and recommendations to the Government of Myanmar in the second half of 2017."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Advisory Commission on Rakhine State
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.rakhinecommission.org/mm/ (Commission Myanmar site)
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2017


Title: Ashin Wirathu (Wikipedia)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: Google search results for nhat hanh rohingya
Description/subject: About 137,000 results (February 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 February 2018


Title: Internal conflict in Myanmar
Description/subject: "The internal conflict in Myanmar refers to a series of ongoing insurgencies within Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, became independent from the United Kingdom in 1948. The conflict has been labeled as the world's longest running civil war....."Main fronts: Kachin State... Kayah State... Kayin State... Rakhine State... Shan State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 January 2018


Title: International Campaign for the Rohingya
Description/subject: "​​ADVOCATING AND AMPLIFYING THE VOICE OF THE ROHINGYA WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, GOVERNMENTS, CORPORATIONS, AND CIVIL SOCIETY...The Rohingya are a Muslim minority group from the northern Rakhine State in western Burma. Despite having lived in Burma for generations, the Rohingya are considered “foreigners” by the Burmese government. The Burmese government has isolated the 1.3 million Rohingya in Burma. Burma’s 1982 Citizenship Act denies the Rohingya people citizenship. They are limited in their rights to marry, have children, work, obtain healthcare, and go to school. Fleeing violence, over 140,000 Rohingya live in what many describe as “concentration camps” where they face severe restrictions and are denied basic necessities including medical care. Since 2012, an estimated 100,000 Rohingya have fled Burma by boat. Apart from the risk of drowning, many of those who flee fall into the hands of human traffickers, and are forced to work on rubber plantations or in the sex trade. Ultranationalist groups in Burma have also dehumanized the Rohingya through rampant hate speech. This demonization of the Rohingya, coupled with the government’s denial of their rights, has created an environment in Burma that, according to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, puts the Rohingya at grave risk of mass atrocities and even genocide..."
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2017


Title: MIMU - RAKHINE emergency page
Description/subject: Tools for humanitarian assistance..."For up-to-date relevant information including maps, contact list, initial assessment form and 3W data...3W maps/reports for 2012 can be found HERE. 268 organizations were contacted to provide inputs for this round of the 3W (Who is doing what, where) exercise. Amongst them, 87 agencies provided updates – (1) Embassy/Donor (3) Red Cross societies, (12) UN Agencies, (25) LNGOs and (46) INGOs. The 3W products reflect implementing agencies' projects in 329 townships, 4,089 village tract and 11,479 villages throughout the country...".....If this site does not have the latest situation reports, go to the Alternate URL - the OCHA myanmar page at http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/country/mmr
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2012


Title: ReliefWeb Myanmar page
Description/subject: Timely reports on the humanitarian situation in Myanmar - from UN, Government and media sources.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


Title: Remember Rohingya
Description/subject: Various articles, photos videos, profiles, campaigns etc. on the Rohingya. Unfortunately, the material is not precisely dated.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Restless Beings
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014


Title: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Description/subject: News and articles about Rohingya, ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ အေၾကာင္း သတင္းႏွင့္ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://burmese.rohingyablogger.com/
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


Title: Rohingya News
Description/subject: Several recent stories on the Rohingyas
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2017


Title: Rohingya on "Democracy Now"
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Democracy Now"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 February 2018


Title: Search results for "Rohingya" in "New Age"
Description/subject: 1600+ results - December 2012; 2500 - August 2013
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Age" (Bangladesh)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2012


Title: Statements on the situation in Northern Rakhine State on the website of the UN Information Centre, Yangon
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Information Centre, Yangon
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: The Peoples' Tribunal on Myanmar
Description/subject: Judgement of the Peoples' Tribunal on Myanmar... Rohingya: The silence of Aung San Suu Kyi and the betrayal of human rights...Rohingya crisis ruled as genocide by Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal...17 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE PEOPLES’ TRIBUNAL ON MYANMAR...PRELIMINARY JUDGMENT AND DISPOSITIONS...VIDEO OF JUDGMENT’S ANNOUNCEMENT (22.SEPT.2017)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Permanent Peoples' Tribunal
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2017


Title: UK: Archive of Network Myanmar's collection of material on Rohingya/Muslim issues
Description/subject: Extensive and wide-ranging online collection of useful documents. The archive ends in October 2016 when Network Myanmar closed. The main link here, however, contains some updates beyond the 2016 cut-off.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20160617101212/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-is...
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2014


Title: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Description/subject: Reports from October 2007
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Individual Documents

Title: How Facebook can help to foster an inclusive discourse in Myanmar
Date of publication: 12 April 2018
Description/subject: "[Editor’s note: Tea Circle will be taking a break over the Thingyan holiday. We will return on 23 April and will run our annual “Year in Review” series through the month of May.] As the main platform of information and communication for most people in Myanmar, Facebook has a social responsibility to promote its safe and responsible use. Facebook has been beneficial for connecting friends and families within Myanmar and across the world. Unfortunately, it has also been a platform used to spread hate speech, rumors that Muslims are not Myanmar citizens, and, in some cases, messages provoking violence. Since August of last year, over 700,000 Rohingya civilians have been forced to flee Myanmar into neighboring Bangladesh with reports of widespread atrocities, including, murder, rape, and arson of their homes. The United Nations has called this a textbook case of ethnic cleansing, referring to it as a possible genocide and as constituting crimes against humanity. Many in the international community are hoping for the refugees to be repatriated, but for many Rohingyas, they are fearful for their safety, that they will still not be accepted as part of Myanmar and that, upon their return, they would have to remain in camps without freedom of movement or equal rights. Most people in Myanmar have never met a Rohingya person, but nonetheless many express an unfounded hatred, refusing to recognize their citizenship as fellow brothers and sisters, and some even supporting their displacement..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Sint
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2018


Title: Will Myanmar respond to Rohingya refugees' demands? (video)
Date of publication: 12 April 2018
Description/subject: "For the first time since Myanmar's military crackdown last year that led to almost 700,000 Rohingya fleeing into neighbouring Bangladesh, a government minister has visited a refugee camp. Win Myat Aye, Myanmar's social welfare minister, provoked anger when he reportedly told a group of about 40 Rohingya that if they were to return to Myanmar, they would have to accept national verification cards and state they were migrants from Bangladesh. The refugees at the Kutupalong camp in the border city of Cox' Bazar say they are from Myanmar. They gave the minister a list of 13 demands they want to be met before they return home. Bangladesh and Myanmar had agreed to begin the repatriation of the Rohingya refugees in January, but there were delays because of safety concerns. So how will the government respond and how committed is it to resolving the crisis?"
Author/creator: Presenter: Folly Bah Thibault; Guests: Shelley Thakral - spokesperson, World Food Programme; Tun Khin - president, Burmese Rohingya Organisation, UK; Laura Haigh - Amnesty International's Myanmar researcher
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 13 April 2018


Title: UN DEPUTY HUMANITARIAN CHIEF: “ALL PEOPLE AFFECTED BY HUMANITARIAN CRISES IN MYANMAR MUST GET THE ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION THEY NEED”
Date of publication: 08 April 2018
Description/subject: "(Yangon/New York, 8 April 2018): At the conclusion today of a six-day mission to Myanmar, Assistant Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator Ursula Mueller called for strengthened humanitarian action based on the rights and needs of all communities, in line with international law and humanitarian principles. “Protecting the most vulnerable people in Myanmar must be at the heart of the humanitarian response by the international community, national aid organizations and the Government,” said Ms. Mueller. “Wherever they are in the country and regardless of their ethnicity, religion and citizenship status, we need to work together to ensure that no vulnerable conflict-affected people are deprived of safe and sustained access to humanitarian protection and assistance. No-one in Myanmar should be left behind on the path towards a better future.”..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: UN Office for The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (187K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/OCHA_PRESS_RELEASE_DERC_ASG_Ursula_M...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/FINAL-ASG-Mueller-Mission-to-Myanmar...
Date of entry/update: 10 April 2018


Title: Placing spotlights casts shadows
Date of publication: 05 April 2018
Description/subject: "Last Friday, media releases all over the English and Burmese-speaking internet reverberated with the news that top human rights lawyer, Amal Clooney, will join the legal team for Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo’s ongoing court case. I see at least two tiers of issues going on here, recognising that there are many others (such as the military’s cause of national security and the impunity that accompanies it, and the shameful layers of disinformation in Rakhine)..."
Author/creator: Alice Dawkins
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2018


Title: Burma’s Lost Rapport on Rights Protection
Date of publication: 02 April 2018
Description/subject: "Burma’s State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee, once had a seemingly warm relationship. No longer. Following the special rapporteur’s visit in July 2017, the government delayed permission for a follow up visit and finally in December last year informed the South Korean law professor access would be denied and she would no longer receive any cooperation for the remainder of her tenure. That left Professor Lee “puzzled and disappointed” and saying “this declaration of non-cooperation with my mandate can only be viewed as a strong indication that there must be something terribly awful happening in Rakhine [Arakan State], as well as in the rest of the country.”..."
Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2018


Title: Human Rights Monitoring Report
Date of publication: 01 April 2018
Description/subject: The month of March is very significant in the history of Bangladesh. In 1971 the people of this country became resilient against the exploitation and suppression of the West Pakistan regime and developed a struggle for independence in order to destroy the undemocratic rule of West Pakistan. On 25 March 1971, the Pakistani Army attacked the unarmed Bangladeshi civilians and commenced genocide. From 26 March, the people of Bangladesh (then East Pakistan) jumped into the liberation struggle and on 16 December 1971 Bangladesh became independent when the Pakistan Army surrendered. The people of this country sacrificed their lives and honour to build a nation based on equality, human dignity and social justice. That goal is yet to be achieved. The people of this country are victims of grave human rights violations. The controversial elections of 5 January 2014 and the subsequent local government elections, deprived the people of Bangladesh from their right to vote. The opposition political parties and ordinary people are also deprived from the rights to freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association. The government has enacted repressive laws and imposing them against dissenters and people who have alternative beliefs. Many people, including leaders and activists of the opposition parties, are becoming victims of enforced disappearance, extrajudicial killing and torture..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Odhikar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Alternate URLs: https://anfrel.org/human-rights-monitoring-report-of-march-2018-english/
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2018


Title: SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE PASSES BIPARTISAN RESOLUTION CONDEMNING BURMESE ETHNIC CLEANSING, CALLING FOR SAFE REPATRIATION OF ROHINGYA
Date of publication: 21 March 2018
Description/subject: "WASHINGTON, D.C. – U.S. Senators Jeff Merkley (D-OR), Todd Young (R-IN), Tim Kaine (D-VA), and John McCain (R-AZ) today announced that a bipartisan Senate resolution condemning the Burmese campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya and calling for the “safe, dignified, voluntary and sustainable return” of the refugees who have been displaced by this violence was voted out of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on a bipartisan vote with unanimous support. The senators introduced the resolution in January, as planned repatriation from Bangladesh to Burma was postponed amid fears that the repatriation as planned would be neither safe nor voluntary..."
Author/creator: U.S. Senators Jeff Merkley (D-OR), Todd Young (R-IN), Tim Kaine (D-VA), and John McCain (R-AZ)
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Senator for Oregon.
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/21/senate-foreign-relations-committee-passes-bipartisan...
Date of entry/update: 23 March 2018


Title: ROHINGYA CRISIS: PRE-MONSOON REVIEW CREATED
Date of publication: 19 March 2018
Description/subject: "This brief outlines the potential impact of rains, floods and landslides in the camps of Cox’s Bazar. To do so, it draws on past impact of rains in these camps, as well as in Cox’s Bazar and in Bangladesh more generally. It also draws on similar camp settings and natural disasters in other countries. Wherever possible, it is grounded in informal discussions with experts in their sector, meeting notes and field observations. The camps at this scale have never existed in this season before, so there is no direct past experience of how they have withstood a monsoon..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ACAPS via "progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/20180319_acaps_npm_bangladesh_pre_mo...
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2018


Title: JOINT STATEMENT FOLLOWING THE SECOND UK-BANGLADESH STRATEGIC DIALOGUE
Date of publication: 16 March 2018
Description/subject: "The UK and Bangladesh held their second Strategic Dialogue on 15 March 2018, at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office in London. The dialogue involved a fruitful exchange of views on political and bilateral issues, economic and development cooperation, security and defence cooperation, and exchanges on current global issues, including the Rohingya crisis. The UK commended Bangladesh for hosting over one million forcibly displaced Burmese nationals. Bangladesh welcomed the UK’s assurance that it remains committed to keeping the international spotlight on the Rohingya crisis, and to supporting Bangladesh in its humanitarian response and the voluntary, safe, and dignified return of the Rohingya to Burma. The Strategic Dialogue was led by Permanent Under-Secretary of the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Sir Simon McDonald, and his Bangladeshi counterpart, Foreign Secretary Md. Shahidul Haque of the Bangladesh Ministry of Foreign Affairs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign & Commonwealth Office via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/16/joint-statement-following-the-second-uk-bangladesh-s...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: FCO MINISTER FIELD STATEMENT ON THE ROHINGYA CRISIS
Date of publication: 15 March 2018
Description/subject: "Mr Speaker thank you for the opportunity to update the House on the desperate plight of Burma’s Rohingya – in the week that the UN Fact Finding Mission on Burma has updated the Human Rights Council with interim findings.The international community has repeatedly called on the Burmese authorities to allow the Fact Finding Mission to enter Burma. Regrettably Burma continues to refuse access.Despite this, through interviewing Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and Malaysia, the interim report revealed credible evidence of widespread and systematic abuse, rape and murder of Rohingya people, and destruction of their homes and villages, primarily by the Burmese military..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign & Commonwealth Office and The Rt Hon Mark Field MP
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/15/fco-minister-field-statement-on-the-rohingya-crisis/
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: ROHINGYA CONTINUE TO SUFFER FOOD SHORTAGES AND UNLIVABLE CONDITIONS
Date of publication: 15 March 2018
Description/subject: "The Burma Human Rights Network has been informed by several Rohingya villagers who remained in Burma’s Northern Rakhine State of continued food shortages and unlivable conditions due to restrictions put in place by the government and security forces. Of those remaining, frequent complaints were made related to limited food rations, inability to access agricultural work, severe travel restrictions and fear of continuing attacks by vigilante groups from neighboring ethnic Rakhine communities. Villagers from Gutar Pyin, in Buthidaung Township, have complained of food shortages and increased restrictions on movement since August of 2017 when security forces began their “clearance operations” in the area. After 200 homes were burnt down as part of the military’s campaign, only 1500 villagers are reported to remain. Those remaining lack adequate shelter and are dependent on monthly rations from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). One villager told BHRN, “In one house three families have to live together. We’ve requested permission from the authorities to rebuild the homes but we have not received it yet.”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Human Rights Network via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (102K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Press-Release_-Rohingya-Continue-to-...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/15/rohingya-continue-to-suffer-food-shortages-and-unliv...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: AUSTRALIA-ASEAN SUMMIT: LEADERS MUST TAKE A STAND AGAINST ETHNIC CLEANSING OF ROHINGYA
Date of publication: 14 March 2018
Description/subject: "Leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Australia must take a strong stand against ongoing crimes against humanity targeting Rohingya in Myanmar as they meet this weekend, Amnesty International said. Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar’s State Counsellor and de facto political leader, is expected to attend the ASEAN-Australia Summit, taking place in Sydney on 17-18 March. “The human rights crisis in Rakhine State, and Myanmar as a whole, must be top of the agenda this weekend in Sydney. ASEAN has been shamefully silent on what is happening in one of its member states so far.” James Gomez, Amnesty International’s Director of Southeast Asia and the Pacific “The orchestrated campaign to drive Rohingya out of Myanmar and ensure they cannot return must end. Even if the violence has subsided, ethnic cleansing continues – authorities are starving Rohingya and erecting security force bases on their lands in a bid to force them out,” said James Gomez, Amnesty International’s Director for Southeast Asia and the Pacific..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 March 2018


Title: BURMA’S “PEACE PROCESS”: THE GOVERNMENT TALKS, THE MILITARY SHOOTS, VILLAGERS FLEE
Date of publication: 13 March 2018
Description/subject: "The horrific treatment of Rohingya Muslims and their violent expulsion from Burma has shocked the world. As the Karen Community of Canada (KCC), an organization representing ethnic Karen refugees from Burma (Myanmar), we stand in solidarity with the Rohingya people who face the same brutal treatment that Karen and other ethnic peoples have suffered at the hands of the Burmese military for decades. We welcome Prime Minister Trudeau’s appointment of Bob Rae as Canada’s Special Envoy to Myanmar. However, we are disappointed that Mr. Rae’s interim report overlooks the systemic nature of Burmese military oppression against all ethnic minorities in Burma. A more holistic approach is needed if Mr. Rae’s final report is to effectively guide Canadian policy toward Burma..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Community of Canada via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (653K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/KCC-statement-final-2018-03-13.pdf
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/13/burmas-peace-process-the-government-talks-the-milita...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: STATEMENT BY ADAMA DIENG, UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL ADVISER ON THE PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE, ON HIS VISIT TO BANGLADESH TO ASSESS THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA REFUGEES FROM MYANMAR
Date of publication: 13 March 2018
Description/subject: "(Dhaka, 13 March 2018) From 7 to 13 March I visited Bangladesh to assess the situation of the Rohingya population who have crossed the border from Myanmar to Bangladesh since the most recent incidents of violence in northern Rakhine state in October 2016 and August 2017. During my visit, I had the opportunity to meet Bangladeshi authorities, civil society actors and members of the diplomatic community. I also visited refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar, where survivors I met shared horrifying stories of what they have endured. What I have heard and witnessed in Cox’s Bazar is a human tragedy with the fingerprints of the Myanmar government and of the international community. The scorched earth campaign carried out by the Myanmar security forces since August 2017 against the Rohingya population was predictable and preventable. Despite the numerous warnings I have made of the risk of atrocity crimes, the international community has buried its head in the sand. This has cost the Rohingya population of Myanmar their lives, their dignity and their homes..."
Author/creator: Adama Dieng,United Nations Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, on his visit to Bangladesh to assess the situation of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Press Release
Format/size: pdf (137K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/13/statement-by-adama-dieng-united-nations-special-advi...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/2018-03-13-Statement_visit-Rohingya-...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: Citizenship in Myanmar: Ways of Being in and from Burma, Edited by Ashley South and Marie Lall, Singapore: ISEAS, 2018, 316 pages
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "There hardly could be a more timely book in Myanmar studies than the collection of essays and testimonies edited by Ashley South and Marie Lall in “Citizenship in Myanmar: Ways of Being in and from Burma”. In recent months, the news in Myanmar has been dominated by four issues, all directly related to citizenship: the Rakhine crisis, the peace process, the NLD in government, and citizens’ participation. The Rakhine crisis, of course, revolves around the question of who has the right to be a citizen of Myanmar, to live on Myanmar territory, and too often, unfortunately, who has the right to live at all. The peace process is, fundamentally, stuck because the key question of the citizenship of members of the various ethnic nationalities has not been resolved, if it has even been discussed at all. Recent controversies around the naming of a bridge in Mon State or the building of a statue in Kayah State show that the ruling NLD does not have much of an understanding of the sensitivities that remain among the non-Bamar on the question of what it means for them to be citizens of Myanmar but members of different, separate, unique, nations. The NLD, however, won the 2015 general election in a landslide, showing that it has the support of citizens, when citizenship is expressed directly, through a vote. However, on the last issue, how citizens express themselves outside of elections, which is one definition for civil society, frustration, disappointment, and sometimes anger, has grown significantly in recent months as the NLD has all but severed ties with civil society, to the consternation of activists who, just like the rest of the population, believed in, and, in most cases, had voted for, the NLD..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2018


Title: FCO MINISTER FIELD STATEMENT ON UN FACT FINDING MISSION ON BURMA
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "Minister for Asia and the Pacific Mark Field statement on the interim report by UN Fact Finding Mission on Burma. Minister Mark Field said: This report by the UN Fact Finding Mission on human rights has reaffirmed the appalling human rights violations that so many in Burma have suffered and confirms that the Burmese military are primarily to blame for the widespread and systematic violence against the Rohingya. These findings show the vital importance of an open and transparent investigation into these appalling events and I urge the Burmese authorities to reverse their decision not to cooperate with the Fact Finding Mission, and allow them immediate access so they can continue their work. I call on the Burmese authorities to establish a credible and independent investigation into these horrifying accusations, and a judicial process to hold to account those responsible for abuses. The UK is fully committed to help bring an end to this humanitarian crisis and I plan to update Parliament on the Government’s approach at the earliest opportunity allowed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign & Commonwealth Office
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/fco-minister-field-statement-on-un-fact-finding-miss...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: MASS ATROCITIES AGAINST ROHINGYAS REQUIRE URGENT ACTION FOR ACCOUNTABILITY MECHANISM
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "[Geneva, 12 March 2018] We, Rohingya and Burmese civil society organizations, strongly support High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein’s recommendation that the Human Rights Council ask the General Assembly to establish a new independent and impartial mechanism to prepare criminal proceedings against those responsible for the atrocities in Rakhine State. In the face of genocide, the UN’s foremost human rights body must shoulder its responsibilities and pursue justice for the Rohingya. Survivors have told harrowing accounts of killing, rape, abduction, torture, and arson. We urge the Human Rights Council to heed High Commissioner Zeid’s recommendation. The Council should call on the General Assembly to launch the mechanism in its next resolution on Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Human Rights Network via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/mass-atrocities-against-rohingyas-require-urgent-act...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: MYANMAR: ACCOUNTABILITY FOR ETHNIC CLEANSING URGENTLY REQUIRED
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "For more than six months, the world has watched in horror as Myanmar’s military has carried out a vicious campaign of ethnic cleansing in northern Rakhine State, forcing hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. Human Rights Watch documented massacres, gang rape, and mass arson that amount to crimes against humanity. While the exodus of new refugees has slowed, the terrible plight of the more than 680,000 people who fled only grows with each passing day. The several hundred thousand Rohingya who remain in Rakhine State lead a precarious existence marked by government intimidation and threats, limited access to food and aid, sharply curtailed movement, and violence without redress. Over 100,000 have been in what amount to detention camps since previous rounds of ethnic cleansing in 2012..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/myanmar-accountability-for-ethnic-cleansing-urgently...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: MYANMAR: MILITARY LAND GRAB AS SECURITY FORCES BUILD BASES ON TORCHED ROHINGYA VILLAGES
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "Myanmar’s Rakhine State is being militarized at an alarming pace, as authorities are building security force bases and bulldozing land where Rohingya villages were burned to the ground just months ago, Amnesty International said in a new briefing today. Through eyewitness testimony and expert analysis of satellite images, Remaking Rakhine State reveals how flattening of Rohingya villages and new construction have intensified since January in areas where hundreds of thousands fled the military’s campaign of ethnic cleansing last year. New roads and structures are being built over burned Rohingya villages and land, making it even less likely for refugees to return to their homes..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: MYANMAR: ORAL STATEMENT TO HRC37 INTERACTIVE DIALOGUE WITH FACT FINDING MISSION AND SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "ARTICLE 19 shares the Special Rapporteur’s alarm that the “repressive practices of previous military governments are returning as the norm once more”, with crackdowns on freedom expression creating “a culture of fear, silence and self-censorship. ”This retrogression contradicts many of the specific recommendations this Council directed to the government of Myanmar last year in Resolution 34/22.In the context of alleged acts of genocide and crimes against humanity, the government’s attempts to control the free flow of information must be recognised as dangerous, undermining any possible efforts to prevent further violations, as well as prospects for accountability, for truth and reconciliation, and for the eventual safe return of refugees.We condemn, in particular, the targeting of journalists and others reporting on events in conflict affected areas. Reuters journalists Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo face up to 14 years imprisonment if convicted under the Official Secrets Act for reporting on a massacre of Rohingya civilians. In October 2017, two Kachin individuals were convicted under the Unlawful Associations Act for assisting journalists reporting on armed conflict in Shan State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Article 19
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/myanmar-oral-statement-to-hrc37-interactive-dialogue...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: MYANMAR: UN EXPERT CALLS FOR ACCOUNTABILITY OVER VIOLENCE IN RAKHINE STATE
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "GENEVA (12 March 2018) – The UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee, told the Human Rights Council on Monday she was increasingly of the opinion that the events in Rakhine State bear the hallmarks of genocide and called in the strongest terms for accountability. Lee, who was informed late last year that her access to the country was denied, also expressed serious concern that “the repressive practices of previous military governments were returning as the norm once more” in Myanmar, describing the situation faced by civil society across the country as “increasingly perilous”. Delivering her report to the Council in Geneva, Lee said that to date accountability for the crimes committed in Rakhine State following 25 August 2017, and 9 October 2016, was elusive, adding that this must now be the focus of the international community’s efforts to bring long-lasting peace, stability and democratization to Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of the High Commissioner For Human Rights via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/myanmar-un-expert-calls-for-accountability-over-viol...
Date of entry/update: 23 March 2018


Title: REMAKING RAKHINE STATE
Date of publication: 12 March 2018
Description/subject: "Six months after the start of a brutal military campaign which forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya women, men and children from their homes and left hundreds of Rohingya villages burned the ground, Myanmar’s authorities are remaking northern Rakhine State in their absence. Since October 2017, but in particular since the start of 2018, Myanmar’s authorities have embarked on a major operation to clear burned villages and to build new homes, security force bases and infrastructure in the region. According to the civilian-led government, much of the work is part of preparing for the repatriation of Rohingya refugees from Bangladesh, and also wider efforts to develop one of Myanmar’s poorest states and address decades of chronic under-development and investment there. However, the nature, speed and scale of the development raise serious concerns, not least because access to the region remains severely restricted, making it difficult to obtain a complete picture..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (2.6MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/12/remaking-rakhine-state/
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: Myanmar defends military build-up on Bangladesh border
Date of publication: 02 March 2018
Description/subject: "Myanmar on Friday defended deployment of its troops near the Bangladesh border, where thousands of Rohingya refugees have taken shelter, calling it an "anti-terrorism operation". The move has drawn criticism from Bangladesh, which summoned Myanmar's ambassador on Thursday, while the UN refugee agency raised their concerns at the military build-up. Some 200 troops were deployed to the border on Thursday, close to a nearby strip of land between Myanmar and Bangladesh that is home to makeshift camps housing some 6,000 Rohingya refugees. The strip of land is officially designated as Myanmar territory but is widely referred to as "no man's land" because it lies beyond the country's border fence. "We acted this way based on the information we got regarding terrorism, especially the Arakan Rohingya Solidarity Army (ARSA) movement," Zaw Htay, a spokesperson for the Myanmar government, told AFP news agency on Friday. "It was not aimed at antagonising Bangladesh," Htay said. Bangladesh has called for an immediate pullback of Myanmar security forces - who have reportedly issued warnings using loudspeakers for Rohingya to leave the "no man's land" - from the area..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 March 2018


Title: “No one was left”: Death and Violence Against the Rohingya in Rakhine State, Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2018
Description/subject: "In the early hours of 25 August 2017, the Myanmar military launched “clearance operations” in Rakhine State, ostensibly in response to coordinated attacks by Rohingya armed groups on Border Guard Police outposts. This resulted in an estimated 688,000 mainly Rohingya people from Rakhine State fleeing into neighbouring Bangladesh. The speed and scale of displacement resulted in a critical humanitarian emergency; together with previously displaced people, this took the total number of Rohingya in Bangladesh to more than 900,000.3 The majority of these people are now living in extensions to pre-existing camps and pre-existing makeshift settlements, in spontaneouslyformed new settlements, and amongst the host community in Cox’s Bazar district. Since 25 August, a number of patients from different areas of Rakhine State have shared with MSF accounts of widespread violence targeting Rohingya, including raids on houses and villages, random and indiscriminate shootings, the deaths of relatives or neighbours after being shot or stabbed, dead bodies littering their escape route, widespread destruction and sexual violence..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (9.5MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/03/09/no-one-was-left-death-and-violence-against-the-rohin...
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: Three Nobel Peace Prize winners visit a refugee camp in Bangladesh to hear of their suffering. (video)
Date of publication: 26 February 2018
Description/subject: Will a visit by Nobel laureates help Rohingya Muslims?..."Myanmar's leader has been widely criticised for turning a deaf ear to global condemnation of her response to the Rohingya crisis. Now Aung San Suu Kyi faces a new warning from three women - who like her - are Nobel Peace Prize winners. "Wake up or face prosecution for genocide" is their message. Irish peace campaigner Mairead Maguire, Tawakkol Karman from Yemen, and Iranian Shirin Ebadi are in Bangladesh. They are touring Rohingya refugee camps to assess their needs, particularly women who says soldiers from Myanmar raped and tortured them. But how does the visit help the Muslim minority? And is it embarrassing for Myanmar's own Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi? Myanmar's leader has been widely criticised for turning a deaf ear to global condemnation of her response to the Rohingya crisis. Now Aung San Suu Kyi faces a new warning from three women - who like her - are Nobel Peace Prize winners. "Wake up or face prosecution for genocide" is their message. Irish peace campaigner Mairead Maguire, Tawakkol Karman from Yemen, and Iranian Shirin Ebadi are in Bangladesh. They are touring Rohingya refugee camps to assess their needs, particularly women who says soldiers from Myanmar raped and tortured them. But how does the visit help the Muslim minority? And is it embarrassing for Myanmar's own Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi?"...Rohingya, Myanmar, Aung San Suu Kyi, Asia Pacific, Bangladesh
Author/creator: Mairead Maguire - Nobel Peace Prize laureate; Tun Khin - Burmese Organisation UK; Charles Santiago - ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights; Presenter: Hashem Ahelbarra
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2018


Title: Rohingya crisis: a children's emergency of the highest order - As we enter the sixth month since this crisis erupted, thousands of Rohingya children are still living in fear. (video)
Date of publication: 25 February 2018
Description/subject: "Do you remember being a child, wide awake at night, breath drawn, every creak and whisper of breeze a monster under the bed, an intruder down the hall? Then as day breaks, childish fear evaporates and the night's terrors are forgotten. For hundreds of thousands of children who are right now living in the sprawling refugee camps in southern Bangladesh, fear does not fade when the sun rises. The nights are long. And each day brings a new worry. Today marks six months since these children were ripped away from the stability of their homes. Six months of trying to make sense of the horrors they have seen and this strange and often scary place. In the words of a 12-year-old boy: "We live a captive life here. There is not enough space for us to play. We cannot do anything we want to do..."
Author/creator: Mark Pierce & Orla Murphy, Fred Witteveen
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 February 2018


Title: Floating Island: New Home for Rohingya Refugees Emerges in Bay of Bengal
Date of publication: 22 February 2018
Description/subject: "Bangladesh is racing to turn an uninhabited and muddy Bay of Bengal island into home for 100,000 Rohingya Muslims who have fled a military crackdown in Myanmar, amid conflicting signals from top Bangladeshi officials about whether the refugees would end up being stranded there..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters via "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2018


Title: Moral quandary in Myanmar studies: Looking at the Rohingya crisis as an outsider
Date of publication: 16 February 2018
Description/subject: "For the past couple of years, there has been a torrent of international media coverage of the ongoing crisis in Rakhine State and on the Bangladesh-Myanmar border. The overwhelming majority of news, in addition to reports from humanitarian organizations and think tanks, has not minced words castigating the Myanmar military, or Tatmadaw, for its evident complicity in attacks on the Rohingya Muslim minority population. The immense suffering of the Rohingya and horrific, detailed reports of violence perpetrated against the minority Muslim population has rallied widespread international condemnation. Observers and policymakers have called for sanctions against the military, and many have condemned the partially civilian Myanmar government for its inability to quell the violence..."
Author/creator: Hunter Marston
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2018


Title: Are the Rohingya on the brink of another crisis? (video)
Date of publication: 15 February 2018
Description/subject: "The UN says the March monsoon season poses a serious threat to thousands living in Bangladeshi refugee camps...To date roughly 670,000 Rohingya have fled their homes in Myanmar, to Bangladesh, in an effort to escape violence. More than 1,500 refugees have fled this month alone and thousands more are expected. The mass exodus began back in August when the Myanmar military began attacking the Rohingya and torching their villages after a small Rohingya armed group attached an army checkpoint. The United Nations and human rights groups have said the campaign amounts to ethnic cleansing. The UN estimates 107,000 refugees are living in areas of Bangladesh prone to flooding or landslides. "We are now in a race against time," says Filippo Grandi, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "The [Bangladeshi] Government is steering a massive emergency preparedness effort, but international support must be stepped up to avert a catastrophe," he said in a statement to the U.N. Security Council . Meanwhile, an explosive expose by Reuters about a massacre in a Rohingya village has landed two Reuters journalists in jail. Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo investigated the killing of 10 Rohingya muslims in Northern Rakhine state who were reportedly were shot and hacked to death by a group that included their Buddhist neighbors and Myanmar soldiers. The journalists are charged with receiving government secrets and face up to 14 years in prison. They appeared in court Wednesday, just one day after receiving a major press award for their investigation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Stream (Aljazeera)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2018


Title: Inn Din massacre report puts Myanmar at a crossroads
Date of publication: 14 February 2018
Description/subject: "LAST WEEK’S explosive Reuters investigation into the killings of 10 Rohingya at Inn Din in northern Rakhine State in September made for grim reading. In what is one of the best, most detailed reports on the crisis, the Reuters team – including journalists Ko Wa Lone and Ko Kyaw Soe Oo who were arrested in December while researching the story and remain in jail – documented how government troops and Buddhist villagers carried out the killings and buried the victims in a single grave. Few who have seen it will forget the haunting photograph of the kneeling men surrounded by security forces shortly before their death. In this case, the “picture tells a thousand words” cliché rang true. But the text was just as powerful; a 4,500-word indictment of the authorities’ brazen denials that its forces have been responsible for systematic human rights abuses. Of course, the military has already admitted that its forces, together with Buddhist villagers, killed the 10 men. It did this to pre-empt the release of the Reuters report, and after its own investigation had claimed that no such killings took place...".....This editorial appears in the February 15 edition of Frontier. Tags: Rakhine State Inn Din Rohingya Tatmadaw refugees
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Frontier Myanmar" This editorial appears in the February 15 edition of Frontier.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 February 2018


Title: 13 February 2018, Security Council Briefing on the Situation in Myanmar, Assistant Secretary-General Miroslav Jenča
Date of publication: 13 February 2018
Description/subject: "Mr. President, We are discussing the crisis in Myanmar in this Chamber for the first time in 2018. It is now five months since the start of the violence that has forced 688,000 Rohingya across the border. And the outflow of people continues, although at a lower rate. As of 5 February, between 1,000 and 1,200 people were reportedly waiting on a beach in Maungdaw planning to leave for Bangladesh. Since the last briefing by Under-Secretary-General Feltman on 12 December 2017, the General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/72/248 on the human rights situation in Myanmar by vote..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: BRIEFING ON MYANMAR AT THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL
Date of publication: 13 February 2018
Description/subject: "Mr. President, Members of the Security Council, Abdullah is a father of eight from Buthidaung, in the northern part of Myanmar’s Rakhine State. Fleeing to Bangladesh in September last year, he became a refugee for the third time. The first was in 1978, when he came to Bangladesh as a young boy, and the second in 1991. That time he remained for three years, and then returned to Myanmar as part of an organised voluntary repatriation operation, anxious to recover his home and his four acres of land. Back home, he and his family started to rebuild their lives. They had seven cows, and were able to make a living. But, he says, around two years after his return, ‘hope started to fade away.’ Forced labour, confiscation of crops and cattle, and relentless, incremental restrictions on their freedom of movement, their right to worship, and their access to livelihoods constrained their existence..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations High Commissioner For Refugees via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: UN: Rohingya still not allowed to return to Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 February 2018
Description/subject: "Rohingya refugees are still not allowed to return to Myanmar, the United Nations high commissioner for refugees has told the UN Security Council. According to Filippo Grandi, "conditions in Myanmar are not yet conducive" for the 668,000 Rohingya to return home. The refugees fled to neighbouring Bangladesh after the Myanmar authorities launched a violent crackdown in northern Rakhine state last August. "The causes of their flight have not been addressed, and we have yet to see substantive progress on addressing the exclusion and denial of rights that has deepened over the last decades, rooted in their lack of citizenship," he said. Grandi also said the office of the UNHCR lacks access to Rakhine, where hundreds of villages have been burned down by the Myanmar military. "Humanitarian access, as you have heard, remains extremely restricted. UNHCR has not had access to affected areas of the northern part of Rakhine state, beyond Maungdaw town, since August 2017, and our access in central Rakhine has also been curtailed," he said. READ MORE Myanmar: Who are the Rohingya? "UNHCR presence and access throughout the state are essential to monitor protection conditions, provide independent information to refugees, and accompany returns as and when they take place."..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 February 2018


Title: Rohingya radicalisation in Malaysia: Where’s the evidence?
Date of publication: 09 February 2018
Description/subject: "The attacks perpetrated by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) in Rakhine State in 2016 and 2017 sparked fears of wide-scale radicalisation within the Rohingya community. Such suspicions were fuelled by Islamist political actors across the Islamic world hailing the Rohingya cause. But such alarmist views are rarely backed by evidence or field research. Our interviews with Rohingya refugees in Malaysia indicate that there is no evidence of widespread Rohingya radicalisation, either in Myanmar or abroad. Rather, the Rohingya in Malaysia and Bangladesh disapprove of ARSA’s approach to the crisis and denounce the employment of violence for political goals. For them, the larger concern is the political fragmentation in their community and the lack of effective leadership..."
Author/creator: MOHD NAWAB BIN MOHD OSMAN & AIDA AROSOAIE
Language: English
Source/publisher: New Mandala
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2018


Title: UN Security Council Must Halt Disastrous March of Myanmar’s Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya
Date of publication: 09 February 2018
Description/subject: "Abdu Salam stayed in his village as Myanmar soldiers and local vigilantes burned down dozens of homes there last August. He stayed as news spread of atrocities that soldiers had committed in other Rohingya villages across northern Rakhine State. He stayed because Hpon Nyo Leik village was his home, the only home he’d known, and he wanted to protect his family’s property and right to live there. But when, at the end of 2017, the Myanmar military’s starvation tactics left Abdu Salam’s family struggling to find food, they were forced to join the exodus to Bangladesh. On 13 February, the UN Security Council will be briefed again on the situation in Myanmar. The briefing comes as the Myanmar government says it’s ready to start repatriating people from Bangladesh. But the military’s efforts to drive the Rohingya population out of the country haven’t even ground to a halt. The Security Council’s inaction, amid a weak international response to the ongoing crimes against humanity, has been a key part of the problem..."
Author/creator: Matthew Wells
Language: English
Source/publisher: Inter Press Service (IPS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2018


Title: Massacre in Myanmar
Date of publication: 08 February 2018
Description/subject: "How Myanmar forces burned, looted and killed in a remote village... On Sept. 2, Buddhist villagers and Myanmar troops killed 10 Rohingya men in Myanmar's restive Rakhine state. Reuters uncovered the massacre and has pieced together how it unfolded. During the reporting of this article, two Reuters journalists were arrested by Myanmar police.NN DIN, Myanmar – Bound together, the 10 Rohingya Muslim captives watched their Buddhist neighbors dig a shallow grave. Soon afterwards, on the morning of Sept. 2, all 10 lay dead. At least two were hacked to death by Buddhist villagers. The rest were shot by Myanmar troops, two of the gravediggers said. “One grave for 10 people,” said Soe Chay, 55, a retired soldier from Inn Din’s Rakhine Buddhist community who said he helped dig the pit and saw the killings. The soldiers shot each man two or three times, he said. “When they were being buried, some were still making noises. Others were already dead.” The killings in the coastal village of Inn Din marked another bloody episode in the ethnic violence sweeping northern Rakhine state, on Myanmar’s western fringe. Nearly 690,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled their villages and crossed the border into Bangladesh since August. None of Inn Din’s 6,000 Rohingya remained in the village as of October..."
Author/creator: WA LONE, KYAW SOE OO, SIMON LEWIS and ANTONI SLODKOWSKI
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters
Format/size: html, jpeg
Date of entry/update: 15 February 2018


Title: AP finds evidence for graves, Rohingya massacre in Myanmar
Date of publication: 01 February 2018
Description/subject: "BALUKHALI REFUGEE CAMP, Bangladesh (AP) — The faces of the men half-buried in the mass graves had been burned away by acid or blasted by bullets. Noor Kadir finally recognized his friends only by the colors of their shorts. Kadir and 14 others, all Rohingya Muslims in the Myanmar village of Gu Dar Pyin, had been choosing players for the soccer-like game of chinlone when the gunfire began. They scattered from what sounded like hard rain on a tin roof. By the time the Myanmar military stopped shooting, only Kadir and two teammates were left alive. Days later, Kadir found six of his friends among the bodies in two graves. They are among at least five mass graves, all previously unreported, that have been confirmed by The Associated Press through multiple interviews with more than two dozen survivors in Bangladesh refugee camps and through time-stamped cellphone videos. The Myanmar government regularly claims such massacres of the Rohingya never happened, and has acknowledged only one mass grave containing 10 “terrorists” in the village of Inn Din. However, the AP’s reporting shows a systematic slaughter of Rohingya Muslim civilians by the military, with help from Buddhist neighbors — and suggests many more graves hold many more people..."
Author/creator: FOSTER KLUG
Language: English
Source/publisher: Associated Press (AP)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2018


Title: AP Investigation Details Shocking Massacre, Mass Graves Of Myanmar Rohingya
Date of publication: 01 February 2018
Description/subject: "The AP uncovered evidence of at least five mass graves at one location, Gu Dar Pyin, that bolster charges leveled by the U.S. and United Nations of ethnic cleansing in the country's northern Rakhine state. About 200 soldiers, known as Tatmadaw, swept into the area on Aug. 27, according to witnesses. One of them, Mohammad Sha, 37, a shop owner and farmer, told the news agency that he "hid in a grove of coconut trees near a river with more than 100 others. They watched as the military searched Muslim homes and dozens of Buddhist neighbors, their faces partly covered with scarves, loaded the possessions they found into about 10 pushcarts. Then the soldiers burned down the homes, shooting anyone who couldn't flee, Sha said."..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Associated Press (AP)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2018


Title: Five new mass graves discovered in Burma
Date of publication: 01 February 2018
Description/subject: "At least five previously unreported mass graves have been uncovered in Burma, in the newest piece of evidence for what looks increasingly like genocide against the Rohingya in Rakhine state. The Associated Press confirmed the existence of the graves around the village of Gu Dar Pyin, through interviews with more than two dozen survivors in Bangladesh refugee camps and time-stamped mobile phone videos. The government regularly claims massacres like Gu Dar Pyin never happened, and has acknowledged only one mass grave containing 10 “terrorists” in the village of Inn Din. The AP findings suggest not only the military’s slaughter of civilians but the presence of many more graves with many more people...The UN special envoy on human rights in Burma [Yanghee Lee] said the military’s violent operations against Rohingya Muslims bear “the hallmarks of a genocide”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: AP via "Daily Mail"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2018


Title: BRIEFING: MYANMAR FORCES STARVE, ABDUCT AND ROB ROHINGYA, AS ETHNIC CLEANSING CONTINUES
Date of publication: February 2018
Description/subject: "The Myanmar security forces are committing serious human rights violations against the Rohingya population that remained in northern Rakhine State through the military’s campaign of violence last year. Since 30 November 2017, thousands of Rohingya women, men, and children have fled to Bangladesh, bringing the total number of Rohingya who have fled since August 2017 to 688,000.[1] On 25 August 2017, Myanmar’s military launched an operation against the Rohingya population across northern Rakhine State, after a Rohingya armed group, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), attacked around 30 security force outposts, killing 12 state officials. The military’s campaign has been marked by crimes against humanity, including the widespread killing of Rohingya women, men, and children; rape and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls; mass deportation; and the systematic burning of villages..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (211K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ASA1678352018ENGLISH.pdf
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/02/07/briefing-myanmar-forces-starve-abduct-and-rob-rohing...
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: RAPE BY COMMAND: SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS A WEAPON AGAINST THE ROHINGYA
Date of publication: February 2018
Description/subject: "This report documents the widespread, systematic use of sexual violence by the Myanmar Army during its brutal “clearance operation” in northern Rakhine State in the second half of 2017. This operation has driven over 680,000 Rohingya villagers into Bangladesh. Testimonies of 36 refugees, eight of whom are rape survivors, provide evidence that government troops raped well over 300 women and girls in or near at least seventeen villages across Maungdaw and northern Buthidaung townships, as well as in Maungdaw town, during the operation. With over 350 villages attacked and burned at this time, this number is likely only a fraction of the actual total of women raped. In the weeks before the official launch of the operation on August 25, thousands of Myanmar Army troops were deployed from existing military camps in Rakhine State, and from central Myanmar, to reinforce Border Guard Police posts throughout northern Rakhine State. These troops were the main perpetrators of sexual violence, at every stage of the operation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kaladan Press Network via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (551K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/02/21/rape-by-command-sexual-violence-as-a-weapon-against-...
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: Myanmar/Bangladesh: A Humanitarian Calamity and a Two-country Crisis
Date of publication: 31 January 2018
Description/subject: "Crisis Group’s early-warning Watch List identifies up to ten countries and regions at risk of conflict or escalation of violence. In these situations, early action, driven or supported by the EU and its member states, would generate stronger prospects for peace. It includes a global overview, regional summaries, and detailed analysis on select countries and conflicts. The Watch List 2018 includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh/Myanmar, Cameroon, Colombia, Egypt, Iraq, Sahel, Tunisia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe"..... Myanmar/Bangladesh section of ICG's "Watchlist 2018": "Violent operations by the military, border police and vigilante groups in Myanmar have forced some 750,000 Rohingya to flee northern Rakhine for Bangladesh over the last twelve months. These numbers represent more than 85 per cent of the Rohingya population in the three affected townships. Significant bilateral and multilateral criticism – in the UN Security Council, General Assembly and Human Rights Council – has failed to temper the approach of the Myanmar government and military. The UN, as well as the U.S. and other governments, have declared the 2017 campaign against the Rohingya “ethnic cleansing” and likely crimes against humanity; some have raised the possibility that it may constitute genocide....While relations between Bangladesh and Myanmar are tense, there appears to be little risk of direct conflict between the two countries’ armies. Likewise, in the view of Bangladeshi security forces, the possibility of the displaced Rohingya being recruited or used by Bangladeshi or transnational jihadist groups is low. Perhaps more dangerous, ahead of national elections to be held near the end of 2018, is that the presence of a large refugee population could ignite the simmering communal conflict among Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus as well as ethnic minorities, especially in the highly militarised Chittagong Hill Tracts. It also is worth noting that these refugees – whose presence Bangladeshi politicians privately suggest could well be permanent – are located in a part of the country where the influence of Hefazat-e-Islam (Protectors of Islam), a hardline coalition of government-allied Islamist organisations, is strongest. The Hefazat was first to respond to the refugee crisis. It has since threatened to launch a jihad against Myanmar unless it stops persecuting the Rohingya. Hefazat has in recent years gained significant influence over the nominally secular Awami League, the ruling party, and now holds effective veto power over the government’s social and religious policies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2018


Title: Is Myanmar 'whitewashing' the Rohingya crisis? (video)
Date of publication: 26 January 2018
Description/subject: "Frustration over Myanmar's handling of the Rohingya crisis has boiled over into an argument between Aung San Suu Kyi and her former friend, now critic, Bill Richardson. The former US ambassador to the UN resigned from an advisory panel set-up by the government after accusing members of trying to 'whitewash' the crisis. And in his resignation letter, Richardson accused members of being a 'cheerleading squad' for the government. Officials reacted by accusing Richardson of having his own agenda. His criticisms raise further doubts about a deal to repatriate nearly 700,000 Rohingya refugees stuck in Bangladesh... Presenter: Mohammed Jamjoom Guests: Tun Khin - President, Burmese Rohingya Organisation in the UK Matthew Smith - Chief executive, Fortify Rights Phil Robertson - Deputy director, Human Rights Watch Asia Division
Author/creator: Mohammed Jamjoom, Tun Khin, Matthew Smith, Phil Robertson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 27 January 2018


Title: Three steps Myanmar should take to turn the Rohingya disaster around
Date of publication: 26 January 2018
Description/subject: "For the past two months, I have served on an international panel designed to help the Myanmar government arrive at just and reasonable policies for its conflict in Rakhine state, including its long-suffering Rohingya minority. This week I resigned. The reason: I have little confidence in the body’s ability to address the critical challenges facing the region and the country. Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s effective leader, is isolated and unwilling to listen to constructive criticism. Her government is focused on getting things done quickly instead of getting them done right. If Myanmar, also known as Burma, is to have any hope of preventing a further downward spiral to the crisis in Rakhine state and restoring its international reputation, immediate and dramatic changes are required. A continuation of the current approach is likely to lead to a dangerous cycle of violence that threatens both Myanmar’s hopes for peace and democracy and broader regional stability..."
Author/creator: Bill Richardson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Washington Post"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 January 2018


Title: Exclusive: Richardson quits Myanmar's 'whitewash' Rohingya crisis panel
Date of publication: 25 January 2018
Language: English
Source/publisher: Channel News Asia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2018


Title: Top American advisor quits Myanmar's 'whitewash' advisory panel
Date of publication: 25 January 2018
Description/subject: "Bangkok: Myanmar’s de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi is living in a “bubble” and blames her country’s woes on the media, United Nations, human rights groups and other countries, according to one of her most powerful international allies. US diplomat Bill Richardson quit a 10-member international panel set up to advise Myanmar on the Rohingya crisis, saying it was conducting a “whitewash” and accusing Suu Kyi of lacking “moral leadership"..."
Author/creator: Lindsay Murdoch
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Sydney Morning Herald"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2018


Title: SUMMARY OF SITUATION UPDATE FOR DECEMBER 2017
Date of publication: 23 January 2018
Description/subject: "The department of Manpower said a group to scrutinize Rohingya refugees was formed with the representatives from three ministries. The Director General of Labor, Immigration and Manpower department U Myint Kyaing said the group includes officials from the Ministry of Foreign and Home Affairs as well as from the Ministry of Labor, Immigration and Manpower. The government said it will do securitization of returnees according to the Burma Citizenship Law of 1982 and those who do not meet criteria under the law would not be allow to come back. Local residents of Maungtaw urged the government not allow Rohingya refugees to resettle near the villages of Rakhine people. The call was made in a public gathering of local people held on 7 December. The call was made as the government prepares to repatriate tens of thousands of Rohingya refugees who fled to Bangladesh in recent months. A nine-point statement was issued on 6 December after the meeting which include condemnation of the United Nations and the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC), which said, are supporting Rhingyas. The statement also condemns criticism by the international community on the government and the military for their handling of the crisis..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Human Rights Network via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Summary-for-December-2017.pdf
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/01/23/summary-of-situation-update-for-december-2017/
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: No Man's Land (video)
Date of publication: 22 January 2018
Description/subject: "A plan to repatriate Rohingya refugees from Bangladesh back to Myanmar is scheduled to begin on January 23, 2018. This film, based on interviews conducted with Rohingya refugees and others in Bangladesh, highlights concerns with the plans..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (8 minutes 51 seconds)
Alternate URLs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ly6TJDpmv98
Date of entry/update: 03 March 2018


Title: 2018 MUST SEEK TO HOLD THE MYANMAR ARMY ACCOUNTABLE AND END ITS IMPUNITY AND CRIMES AGAINST MINORITIES
Date of publication: 17 January 2018
Description/subject: "2018 begins in the same vein that 2017 finished, with the continued military offensives, the denial of access to independent human rights investigators and the continuing arrests of journalists. Further, the deteriorating human rights situation in Myanmar[1] is inextricably linked to the entrenched power and impunity of the Myanmar Army, which continues to overshadow any efforts towards achieving sustainable peace and democracy in Myanmar. These events over the holiday period serve to demonstrate the enormity of challenges that Myanmar must deal with in the year ahead. Arbitrary arrests of journalists have highlighted the real and continued danger that those investigating abuses of power face. Following the arrest of three journalists in Shan State last year in June, and the arrest of journalist and photographer Aung Naing Soe, Singaporean journalist Lau Hon Meng and Malaysian journalist Mok Choy Lin in November, the arrest and detention in December of two Reuters journalists, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo, under the Official Secrets Act, threatens press freedom and has drawn wide condemnation. The two Reuters journalists were investigating the Rohingya crisis in Rakhine State and now face up to 14 years in jail. The persecution of journalists reporting stories on human rights violations, especially related to ethnic and religious repression and armed conflict, is a worrying precedent and is indicative of a shrinking space in civil society for those speaking out against human rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: SUBMISSION FROM BURMA CAMPAIGN UK: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE INQUIRY – DFID’S COUNTRY PROGRAMME IN BURMA AND BANGLADESH
Date of publication: 10 January 2018
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK via ''Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/international-deve...
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: BANGLADESH AND BURMA: THE ROHINGYA CRISIS
Date of publication: 09 January 2018
Description/subject: "In the past several months1 the international community has watched as a huge human tragedy unfolded for the Rohingya people living in the northern Burmese state of Rakhine.2 In a culmination of many decades of discrimination, marginalisation and abuse, a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing”3 has been perpetrated by Burma’s security forces against the Rohingya under the guise of an appropriate response to militia violence in the summer..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Development Committee via ''Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/01/15/bangladesh-and-burma-the-rohingya-crisis/
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/504.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: GENEVA PALAIS BRIEFING NOTE: THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR
Date of publication: 09 January 2018
Description/subject: "GENEVA, 9 January 2018 – “I spent 6 December through 3 January in Myanmar, almost half of that time in Rakhine State. I traveled to the northern part of the state – where the violence broke out last August, driving 655,000 people, the vast majority of them Rohingya, across the border into Bangladesh. I also went to central Rakhine, where over 120,000 Rohingya have been stranded in squalid camps since 2012, and about 200,000 more live in villages where their freedom of movement and access to basic services are also increasingly restricted..."
Author/creator: MARIXIE MERCADO
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF Spokesperson In Geneva via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.unicef.org/media/media_102378.html
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Burma at 70: why it’s time to end the Myanmar morality play
Date of publication: 08 January 2018
Description/subject: "Like 90% of countries around the world, every year Burma (now Myanmar) marks the day its corner of the world was supposed to have changed for the better. Here it’s January 4th, when the country gained its independence from Britain. As arbitrary as it can sometimes feel, Independence Day is at least a good opportunity for reflection. Even more so when it’s a nice round number like 2018, which marks exactly 70 years of independence for Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Alex Bescoby
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 January 2018


Title: The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights’ fears on Myanmar’s shrinking political space
Date of publication: 05 January 2018
Description/subject: "The High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein announced on December 20, 2017 that he wouldn’t be seeking a second mandate, due to the “appalling climate for advocacy” in the current geopolitical system. This comes as a worrying warning regarding the inability of the UN system to respond to multiplying conflicts across the globe, from Syria to Yemen, and from Myanmar to Iraq, with acts amounting to crimes against humanity. His nomination in 2014— which was unanimously approved by all 193 member states of the UN General Assembly— was at the time perceived as a positive sign, showing a political will to strengthen human rights within the UN system. The former professional diplomat, who has acquired a strong reputation as a fierce defender of human rights, never shied away from speaking truth even to the most powerful states within the UN. He was especially vocal in his criticism of Russian support to the Syrian government, and regularly denounced the Trump administration’s faux pas, from the travel bans against citizens from Muslim majority countries to the administration’s reaction to the demonstrations organized by white supremacists in Virginia..."
Author/creator: Morgane Dussud
Language: English
Source/publisher: Teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: Reframing the Crisis in Myanmar’s Rakhine State
Date of publication: January 2018
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Institute Of Peace via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (231K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/pb242-reframing-the-crisis-in-myanma...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/01/22/reframing-the-crisis-in-myanmars-rakhine-state/
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: “TELL THEM WE’RE HUMAN” WHAT CANADA AND THE WORLD CAN DO ABOUT THE ROHINGYA CRISIS
Date of publication: 2018
Description/subject: "As Prime Minister Trudeau’s Special Envoy to Myanmar, I engaged in extensive research, travel and meetings with key interlocutors from October 2017 to March 2018 to assess the violent events of August 2017 and afterward that led more than 671,000 Rohingya to flee their homes in Rakhine State, Myanmar, and seek refuge in neighbouring Bangladesh. This report focuses on the following four themes: the need to combine principle and pragmatism in responding to the serious humanitarian crisis in both Myanmar and Bangladesh; the ongoing political challenges in Myanmar; the strong signals that crimes against humanity were committed in the forcible and violent displacement of more than 671,000 Rohingya from Rakhine State in Myanmar; and the clear need for more effective coordination of both domestic and international efforts. The humanitarian crisis in Bangladesh and Myanmar: With the arrival of more than 671,000 additional refugees in Bangladesh since August 25, 2017, the displaced Rohingya population living in camps in Bangladesh now approaches one million. Camps are overcrowded, the population is traumatized, and the rainy season will soon be upon them. UN agencies have responded with a Joint Response Plan aiming to gather US$950.8 million for the next year. In addition, there could be as many as 450,000 Rohingya remaining in central and northern Rakhine State. Their situation is precarious. Many are in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP), and others are essentially locked into their villages, with poor food supplies and little access to international humanitarian assistance. This demands a response from the international community, and Canada needs to play a strong role. Canada needs to increase its budget dedicated to the crisis, as well as to encourage deeper coordination with like-minded countries. Canada and other countries should also explore avenues to allow the Rohingya to be eligible to apply for refugee status and resettlement, including in Canada, but it needs to be stressed that resettlement alone will not solve the problem..."
Author/creator: Prime Minister Trudeau’s Special Envoy to Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Prime Minister Trudeau’s Special Envoy to Myanmar/Government of Canada
Format/size: html, pdf (3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/04/03/tell-them-were-human-what-canada-and-the-world-can-d...
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2018


Title: The Rohingya and the World
Date of publication: 28 December 2017
Description/subject: "Ending Myanmar's ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya will require confronting both local elites and foreign capital...In Myanmar’s ongoing massacre of the Rohingya — a two-million person strong Muslim minority — the country’s military has burned hundreds of villages, destroyed thousands of homes, and slaughtered 6,700 people. Gang rape, torture, and infanticide have punctuated the egress of the Rohingya, more than 660,000 of whom have fled from northwestern Rakhine state into Bangladesh. These obscenities have not been occasional excesses but rather, according to a United Nations Human Rights investigation, part of a “consistent, methodical pattern” — an ethnic cleansing. The horror, in its seeming boundlessness, feels alien. And yet, in its popular renderings, there is also something all too familiar about it. The images of Rohingya enduring injustice blur with images of other groups, enduring other injustices in other places..."
Author/creator: Elliott Prasse-Freeman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Jacobin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 December 2017


Title: Myanmar's Rohingya Exodus: How to Solve Asia's Most Pressing Humanitarian Crisis (video)
Date of publication: 26 December 2017
Description/subject: "The exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar's western Rakhine state has created one of the world's most urgent refugee crises and perhaps the most pressing humanitarian challenge to face Asia over recent decades. Estimates suggest that as many as 600,000 have left Myanmar for neighbouring Bangladesh over recent months, following a military crack-down in the aftermath of attacks by Rohingya militant groups. Media commentary of the crisis has focused on allegations of ethnic cleansing, which have been strongly denied by Myanmar's government, led by Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy. However, both the deeper causes of the current problems and what now needs to happen to resolve the crisis remains little understood. This event will focus on both of these issues — what caused the current events, and what now needs to be done to bring it to an end? — with together an expert panel with direct experience of Myanmar and attempts to resolve similar humanitarian crises in other parts of the world..... The panelists consist of: ## Mr Adam Cooper, Myanmar Country Representative, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue ## Assoc Prof Francesco Mancini, Associate Dean and Visiting Associate Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy ## Ms Moe Thuzar, Coordinator, Myanmar Studies Programme, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ## Ms Emma Hogan, South-East Asia Correspondent, The Economist This event is moderated by: Mr James Crabtree, Senior Visiting Research Fellow, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy".....It is not quite clear when the discussion took place. The page states that the video was "published" on 26 December 2017, but is this the actual date of the discussion?
Author/creator: Panel discussion with: Mr James Crabtree, Ms Moe Thuzar, Ms Emma Hogan, Prof Francesco Mancini
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (Singapore)
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (1 hour, 5 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 27 December 2017


Title: The “ethnic cleansing” of Myanmar’s Rohingya Muslims, explained (video)
Date of publication: 25 December 2017
Description/subject: "The Rohingya have been systematically driven out by the Myanmar government leading to the fastest growing humanitarian crisis in recent years".
Language: English
Source/publisher: Vox
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 5.14 minutes
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Will Rohingya Refugees Start Returning to Myanmar in 2018?
Date of publication: 22 December 2017
Description/subject: "Most went back home from Bangladesh in two earlier exoduses, but this time is different... The signing of a repatriation agreement between Myanmar and Bangladesh on 23 November has raised expectations — and concerns — of an imminent return of Rohingya refugees to northern Rakhine state. But the reality is that no repatriation is likely in the foreseeable future. Many of the 700,000 Rohingya who fled over the past year would choose to return under the right circumstances — Myanmar is their home, where they have lived for generations, and they see no future for themselves and their children in the Bangladesh camps. But much would need to change. First and foremost is physical security. This is a deeply traumatized population, many of whom suffered or witnessed acts of horrific violence. They will not be ready to return unless they are assured of their safety. This seems an unlikely prospect, given that the government and military both deny the extent of the abuses that occurred — the military exonerated itself through an internal investigation that found not a single shot had been fired at civilians and state media regularly denies allegations of abuses reported by human rights organizations and the international media. Many of the abuses, including sexual violence, were perpetrated by military-backed vigilante groups made up of non-Muslim villagers in the area, who operate with considerable impunity. Second is the ability to sustain livelihoods. The repatriation agreement provides that people will be able to return to their places of origin. If this is allowed in practice, and they are able to reclaim their land, they fundamentally require freedom of movement, to reach their farms and fishing grounds, to go where their day labor is needed and to access markets. This requires reassurance on physical security, as well as lifting the onerous movement restrictions and curfews put in place following attacks in late 2016 and August 2017 by Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army militants..."
Author/creator: Richard Horsey
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Nikkei Asian Review", Crisis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: Myanmar blocks UN rights investigator weeks before visit
Date of publication: 20 December 2017
Description/subject: "The UN independent investigator into human rights in Myanmar is calling for stronger international pressure to be exerted on Myanmar's military commanders after she was barred from visiting the country for the rest of her tenure. Yanghee Lee said she had been due to visit in January to assess human rights across Myanmar — including alleged abuses against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State. But Myanmar told her she was no longer welcome. "From what I see right now, I'm not sure if they are feeling pressured. I'm not sure if there is the right kind of pressure placed on the military commanders and the generals," she later told Reuters by phone from Seoul. Myanmar security forces may be guilty of genocide against Rohingya: UN Destruction of Rohingya villages continues: Human Rights Watch She said it was alarming that Myanmar was strongly supported by China, which has a veto at the UN's top table in New York. Other countries, including the United States, and human groups were advocating targeted sanctions on the military, she said..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: CBC News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 December 2017


Title: MASSACRE BY THE RIVER: BURMESE ARMY CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY IN TULA TOLI
Date of publication: 19 December 2017
Description/subject: "On August 30, 2017, Hassina Begum, a 20-year-old ethnic Rohingya woman, was among the few survivors of a massacre of unspeakable brutality. Just days after a deadly attack by Rohingya militants against Burmese security forces, hundreds of Burmese soldiers in uniform, along with ethnic Rakhine villagers armed with machetes and wooden sticks, attacked the village of Tula Toli, officially known as Min Gyi, in Maungdaw Township in Burma’s Rakhine State, also known as Arakan State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/12/19/massacre-by-the-river-burmese-army-crimes-against-hu...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/burma1217_web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Burma and the Rohingya Crisis: We Can Oppose Ethnic Cleansing Without Accepting Simple Answers
Date of publication: 15 December 2017
Description/subject: It had been several years since I had seen my Burmese friends, and I knew the Rohingya crisis would come up. When it did, they looked at each other apprehensively, then one of them spoke up: “You might not like what we have to say.” "My friends are Burman Buddhists. I got to know them in the early 2000s in the context of the pro-democracy struggle, which they enthusiastically supported. In those days, Aung San Suu Kyi was considered beyond criticism by many people in the opposition movement. In the Western media, Suu Kyi was practically deified..."
Author/creator: Rosalie Metro
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2017


Title: Is This Genocide? Survivors describe Myanmar soldiers killing men, raping women and burning babies in a Rohingya village.
Date of publication: 15 December 2017
Description/subject: "SOUTHEAST BANGLADESH, NEAR THE MYANMAR BORDER — “Ethnic cleansing” and even “genocide” are antiseptic and abstract terms. What they mean in the flesh is a soldier grabbing a crying baby girl named Suhaifa by the leg and flinging her into a bonfire. Or troops locking a 15-year-old girl in a hut and setting it on fire. The children who survive are left haunted: Noor Kalima, age 10, struggles in class in a makeshift refugee camp. Her mind drifts to her memory of seeing her father and little brother shot dead, her baby sister’s and infant brother’s throats cut, the machete coming down on her own head, her hut burning around her … and it’s difficult to focus on multiplication tables. “Sometimes I can’t concentrate on my class,” Noor explained. “I want to throw up.” In the past I’ve referred to Myanmar’s atrocities against its Rohingya Muslim minority as “ethnic cleansing,” but increasingly there are indications that the carnage may amount to genocide. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, backed by a Myanmar-focused human rights organization called Fortify Rights, argues that there is “growing evidence of genocide,” and Yale scholars made a similar argument even before the latest spasms of violence. Romeo Dallaire, a legendary former United Nations general, describes it as “very deliberate genocide.” The U.N. human rights chief, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, told me, “It would not surprise me at all if a court in the future were to judge that acts of genocide had taken place.”..."
Author/creator: Nicholas Kristof
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New York Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2017


Title: ROHINGYA CRISIS IN BANGLADESH: A SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM SIX POOLED SURVEYS
Date of publication: 14 December 2017
Description/subject: "On 25 August 2017, a counter-insurgency military operation in Rakhine State, Myanmar, led to a mass displacement of Rohingya civilians into Bangladesh. Over the following three months, some 626,000 Rohingya crossed into Bangladesh to escape the violence. To assess the scale of the emergency and the needs for humanitarian assistance, Doctors Without borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) conducted six surveys to estimate the retrospective mortality of the population residing in Kutupalong, Balukhali and Tasnimarkhola settlements in Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh (Figure 1). The surveys targeted a total estimated population of 608,108, 82.8% of whom were “newly-displaced” from Myanmar, i.e. had arrived after 25 August 2017..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
Format/size: pdf(547K)
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Myanmar’s Repatriation Plan Offers Little for the Rohingya
Date of publication: 13 December 2017
Description/subject: "On November 22, Myanmar and Bangladesh signed a Chinese-brokered accord for the tentative repatriation of hundreds of thousands of refugees currently living in Bangladesh. The agreement will in principle allow for the return of over 620,000 Rohingya refugees, most of whom fled Myanmar in the wake of a recent military government-backed crackdown under circumstances that many, including myself, have dubbed genocide. News of the repatriation agreement has been generally well received by the international community. The majority of States undoubtedly breathed a sigh of relief that they would not be forced to wrestle with the intricacies and international legal implications of—as French President Macron uniquely dubbed the crisis—“this genocide which is unfolding.” After all, under international law, for one State to acknowledge that a genocide is occurring in another obliges the recognizing State to act to stop the atrocities. Yet for all the world’s lofty “never again” rhetoric in the aftermath of the Holocaust (when the Genocide Convention was enacted), what nations would wish to embroil themselves in yet another far-flung conflict—this time in Rakhine State, a location of little geopolitical or economic significance to most outside players? And what chance is there that the United Nations would take any action, particularly with China—one of the few players with important ties to Myanmar and major investments in Rakhine—holding veto rights on the Security Council?..."
Author/creator: Ashley Starr Kinseth
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2017


Title: MYANMAR HUMANITARIAN FUND: 2017 OVERVIEW
Date of publication: 12 December 2017
Description/subject: ''The Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (MHF) mobilizes resources for partners to respond to the critical humanitarian needs in Myanmar. In 2017, a total of US$9.8 million has been allocated to 25 projects targeting 443,300 persons, of which 54% are women and girls, and 49%, children and adolescents under 18. It provided funding to both national and international humanitarian organizations to respond to crises in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states, as well as supporting the priorities set out in the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) and responding to cyclone Mora in Rakhine. Allocations targeted both for internally displaced persons and the host communities, across targeted areas in clear linkage with the strategic objectives defined by the HRP, updated assessments and existing humanitarian coordination mechanisms..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: UN Office for The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html, pdf (821K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/12/12/myanmar-humanitarian-fund-2017-overview/
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Myanmar_MHF_Update_Dec2017.pdf
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Myanmar_MHF_Update_Dec2017-MMR_final...
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Myanmar/Bangladesh: MSF surveys estimate that at least 6,700 Rohingya were killed during the attacks in Myanmar
Date of publication: 12 December 2017
Description/subject: "Surveys conducted by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in refugee settlement camps in Bangladesh estimate that at least 9,000 Rohingya died in Myanmar, in Rakhine state, between 25 August and 24 September. As 71.7% of the reported deaths were caused by violence, at least 6,700 Rohingya, in the most conservative estimations, are estimated to have been killed, including at least 730 children below the age of five years..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), (Doctors Without Borders
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.msf.org/en/article/myanmarbangladesh-rohingya-crisis-summary-findings-six-pooled-surveys (pooled surveys)
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2017


Title: The international community must listen to the voices of Burma’s internally and externally displaced people
Date of publication: 12 December 2017
Description/subject: "Not only is a continuation of humanitarian support of internally displaced people (IDPs) and refugees badly needed in Burma, but a change of strategy by the international community is required to get the Burmese government and military to abide by international law and respect the human rights of all its peoples. Burma has to be seen in the context of not just the horrific events in Rakhine State but also in light of the Aung San Suu Kyi-led government’s policies leading up to, and its reaction to, those events..."
Author/creator: Paul Sztumpf
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2017


Title: REPORT: VIOLENCE IN RAKHINE STATE AND THE UK’S RESPONSE
Date of publication: 11 December 2017
Description/subject: "The violence against the Rohingya in Northern Rakhine in Burma amounts to ethnic cleansing, and may also constitute crimes against humanity and even genocide. The displacement of over 600,000 people to Bangladesh is a compelling sign of a desperate population, and the traumatic experiences they have described are reminiscent of infamous atrocities elsewhere. The definition of the violence is important, because it can invoke the Responsibility to Protect, requiring states to act. The UK Government’s equivocation over classifying this violence has therefore been frustratingly confusing. It has also failed to undertake its own legal analysis. This was not befitting its leading international role, and it should immediately investigate and conduct its own assessment of the situation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Foreign Affairs Committee via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html,pdf (358K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/12/11/report-violence-in-rakhine-state-and-the-uks-respons...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/435.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Myanmar’s parliament is missing link in Rakhine crisis
Date of publication: 07 December 2017
Description/subject: "Renaud Egreteau asks how the legislature could provide more oversight on the recent Rakhine State crisis...When the Arakan Rohingya Solidarity Army (ARSA) launched attacks against military and police outposts in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State on August 25, the fifth session of the Union parliament was about to go into recess. Minister of Home Affairs Lt-Gen. Kyaw Swe and his deputy, Maj-Gen. Aung Soe, quickly provided details about the response of the armed forces and police to lawmakers in both parliamentary houses, which have been controlled by the National League for Democracy since the 2015 elections. They explained at length how the country’s constitution and laws, particularly the counter-terrorism legislation passed in 2014, governed the actions of the security forces. The military-appointed lawmakers seconded their report, stressing the commitment of the armed forces, or Tatmadaw, to protect the nation and safeguard its territorial integrity. Little was said, however, about the brutal operations that subsequently triggered the exodus of more than 650,000 refugees into neighbouring Bangladesh. The regular session then adjourned on August 31 and no extraordinary session was convened in response to the crisis. No state of emergency was declared either. Instead, the Union legislature simply went into a six-week recess, reconvening on October 17 for its sixth plenary session. "Could Union lawmakers raise their voices and become meaningfully involved in policy discussions regarding security-related events in Rakhine State? For a country with a relatively young but once active parliament, it is a moment for the legislature to seize the opportunity to assert itself and play a central role in conflict oversight and crisis management..."
Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2017


Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis Enters a Dangerous New Phase
Date of publication: 07 December 2017
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The actions of the Myanmar military in northern Rakhine State have created a major humanitarian catastrophe, a crisis for the country and a security threat to the region. It has strengthened an ugly strand of nationalism that will be long-lasting and could lead to the targeting of other minorities in the future. The crisis will define Myanmar in the eyes of much of the world for years to come, with hugely negative consequences across the board on trade, investment, tourism. The country has squandered its considerable reserves of global good-will just when it needed them most, as it was emerging from decades of isolation from the West. Myanmar has also put itself at much greater risk of attack by transnational jihadist groups. Priority long-term aims of balancing China’s geostrategic influence and economic dominance in the country and rehabilitating the military’s international image have been significantly set back. The abuses against the Rohingya minority have captured global public opinion, and the uncompromising posture of the government has exacerbated the situation. Western countries almost certainly will re-impose some of the sanctions that had been lifted in recent years. As they do so, they should acknowledge their inherent limitations and approach them in a manner that can maximise leverage while minimising collateral damage on Myanmar’s long-suffering population."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html (892K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/ICG-292.htm
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2017


Title: Human Rights Council Special Session on Myanmar, 5 December 2017
Date of publication: 05 December 2017
Description/subject: This dossier contains the text of the resolution, the Statement by the Myanmar Permanent Representative in Geneva, commentary by Amnesty International and the UN press report on the session.
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Human Rights Council
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 December 2017


Title: Are humanitarians making the Rohingya crisis worse?
Date of publication: 04 December 2017
Description/subject: "...Everyone wants the Rohingya problem to just disappear. So the news that Burma and Bangladesh have agreed on a framework to begin returning the Rohingya — without referring to the continuing violence that is driving their exodus, and without any clear role for international human rights monitoring bodies — is as expected as it is depressing. For this is the third Rohingya refugee crisis in 40 years, and the third precipitous return of refugees to a state unwilling to recognize the Rohingya minority’s right to citizenship. In these refugee crises, the international community chose repatriation as an expedient solution rather than trying to impose real change within Burma to end the persecution. If there is to be any hope that these coming returns will not end in disaster — in starvation, in violence, in repatriation while staring down the barrel of a gun — then the disastrous histories of the Rohingya repatriations in 1978 and 1992 must be exposed to critical scrutiny..."
Author/creator: Katy Long
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Washington Post"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2017


Title: The true origins of Myanmar’s Rohingya
Date of publication: 04 December 2017
Description/subject: "The furious debate over when the ethnic group first arrived in Rakhine state will not easily be resolved ...he recent visit of Pope Francis to Myanmar provoked a storm of controversy over his decision to avoid using the term “Rohingya”, with some accusing the pontiff of unwittingly emboldening ultra-nationalist forces who refuse to accept the term. Others defended the pope’s blatant omission of the word as sound diplomacy at a delicate juncture. The highest authority of the Catholic Church eventually used the word “Rohingya” during his visit to Bangladesh, where over 600,000 Rohingya refugees have fled Myanmar military-led “clearance operations” the United Nations has said represent a textbook example of “ethnic cleansing.” The dailyReport Must-reads from across Asia - directly to your inbox The controversy over the Pope’s use of the term in Bangladesh but not in Myanmar speaks volumes about the gap between how the spiraling humanitarian crisis emanating from western Rakhine state is being viewed inside and outside of Myanmar. And the debate over the use of the word “Rohingya” will intensify in the weeks ahead as the two sides begin a repatriation program that will again put the term in a spotlight. Myanmar’s citizenship criterion is based on the taingyintha, or “national races”, concept. It is defined somewhat arbitrarily as those ethnic groups that were settled in Myanmar in 1823, a year before the first Anglo-Burmese war in which the British conquered Arakan (as Rakhine was officially known until 1989) and other regions of the country. The Citizenship Law passed in 1982 made belonging to one of the national races the primary, though not only, criterion for full citizenship. Nine years later, the government issued a list of 135 official national races, and the Rohingya were notably not on it. Arguably, Myanmar’s military-led state erased them from its national history..."
Author/creator: Carlos Sardiña Galache
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2017


Title: Muslim, Rohingya Profile
Date of publication: December 2017
Description/subject: "Muslims in Burma, most of whom are Sunni, constitute at least 4 per cent of the country’s entire population (CIA World Factbook, 2006), with the largest concentration in the north of Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), especially around Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung, Akyab and Kyauktaw. There are a number of distinct Muslim communities in Burma, not all of which share the same cultural or ethnic background. While the country’s largest Muslim population resides in Rakhine State (also known as Arakan), it is actually made up of two distinct groups: those whose ancestors appear to be long established, going back hundreds and hundreds of years, and others whose ancestors arrived more recently during the British colonial period (from 1824 until 1948). The majority of Muslims in Rakhine State refer to themselves as ‘Rohingya’: their language (Rohingya) is derived from the Bengali language and is similar to the Chittagonian dialect spoken in nearby Chittagong, in Bangladesh. There is some dispute as to whether the Rohingya are indigenous to the region or are more ‘recent’, being in the main the descendants of those who arrived in Rakhine State during the British colonial administration. A second group of Muslims in the Rakhine State does not consider themselves as Rohingya, as they speak Rakhine which is closely related to the Burmese language, claim their ancestors have lived in the state for many centuries, and tend to share similar customs to the Rakhine Buddhists. They identify themselves ‘Arakanese Muslims’, ‘Burmese Muslims’ or simply ‘Muslims’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Minority Rights Group (World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2014


Title: PLAN OF ACTION for Religious Leaders and Actors to prevent Incitement to Violence
Date of publication: December 2017
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Incitement to violence that targets communities or individuals based on their identity can contribute to enabling or preparing atrocity crimes, (genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity), and is both a warning sign and early indicator of the risk of those crimes . Monitoring, preventing and countering incite- ment to violence, particularly in societies divided along identity lines and in situations where tensions are high, can contribute to prevention efforts . States have the primary responsibility to protect popu- lations from atrocity crimes, as well as their incitement, but other actors can and should play a role . Religious leaders and actors can play a particularly influential role, as they have the potential to influence the behaviour of those who follow them and share their beliefs . Given that religion has been misused to justify incitement to violence, it is vital that religious leaders from all faiths show leadership in this matter . The process that led to the development of the Plan of Action for Religious Leaders and Actors to Prevent Incitement to Violence that Could Lead to Atrocity Crimes, known as the “Fez Process”, stemmed from the need to better understand, articulate and encourage the potential of religious leaders to prevent incitement and the violence that it can lead to, and to integrate the work of religious leaders within broader efforts to prevent atrocity crimes . The “Fez Process” refers to a series of consultations, organised by the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect between April 2015 and December 2016, with religious leaders, faith-based and secular organizations, regional organi- zations and subject matter experts from all regions of the world . The recommendations contained in the Plan of Action were developed by the religious leaders and actors who participated in these consultations . They are relevant not only to situations where there is a risk of atrocity crimes, but also to other contexts, including the protection of human rights, the prevention of vio- lent extremism and the prevention of conflict . As efforts to prevent atrocity crimes and their incite- ment are most likely to succeed when different actors are working in collaboration, the Plan of Action also includes recommendations for other actors, including States and state institutions and civil society, includ- ing new and traditional media . The Plan of Action is founded on human rights principles, in particular the right to freedom of expression and opinion, freedom of religion and belief and the right of peaceful assembly . The Plan of Action contains three main clusters of recommendations that aim to prevent , strengthen and build . Each cluster includes recommendations that are organised according to thematic focus . It is recommended that, under the stewardship of the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, this Plan of Action is imple- mented at regional, national and local levels . For a com- prehensive implementation of the Plan of Action, it is recommended that all relevant stakeholders contribute, including state and religious institutions, secular and religious civil society organizations, new and traditional media, academia and education institutions, as well as regional and international organizations . Implementing this Plan of Action could contribute to the prevention of atrocity crimes worldwide, especially in areas affected by religious and sectarian tensions and violence . Its implementation will also enhance the respect, protection and promotion of human rights."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (2.3-reduced version; 4.9MB - original)
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: Anthropology, morality, and the Rohingya
Date of publication: 30 November 2017
Description/subject: "In August 2017, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army attacked police posts and an army base in western Rakhine state, Myanmar, claiming to fight for the rights of Rohingya, an ethnic Muslim minority living in western Myanmar. Within a few weeks, under the pretext of “clearance operations”, more than 600,000 Rohingya people fled across the border into neighbouring Bangladesh amidst reports of extrajudicial killings, sexual violence and arson by Myanmar’s state military, the Tatmadaw. The United Nations has declared this to be “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing”. This categorisation is only strengthened in private conversations with humanitarian actors working in Bangladesh, who describe the sheer scale of war crimes that have been committed against civilian populations since August. And yet the Tatmadaw’s campaign has been disturbingly popular within Myanmar. Many of my friends from fieldwork, including members of other long-oppressed ethnic minorities, have posted in support of what they consider to be a mission to rid the country of illegal immigrants and terrorists. In the midst of the horror, I have been left wondering what my role as a researcher is. Indeed, while the anthropologist in my head cautions me to maintain reflexivity and consider the events more critically, this perspective and my pedagogical training seem inadequate right now..."
Author/creator: Justine Chambers
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: A day on the front line with the Rohingya refugees
Date of publication: 24 November 2017
Description/subject: Fighting malnutrition in Bangladesh "A former member of the US Navy, Lucas Alamprese became a nutritionist as he wanted to do something that would make a difference in people’s lives. As Emergency Surge Nutritionist for the World Food Programme (WFP), he is now at the forefront of efforts to fight malnutrition among Rohingya refugees..."
Author/creator: Shelley Thakral
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Food Programme (WFP)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2017


Title: "CAGED WITHOUT A ROOF" - APARTHEID IN MYANMAR’S RAKHINE STATE
Date of publication: 21 November 2017
Description/subject: "The Rohingya people in Myanmar are trapped in a vicious system of state-sponsored, institutionalised discrimination that amounts to apartheid, said Amnesty International today as it publishes a major new analysis into the root causes of the current crisis in Rakhine State. “Caged without a roof” puts into context the recent wave of violence in Myanmar, when the security forces killed Rohingya people, torched whole villages to the ground, and drove more than 600,000 to flee across the border into Bangladesh. The two-year investigation reveals how authorities severely restrict virtually all aspects of Rohingyas’ lives in Rakhine State and have confined them to what amounts to a ghetto-like existence where they struggle to access healthcare, education or in some areas even to leave their villages. The current situation meets every requirement of the legal definition of the crime against humanity of apartheid. “The Myanmar authorities are keeping Rohingya women, men and children segregated and cowed in a dehumanising system of apartheid. Their rights are violated daily and the repression has only intensified in recent years,” said Anna Neistat, Amnesty International’s Senior Director for Research. “This system appears designed to make Rohingyas’ lives as hopeless and humiliating as possible. The security forces’ brutal campaign of ethnic cleansing in the past three months is just another extreme manifestation of this appalling attitude. “Although these rights violations may not be as visible as those that have hit the headlines in recent months, they are just as horrific. The root causes of the current crisis must be addressed to end the cycle of abuse and make it possible for Rohingya refugees to return to a situation where their rights and dignity are respected.”..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/7436/2017)
Format/size: pdf (reduced version-3MB; original-4.1MB); press release-bu-108K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa16/7484/2017/en/
https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/11/myanmar-apartheid-in-rakhine-state/
https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/11/myanmar-rohingya-trapped-in-dehumanising-apartheid-r...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/AI-2017-11-21-Press%20Release-Myanmar-Caged_without_a_Roof-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2017


Title: Myanmar: Questions and Answers on Human Rights Law in Rakhine State. Briefing Note, November 2017 (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 20 November 2017
Description/subject: Introduction: "More than 600,000 inhabitants of northern Rakhine State have been displaced since 25 August 2017 as a result of security operations commanded by Myanmar’s military, the Tatmadaw, which followed attacks on police posts by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA). This mass movement of people has substantially added to the pre-existing populations of displaced persons from Myanmar both in Rakhine State and in neighboring Bangladesh, resulting in a major humanitarian crisis, amid reports of widespread human rights violations by security forces and human rights abuses by ARSA and non-state actors. The vast majority of persons displaced are Rohingya Muslims, most of whom have crossed to Bangladesh, while tens of thousands remain displaced in Myanmar. Statements and reporting on this crisis have included the use of both legal and non-legal terminology to assess and describe the situation. The following Questions & Answers briefing note from the International Commission of Jurists clarifies some of the applicable national and international law and standards. This briefing note is based upon both independent legal research and a review of public information and reporting on Rakhine State and neighboring Bangladesh, which is a situation that is evolving on a daily basis. A draft advance version of this briefing was prepared on 18 October 2017, and subsequently updated with minor revisions. The below analysis is based upon information publicly available at the time of finalization on 7 November 2017. This briefing is available in Burmese language; the original version is in English language. The authors of this briefing note appreciate the advice and information shared by those who helped inform the development of this briefing note...".....မိတ္ဆက္ ၂ဝ၁၇ ခုုႏွစ္၊ ၾသဂုုတ္လ ၂၅ ရက္မွစ၍ ျမန္မာ့တပ္မေတာ္မွ ဦးစီးကြပ္ကဲသည့္ လုုံျခံဳေရးဆုုိင္ရာ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ား၏ ရလဒ္တစ္ရပ္အေနျဖင့္ ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ေျမာက္ပုိင္း၌ ေနထုိင္သူေပါင္း ၆ဝဝဝဝဝ ေက်ာ္တုိ႔သည္ ထြက္ေျပးတိမ္းေရွာင္ခဲ့ၾကရပါသည္။ ၿပီးေနာက္ အာရကန္ကယ္တင္ေရးတပ္ (ARSA) မွ ရဲစခန္းမ်ားကုုိ တုုိက္ခုုိက္မႈမ်ား ျပဳခဲ့သည္။ ဤသုိ႔ေသာ ျပည္သူမ်ား အစုလုိက္၊ အျပဳံလုိက္လႈပ္ရွားမႈသည္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံမွ ယခင္တည္ရွိၿပီး ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း ဒုကၡသည္ လူဦးေရကုိ ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ႏွင့္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းျဖစ္သည့္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ႏုိင္ငံတုိ႔တြင္ ပုိ၍တုိးမ်ားေစၿပီး၊ ႀကီးမားေသာ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈဆုိင္ရာ အၾကပ္အတည္းကုိေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း၊ လုံျခံဳေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႕မ်ား၏ က်ယ္ျပန္႔ေသာ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးခ်ဳိးေဖာက္မႈမ်ား၊ ARSA ႏွင့္ အစုိးရမဟုတ္သည့္ ပုဂိၢဳလ္၊ သုိ႔မဟုတ္ အဖြဲ႕မ်ား၏ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈ မ်ားကုိေသာ္လည္းေကာင္း ျဖစ္ပြားေစပါသည္။ ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းဒုကၡသည္အမ်ားစုမွာ ႐ုိဟင္ဂ်ာမြတ္ဆလင္မ်ားျဖစ္ၾကၿပီး၊ ၎တုိ႔မွအမ်ားစုသည္ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ႏုိင္ငံသုိ႔ ျဖတ္ေက်ာ္ခဲ့ၾကကာ ေထာင္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာေသာ သူမ်ားသည္လည္း ျမန္မာ ႏုိင္ငံတြင္း၌ပင္ ေရႊ႔ေျပာင္းဒုကၡသည္ ျဖစ္ေနၾကရပါသည္။ ယင္းအၾကပ္အတည္းဆုိင္ရာ သတင္းထုတ္ျပန္ခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ အစီရင္ခံမႈမ်ားတြင္ ျဖစ္ပ်က္သည့္အေျခအေနကုိ အကဲျဖတ္သုံးသပ္ရန္ႏွင့္ ေဖာ္ထုတ္မႈျပဳရန္ တရားဝင္အသုံးအႏႈန္းႏွင့္ တရားဝင္မဟုတ္သည့္ အသုံးအႏႈန္းတုိ႔အား အသုံးျပဳထားေလသည္။ ဆက္လက္ေဖာ္ျပမည့္ အျပည္ျပည္ဆုိင္ရာ ဥပေဒပညာရွင္မ်ားေကာ္မရွင္မွ အေမး၊ အေျဖ ဆုိင္ရာရွင္းလင္းမွတ္ခ်က္သည္ ေအာက္ပါေမးခြန္းမ်ားကုိ လႊမ္းျခံဳသည့္ အခ်ိဳ႕ေသာသက္ဆုိင္ရာျပည္တြင္း၊ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ ဥပေဒႏွင့္ စံခ်ိန္စံညႊန္းမ်ားကုိ ရွင္းလင္းေစပါမည္။ ၁။ လုံျခံဳေရးဆုိင္ရာ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ားအတြက္ မည္သူက တာဝန္ရွိပါသလဲ။ တပ္မေတာ္သည္ ဥပေဒႏွင့္ လက္ေတြ႔က်င့္သုံးမႈအေပၚ မည္မွ်ၾသဇာအာဏာ ရွိပါသလဲ။ ႏုိင္ငံေတာ္မွလုိက္နာရမည့္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ ဥပေဒဆုိင္ရာ တာဝန္မ်ားမွာ အဘယ္နည္း။ မၾကာေသးမီက တပ္မေတာ္၏ စစ္ဆင္ေရးမ်ားကုိ သမၼတမွ အခြင့္အာဏာ ေပးခဲ့ပါသလား။ ၂။ ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္သည္ အေရးေပၚအေျခအေနတစ္ခုေအာက္ က်ေရာက္ေနပါသလား။ ဖြဲ႕စည္းပုံအေျခခံ ဥပေဒဆုိင္ရာ အေရးေပၚအေျခအေနတစ္ရပ္သည္ မည္သုိ႔ျဖစ္ပါမည္နည္း။ ၃။ လုံျခံဳေရးဆုိင္ရာေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ား၏ ျပဳမူခ်က္ကုိ မည္သည့္စည္းမ်ဥ္းမ်ားက ထိန္းေက်ာင္းမႈျပဳသလဲ။ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ လူသားခ်င္းစာနာေထာက္ထားမႈဆုိင္ရာဥပေဒသည္ အက်ိိဳးသက္ေရာက္မႈ ရွိပါသလား။ နယ္ေျမ ‘ရွင္းလင္းေရးစီမံခ်က္’ အတြက္ ဥပေဒေရးရာ အေျခခံတစ္ရပ္ရွိပါသလား။ အင္အားအသုံးျပဳမႈ ဆုိင္ရာ ႏုိင္ငံတကာစံခ်ိန္စံညႊန္းမ်ားသည္ မည္သည္တုိ႔နည္း။ ေျမျမႇဳပ္မုိင္းမ်ား အသုံးျပဳျခင္းကုိ ခြင့္ျပဳေပး သင့္ပါသလား။ လုံျခံဳေရးဆုိင္ရာ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခ်က္မ်ား၌ ပုဂၢလိက တစ္ဦးခ်င္းသည္ ဥပေဒႏွင့္အညီ ပါဝင္ႏုိင္ပါသလား။ ၄။ ARSA ၏ တုုိက္ခုုိက္မႈမ်ားကုုိ ဥပေဒႏွင့္အညီ ျပန္လည္တုုံ႔ျပန္ႏုုိင္ရန္ မည္သုုိ႔ျပဌာန္းထားသနည္း။ ARSA အား ‘အၾကမ္းဖက္မ်ား’ အျဖစ္ သတ္မွတ္လုိက္ခ်င္းအတြက္ ဥပေဒေရးရာ သတ္မွတ္ခ်က္မ်ားရွိပါသလား။ ၅။ လက္ရွိ မ်က္ေမွာက္အေျခအေနသည္ ျပည္တြင္း၊ သုိ႔မဟုတ္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာဥပေဒအရ ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားအျဖစ္ ပါဝင္ေနပါသလား။ အဆုုိပါ ရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ား၏ အနက္ဖြင့္ဆုုိခ်က္မွာ အဘယ္နည္း။ ယင္းအေျခအေနသည္ ‘လူမ်ိဳးစုု သုတ္သင္ရွင္းလင္းျခင္း’ (ethnic cleansing) ျဖစ္ေနပါသလား။ ၆။ တာဝန္ခံမႈအတြက္ အဟန္႔အတားမ်ားသည္ မည္သည္တုိ႔နည္း၊ ၎တုိ႔အား မည္သုိ႔ ေက်ာ္လြန္ႏုိင္မည္ နည္း။ ကုလသမဂၢ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရးေကာင္စီမွ တာဝန္အပ္ႏွင္းထားေသာ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ လြတ္လပ္ေသာ အခ်က္အလက္ ရွာေဖြေရးမစ္ရွင္ (Independent International Fact Finding Mission) ၏ အခန္း က႑ကား အဘယ္နည္း။ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံသည္ ၎တုုိ႔ႏွင့္ပူးေပါင္းမႈျပဳရန္ လုုိက္နာရမည့္ တာဝန္ရွိပါသလား။ ..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Commission of Jurists
Format/size: pdf (330K-English; 2.3MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: https://www.icj.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Myanmar-QA-Rakhine-Advocacy-Briefing-Paper-2017-ENG-...
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/ICJ-2017-11-Rakhine-Advocacy-Briefing-Paper-2017-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2017


Title: Country Policy and Information Note. Burma: Rohingya. Version 1.0 November
Date of publication: 17 November 2017
Description/subject: Policy summary: 3.1.1 "Official and societal discrimination against Rohingya in Burma is widespread. Denial of citizenship severely restricts their rights to study, work, move freely, marry, practise their religion and access health services. In security operations, there have been consistent allegations of Rohingya been victims of torture, indiscriminate killings, burning of houses and rape by the security forces and other state actors. 3.1.2 In general, the level and cumulative effect of the denial of rights and state discrimination against the Rohingya population in Rakhine State is such that it amounts to persecution. 3.1.3 Rohingya who live outside of Rakhine State may also be able to demonstrate a need for international protection depending on their personal circumstances. 3.1.4 Where a claim is refused, it is unlikely to be certifiable as ‘clearly unfounded’..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Home Office (UK)
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 December 2017


Title: "ALL OF MY BODY WAS PAIN” SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST ROHINGYA WOMEN AND GIRLS IN BURMA
Date of publication: 16 November 2017
Description/subject: "I was held down by six men and raped by five of them. First, they [shot and] killed my brother … then they threw me to the side and one man tore my lungi [sarong], grabbed me by the mouth and held me still. He stuck a knife into my side and kept it there while the men were raping me. That was how they kept me in place. … I was trying to move and [the wound] was bleeding more. They were threatening to shoot me..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (702K)
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018


Title: Burma: Widespread Rape of Rohingya Women, Girls:- Soldiers Commit Gang Rape, Murder Children
Date of publication: 16 November 2017
Description/subject: There are two main reports plus a video - See the main and Alternate URLs...."Since August 25, 2017, Burmese security forces have committed widespread rape against women and girls as part of a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Rakhine State. Killings, rapes, arbitrary arrests, and mass arson of homes by Burmese security forces in hundreds of predominantly Rohingya villages have forced more than 600,000 Rohingya to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. Rohingya women, men, and children have arrived in Bangladesh in desperate condition—hungry, exhausted, and sometimes with rape, bullet, or burn injuries. The humanitarian crisis caused by Burma’s atrocities against the Rohingya has been staggering in both scale and speed. The Burmese military’s brutal campaign follows attacks on 30 police posts and an army base by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) on the morning of August 25, 2017 in northern Rakhine State. The government reported that 11 security force personnel were killed. While the government had a duty to respond to the attacks, the Burmese military, supported by Border Police and armed ethnic Rakhine villagers, not only pursued those responsible, but immediately launched large-scale attacks against scores of Rohingya villages under the guise of counter-insurgency operations. Human Rights Watch has found that the violations committed by members of Burma’s security forces against the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State since August 25 amount to crimes against humanity under international law..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via Google (HRW)
Alternate URLs: https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/11/16/all-my-body-was-pain/sexual-violence-against-rohingya-women-a...
https://www.hrw.org/video-photos/video/2017/11/16/video-widespread-rape-ethnic-cleansing-rohingya-b... (video)
https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/11/16/darkness-humans-investigating-mass-rape-burma
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2017


Title: Who can protect the Rohingya Muslims? (video)
Date of publication: 16 November 2017
Description/subject: "Depending on who you ask, the Rohingya people in Myanmar are facing ethnic cleansing, genocide, or simply a complicated situation. Myanmar's government has exonerated itself and says accusations against the military are completely false. Many people across the world disagree. Canada's Prime Minister Justin Trudeau calls the plight of the Rohingya a "tremendous concern". US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has also visited Myanmar and denounced "horrific" violence. What now for the persecuted minority?.."
Author/creator: Presenter: Mohammed Jamjoom. Guests: Matthew Smith - Fortify Rights; Phil Robertson - Human Rights Watch; Simon Billenness - International Campaign for the Rohingya
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: html5 (24 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2017


Title: “THEY TRIED TO KILL US ALL” - Atrocity Crimes against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 15 November 2017
Description/subject: "On October 9, 2016, a previously unknown Rohingya militant group calling itself Harakah al-Yaqin attacked three police outposts in Maungdaw and Rathedaung Townships in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State. Armed mostly with sticks, knives, and improvised explosive devices, the group killed nine state security officials. After renaming itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) in March 2017, the group waged a second attack on 30 police outposts and an army base on August 25, 2017, killing 12 officials. ARSA claimed the attacks were a response to protracted discriminatory treatment and persecution of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar. Immediately following both of those attacks, the Myanmar Army launched clearance operations—a term the military uses to describe ongoing multiagency efforts to combat and apprehend Rohingya militants. In practice, the military and the Government of Myanmar used such operations as a mechanism to commit mass atrocities against Rohingya men, women, and children. Over the past year, Fortify Rights and the Simon-Skjodt Center documented how the Myanmar Army, Air Force, Police Force, and armed civilians carried out an unprecedented, widespread, and systematic attack on Rohingya civilians throughout northern Rakhine State with brutal efficiency. Eyewitness testimony documented in this report reveals how Myanmar state security forces and civilian perpetrators committed mass killings. State security forces opened fire on Rohingya civilians from the land and sky. Soldiers and knife-wielding civilians hacked to death and slit the throats of Rohingya men, women, and children, and Rohingya civilians were burned alive. Soldiers raped and gang-raped Rohingya women and girls and arbitrarily arrested men and boys en masse..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/Fortify_Rights-2017-11-15-They_Tried_to_Kill_Us_All.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2017


Title: International Development Committee Oral evidence: DFID's work on Bangladesh, Burma and the Rohingya crisis
Date of publication: 14 November 2017
Description/subject: Watch the meeting... Members present: Stephen Twigg (Chair); Richard Burden; James Duddridge; Mr Nigel Evans; Mrs Pauline Latham; Chris Law; Mr Ivan Lewis; Lloyd Russell-Moyle; Paul Scully; Mr Virendra Sharma. Questions 1 – 48 Witnesses I: David Mepham, UK Director, Human Rights Watch; Dr Champa Patel, Head of Asia Programme, Chatham House; Mark Farmaner, Director, Burma Campaign UK; Tun Khin, President, Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK . II: Matthew Saltmarsh, Senior Communications Officer, UNHCR; Daphne Jayasinghe, Senior Policy and Advocacy Adviser, International Rescue Committee; Ian Mowatt, Regional Portfolio Manager, World Vision.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UK Parliament
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.parliamentlive.tv/Event/Index/7f81fb9d-f8a1-499f-991c-27431f048d80 (Webcast of meeting)
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2017


Title: Rohingya crisis: 'Rape and murder' in the Village of Tula Toli
Date of publication: 14 November 2017
Description/subject: "These are the harrowing accounts of villagers of Tula Toli where Rohingya Muslims were massacred - a special investigation by BBC Newsnight, Reporter Gabriel Gatehouse, Producer James Clayton; Filmed and Edited by Jack Garland..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Alternate URLs: Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog World In Pictures https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Big Hitters https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Just Good News https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Understanding the Rohingya Crisis: Race, Religion, and Violence in Burma (video)
Date of publication: 14 November 2017
Description/subject: "The Rohingya, a Muslim minority of Burma of approximately two million people, are enduring a protracted and ongoing ethnic cleansing campaign. In September alone the Myanmar military burned hundreds of villages and forced nearly half a million to flee to Bangladesh. Journalist Francis Wade, the author of Myanmar’s Enemy Within: Buddhist Violence and the Making of a Muslim ‘Other' (2017), joins James C. Scott, Kyaw Hsan Hlaing, and Myo Win in an panel moderated by Elliott Prasse-Freeman to explore the deep roots of these events, examining how violent prejudices were nurtured by the military and activated during the democratic transition and what potential there is for peace and security in Burma not only for the Rohingya but for the country's other minorities."
Author/creator: Francis Wade, James C. Scott, Elliott Prasse-Freeman,Kyaw Hsan Hlaing, Myo Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: Yale University
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 29 December 2017


Title: Information released by the Tatmadaw True News Information Team
Date of publication: 13 November 2017
Description/subject: Information released by the Tatmadaw True News Information Team on the findings of the Investigation Team in connection with the performances of the security troops during the terrorist attacks in Maungtaw region, Rakhine State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tatmadaw True News Information Team
Format/size: pdf (32K)
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2017


Title: Sitagu Sayadaw and justifiable evils in Buddhism
Date of publication: 13 November 2017
Description/subject: "Sitagu Sayadaw is one of the most respected religious leaders in Myanmar. He is very well known for his teachings and for his philanthropic work. He has considerable influence. It therefore surprised many in his native Myanmar and worldwide when he gave a sermon in Kayin State on 30 October with a particularly striking message. The sermon appeared to suggest that the killing of those who are not Buddhist could be justified on the grounds that they were not complete humans, or indeed humans at all. A photo of Sitagu Sayadaw with Barack Obama in 2012 (via Burma Dhamma blog) There has been much online discussion about the passage. In its extreme form, there is the idea that Sitagu Sayadaw argued that non-Buddhists are less than human, and that on this basis it is permissible to cause them harm. How could such a revered teacher as Sitagu Sayadaw preach such a message? Particularly troubling was that the sermon was given to a group of army officers likely to be involved in the conflict against Muslim Rohingyas. The interpretation could be that this was a Buddhist justification for the killing of Rohingyas. The sermon was indeed delivered to army officers at the Bayintnaung garrison and military training school in Kayin State. In reflecting on the relationship between the actions of the Burmese military and the consequences of a soldier’s duty to protect the Myanmar nation, Sitagu Sayadaw used the 5th Century CE Sri Lankan chronicle, the Mahavamsa. He also chose to quote from a notorious passage from the 25th chapter of the Mahavamsa, “The Victory of Dutthagamani”. The passage in question appears to go against many of what most people would understand to be the key ideas of Buddhism. One possible way to interpret it is simply to suggest that “Buddhists are as capable of hypocrisy, double standards and special pleading as anyone.” I would suggest that the primary intention of the Dutthagamani passage is not to justify the killing of living beings who are not Buddhist per se. The point of the passage—however much we might disagree with its logic—is the idea that actions performed with the idea of protecting and defending Buddhism, or “bringing glory to the doctrine of the Buddha”, overrides more accepted ethical norms such as the precept of not killing living beings. Protecting the Dhamma circumvents the usual operation of karma. All actions have consequences, but the effects of these actions can be lessened if the motivation for them is a noble one. In case I am misunderstood, I would like to state clearly that the use of the passage was unwise in the extreme by the revered Sayadaw. It is also a passage which sits very uneasily with mainstream Buddhist thinking on the use of violence. However, it can, has, and is being used by Buddhists to describe how “unwholesome actions” (Burmese: arkhutho Pali: akusala-kamma) can be used to defend and preserve Buddhism. In the famous episode recounted in the Mahavamsa, Dutthagamani, having waged a long and bloody war in which millions were killed, suffers from extreme unease and remorse. Through their supernatural powers, a group of eight Arahants become aware of this remorse and travel to see Dutthagamani. Using their supernatural powers, they travel through the air from the Island of Piyangudipa to comfort him. However, Dutthagamani tells the Arahants: How shall there be any comfort for me, O venerable sirs, since by me was caused the slaughter of a great host numbering millions? He is then famously advised: From this deed arises no hindrance in thy way to heaven. Only one and a half human beings have been slain here by thee, O lord of men. The one had come unto the (three) refuges, the other had taken on himself the five precepts. Unbelievers [they have “wrong-views”, micchādiṭṭhi] and men of evil life were the rest, not more to be esteemed than beasts. But as for thee, thou wilt bring glory to the doctrine of the Buddha in manifold ways; therefore cast away care from thy heart, O ruler of men!..."
Author/creator: Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: The Rohingya Exodus (video)
Date of publication: 09 November 2017
Description/subject: "What does the future hold for the Rohingya in Bangladesh, one of the world's poorest countries?...The UN calls it a "textbook example of ethnic cleansing" - more than 600,000 Rohingya have fled their homes in Myanmar, seeking sanctuary in Bangladesh. They've brought stories of burning villages, murder, rape and babies being thrown into fires. This human catastrophe is happening under the leadership of Nobel Peace Prize winner, Aung San Suu Kyi. Those who've made it to the squalid refugee camps in Bangladesh may have escaped with their lives, but they now face an uncertain future in one of the world's poorest countries. 101 East investigates the plight of the Rohingya.
Language: English, English subtitles, spoken Rohingya.
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
Format/size: html5 (26 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2017


Title: Q&A: ROAD TO JUSTICE FOR GRAVE CRIMES IN BURMA
Date of publication: 03 November 2017
Description/subject: "Since August 25, 2017, when the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), a militant group, attacked about 30 police outposts and a military camp in northern Rakhine State, Burmese security forces have carried out mass arson, killings, rape, and looting, destroying hundreds of villages and forcing more than 600,000 ethnic Rohingya Muslims to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. Thousands more Rohingya as well as ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and other non-Muslims have also been displaced in Rakhine State as a result of the violence. There have also been numerous reports of abuses committed by ARSA militants. Human Rights Watch has not been able to independently verify those accounts, in part because of the lack of access to northern Rakhine State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018


Title: Myanmar’s foreign relations after the Rakhine State crisis (Part II)
Date of publication: 02 November 2017
Description/subject: "... Kim Jolliffe continues looking at impacts of the Rakhine State crisis on Myanmar’s international relations. Part I of this series can be found here... As I introduced in Part I, much of Myanmar’s population has shown unwavering support for Aung San Suu Kyi and her government’s handling of the Rakhine State crisis. This has given rise to a popular narrative that criticism from the international community is unfounded and unfair, and that Myanmar just needs to focus on building unity and moving forward its agenda of political and economic reform. In these two posts, I argue that – whoever we blame for events in Rakhine State – in today’s globalised world, Myanmar cannot simply dismiss international responses and focus on its own vision. Actions have reactions, and any good government needs to manage international relations in a way that suits its people’s long-term interests. In other words, Myanmar’s peace and development will require efforts to maintain good relations with other countries..."
Author/creator: Kim Jolliffe
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2017


Title: Not all Buddhists agree with Sitagu Sayadaw’s militant message
Date of publication: 02 November 2017
Description/subject: "Myanmar’s most revered Buddhist leader gave a speech on Monday in which he urged hundreds of military officers to not to fear the sinfulness of taking human life. Despite building a reputation on his interfaith and humanitarian activities, Sitagu Sayadaw has long made excuses for the military’s abuses against Rohingya Muslims. This week, critics said the monk veered into promoting genocide. During his speech, which was delivered at a military base in Kayin State and broadcast live in Myanmar to over 250,000 viewers, Sitagu Sayadaw shared a parable about an ancient Sri Lankan king who was assured by Buddhist clerics that the countless Hindus he had killed only added up to one and a half lives. “Don’t worry King, it’s a little bit of sin. Don’t worry,” Sitagu Sayadaw said. “Even though you killed millions of people, they were only one and a half real human beings.”..."
Author/creator: Jacob Goldberg
Language: English
Source/publisher: Coconuts Yangon
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2017


Title: “I THOUGHT I WOULD DIE” PHYSICAL EVIDENCE OF ATROCITIES AGAINST THE ROHINGYA
Date of publication: 01 November 2017
Description/subject: "Myanmar’s armed forces are committing a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya. It is the fourth wave of violence that falls into this category – i.e. some of the most serious offences in international law – in five years. This is occurring against the backdrop of a massive humanitarian crisis on both sides of the Myanmar-Bangladesh border. The latest figures in Bangladesh indicate that 144,500 children under five face malnutrition while more than 14,000 are close to death.1 The figures in Northern Rakhine State, the site of appalling violence over the last two months is impossible to assess accurately as the Myanmar authorities continue to severely restrict humanitarian access. UN Secretary-General António Guterres has described the humanitarian situation in the region as “catastrophic”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK via Progressive Voice
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 March 2018


Title: Myanmar’s foreign relations after the Rakhine State crisis (Part I)
Date of publication: 01 November 2017
Description/subject: "Kim Jolliffe highlights impacts of the Rakhine State conflict on Myanmar’s international relations in a two-part post... On October 12, Myanmar State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi delivered a “report to the people” on the recent crisis in Rakhine State. She explained, “just as no one can fully understand the situation in our country as we do, no one can desire peace and development for our country more than us”. This and other comments in the speech reflect two positions widely held in Myanmar: that criticism of the government from overseas is unfair and patronising, and that the country needs to remain patriotic and stay focused on its broader political and economic agenda. Unavoidably, however, Myanmar’s journey towards “peace and development” will be deeply impacted by its relations with other countries. In today’s globalised world, the reactions of other countries have real consequences; managing them is a crucial responsibility of good government. Dismissing international relations and relying only on internal “unity” is a risky strategy for any government, even in times of hardship. This includes cooperating on international humanitarian and security norms and preventing transnational crises. In this two-part blog series, I explore three sets of foreign relations challenges that Myanmar could face as a result of the Rakhine crisis. This post, Part I, looks at impacts on Myanmar’s high-level strategic relations. Part II will look at, first, the relations with majority Muslim countries and, second, the increased threat from transnational Islamist terrorists. Whoever we choose to blame for recent events, Myanmar’s handling of these risks going forward will have significant ramifications for the country as a whole. Self-isolation could only make things worse..."
Author/creator: Kim Jolliffe
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html (123K)
Date of entry/update: 02 December 2017


Title: “THEY TRIED TO KILL US ALL”: ATROCITY CRIMES AGAINST ROHINGYA MUSLIMS IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR
Date of publication: November 2017
Description/subject: "On October 9, 2016, a previously unknown Rohingya militant group calling itself Harakah al-Yaqin attacked three police outposts in Maungdaw and Rathedaung Townships in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State. Armed mostly with sticks, knives, and improvised explosive devices, the group killed nine state security officials. After renaming itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) in March 2017, the group waged a second attack on 30 police outposts and an army base on August 25, 2017, killing 12 officials. ARSA claimed the attacks were a response to protracted discriminatory treatment and persecution of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar. Immediately following both of those attacks, the Myanmar Army launched clearance operations—a term the military uses to describe ongoing multiagency efforts to combat and apprehend Rohingya militants..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foritfy Rights and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum via Progressive Voice
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018


Title: TEN PRINCIPLES FOR PROTECTING REFUGEES AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE ARISING FROM BURMA’S ROHINGYA CRISIS
Date of publication: November 2017
Description/subject: "More than 600,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled from Burma to Bangladesh since August 25, 2017. Counting previous flights of Rohingya refugees, including after the 2012 and 2016 violence in Rakhine State, the number of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh could reach one million. Not only those who fled the recent Burmese military campaign of ethnic cleansing, but Rohingya who have fled previous government crackdowns, were either directly forced to leave their homes amid killings and other assaults and destruction of their property or felt compelled to leave their homes and country to avoid persecution, including threats to their lives, physical abuse, destruction of their homes, and other severe human rights abuses. The existence of economic or personal motives does not forfeit a refugee’s claim to protection based on well-founded fears of being persecuted..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (825K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/11/07/ten-principles-for-protecting-refugees-and-internall...
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018


Title: Independent international fact-finding mission on Myanmar
Date of publication: 27 October 2017
Description/subject: "Experts of the Independent International Fact Finding Mission on Myanmar conclude visit to Bangladesh.....The Human Rights Council on 24 March 2017 decided (through Resolution A/HRC/RES/34/22) to dispatch urgently an independent international fact-finding mission, to be appointed by the President of the Human Rights Council, to establish the facts and circumstances of the alleged recent human rights violations by military and security forces, and abuses, in Myanmar, in particular in Rakhine State, including but not limited to arbitrary detention, torture and inhuman treatment, rape and other forms of sexual violence, extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary killings, enforced disappearances, forced displacement and unlawful destruction of property, with a view to ensuring full accountability for perpetrators and justice for victims, and requests the fact-finding mission to present to the Council an oral update at its thirty-sixth session and a full report at its thirty-seventh session"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/FFM-Myanmar/FFM_Burmese.pdf
http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22320&LangID=E
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2017


Title: Rohingya Crisis: A Major Threat to Myanmar Transition and Regional Stability
Date of publication: 27 October 2017
Description/subject: "The international community’s failure to address Myanmar’s Rohingya crisis has resulted in massive displacement from Rakhine state. The crisis poses a clear threat to Myanmar’s democratic transition. In this excerpt from the Watch List 2017 – Third Update early warning report for European policy makers, Crisis Group urges the European Union and its member states to support strong Security Council action and push for multilateral and bilateral engagement with Myanmar’s civilian and military leaders... Since Crisis Group’s warning in its February Watch List, Rakhine state’s “alarming trajectory” has deteriorated further. The views of most people in Myanmar and those of much of the international community on the crisis are diametrically opposed. Domestically, the situation is seen to stem from terrorist attacks and a legitimate security response to them; internationally, the focus is on the disproportionate military response to those attacks involving serious abuses characterised as possible crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. Myanmar’s political direction in relation to the crisis has now been set and is very unlikely to be altered. Views domestically and internationally are hardening in different directions, with huge implications for domestic politics and Myanmar’s standing in the world..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 November 2017


Title: On the uses of (neo)liberalism in Myanmar and the promise of radical feminism
Date of publication: 25 October 2017
Description/subject: "Critiques of (neo)liberalism broadly aim to reveal the insidious ways that dispossession is depoliticized and justified qua economies and arts of government. Yet the recent scramble among scholars and journalists to understand the role of state power and (neo)liberal ideology in shaping Rohingya displacement has revealed few surprising insights about the mechanisms underpinning violence in Myanmar, nor has it revealed any new possibilities for undermining the structures and discourses that frame this violence as inevitable. Of course, this is not to say that (neo)liberal ideology does not harm minorities and the poor. It most certainly does. Drawing on James Ferguson, I argue that a myopic focus on (neo)liberal ideology belies its polyvalence and overlooks its uses for radical and subversive ends. Here neoliberalism is understood as the particularly insidious refusal to see liberalism as a political rather than economic project (Brown, 2010). This piece engages with current debates over analyses of Rohingya displacement and the controversial positioning of well-known Burma studies scholar, Dr. Jacques Leider. The aim is to identify a productive politics of scholarly engagement with Rohingyas and violence in Myanmar. I argue that radical feminisms and feminist methods decenter (neo)liberalism as an organizing principle of intellectual life, enable the (co)production of knowledge that resists co-optation, and subvert narratives that render vulnerable people less than human..."
Author/creator: Shae A. Frydenlund
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: Across Myanmar, Denial of Ethnic Cleansing and Loathing of Rohingya
Date of publication: 24 October 2017
Description/subject: "An overwhelming body of published accounts has detailed the Myanmar Army’s campaign of killing, rape and arson in Rakhine, which has driven more than 600,000 Rohingya out of the country since late August, in what the United Nations says is the fastest displacement of a people since the Rwanda genocide. But in Myanmar, and even in Rakhine itself, there is stark denial that any ethnic cleansing is taking place. The divergence between how Myanmar and much of the outside world see the Rohingya is not limited to one segment of local society. Nor can hatred in Myanmar of the largely stateless Muslim group be dismissed as a fringe attitude. Continue reading the main story Related Coverage THE INTERPRETER Myanmar, Once a Hope for Democracy, Is Now a Study in How It Fails OCT. 19, 2017 NEWS ANALYSIS Hands Tied by Old Hope, Diplomats in Myanmar Stay Silent OCT. 12, 2017 Rohingya Recount Atrocities: ‘They Threw My Baby Into a Fire’ OCT. 11, 2017 New Surge of Rohingya Puts Aid Workers Back on ‘Full Alert’ OCT. 10, 2017 In Grim Camps, Rohingya Suffer on ‘Scale That We Couldn’t Imagine’ SEPT. 29, 2017 Government officials, opposition politicians, religious leaders and even local human-rights activists have become unified behind this narrative: The Rohingya are not rightful citizens of Buddhist-majority Myanmar, and now, through the power of a globally resurgent Islam, the minority is falsely trying to hijack the world’s sympathy..."
Author/creator: HANNAH BEECH
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New York Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2017


Title: REMARKS: VIOLENCE IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR
Date of publication: 24 October 2017
Description/subject: "This submission details human rights violations by Myanmar state security forces against Rohingya Muslim civilians in Rakhine State since October 2016. It draws on evidence collected by Fortify Rights in Myanmar and Bangladesh, including interviews with 239 survivors and eyewitnesses. During “clearance operations” by the Myanmar military from October to December 2016, we interviewed 188 survivors and eyewitnesses of human rights violations, including doctors and aid workers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (563K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/10/24/remarks-violence-in-rakhine-state-myanmar/
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Submission_to_UK_Parliamentary_Inqui...
Date of entry/update: 22 March 2018


Title: Rohingya Crisis: GBV Policy and Advocacy Task Team Inter-agency Briefing Paper (Advocacy Letters)
Date of publication: 23 October 2017
Description/subject: "The Policy and Advocacy Task Team of the Gender-based Violence Area of Responsibility (GBV AoR)[1] recognizes the continuing generosity of the Government and people of Bangladesh in keeping their borders open to the hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing conflict and violence in Myanmar. The GBV AoR, in support of the Bangladesh GBV Sub-Sector, calls upon donors and states to: Release funds immediately to cover Gender-based Violence (GBV) needs for at least one year. The GBV needs of this crisis are too large and too complex to be responded to with smaller, short-term funding. The Response Plan estimates that the funding required to meet the affected population’s needs currently stands at US$434,000,000, with $13,400,000 requested by the GBV Sub-sector to meet humanitarian need until February 2018 alone. Further, the Response Plan estimates that there are currently at least 448,000 people [2] in need under the GBV sector – 92% of whom are female, and 58% are under the age of 18.[3] Work with the Bangladesh government to ensure that humanitarian space and access is secured and that clearance for agencies to provide humanitarian assistance is granted swiftly for new partners. Use the 2015 Interagency GBV Guidelines and the 2006 Gender Handbook in Humanitarian Action as a criteria on which the release of all humanitarian funding is based. Agencies failing to meet these minimum standards of humanitarian action should not receive funding in line with the humanitarian principle of do-no-harm. Donor assistance is requested by the GBV AoR in requiring that the above guidelines are incorporated into humanitarian agencies’ response plans and strategies. Immediately fund: (1) the expansion of scaled-up life-saving interventions, in particular clinical management of rape survivors, using mobile and facility based approaches in existing settlements and establishment of these services in new settlements; (2) integrated sexual and reproductive health and gender-based violence response services for survivors; (3) interventions which seek to mitigate risk and support a protective environment through mainstreaming approaches in other sectors; (4) Safe Space Centres for women and adolescent girls which provide case management and other psychosocial support programming. Put in place funding mechanisms to support interventions which prevent and respond to intimate partner violence and child, early and forced marriage..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International et al
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: What can the world do for the Rohingya?
Date of publication: 20 October 2017
Description/subject: "There has long been a lively debate about the origins of the Rohingya Muslims—and it’s far from clear-cut. Active Rohingya campaigning is a relatively recent phenomenon, aiming to establish a separate state in Myanmar rather than seek outright independence. Yet throughout time, the Rohingya and their political goals have not been taken seriously. When Burma progressed towards independence in 1948, the Rohingya failed to efficiently collectivise and represent their political aspirations, instead seeking ambiguous terms such as “social and economic development”, or even expressing their aims in conjunction with other political organisations. In fact, Myanmar’s political consensus on the Rohingya has always been questionable. The attitudes of Buddhist authorities have been inconsistent—sometimes appearing to recognise the Rohingya as citizens in specific practical cases, such as paying taxes, voting in elections before 2015, etc—while at other times, denying the Rohingya temporary residence claims outright..."
Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: A Polemic Against Liberal Analyses of the Rohingya Crisis
Date of publication: 19 October 2017
Description/subject: "The liberal analyst always works in the best interests of “the people”. He himself has no stake in the issue at hand – he merely offers the world his insights. His crisp analysis carefully rummages through events sorting fact from fiction– each false claim uncovered elevating his writing above the humdrum. He weighs up one side against the other. He never takes sides- centrism is his sanctuary. He is always careful to avoid strong sentiments. He always has the long term in mind. His game is truth and objectivity – as long as he is the one producing that truth and policing objectivity. He can always see the entire field where others are blinded or led astray by passions and politics. He determines who’s to blame, who took the wrong path and who is acting short sightedly. But above all he is pragmatic. He knows what must be done to achieve the best outcome for all involved – or the least worse. But his pragmatism is always confined to the safe limits of the liberal worldview. As a man who has been nurtured by state thinking, he naturally tends toward the state as the ultimate fixer and either ignores or looks on with disdain at the struggles of people who have real stakes in an issue..."
Author/creator: Tim Frewer
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH’S WORLD REPORT 2018: BURMA EVENTS OF 2017
Date of publication: 19 October 2017
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/burma
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/01/18/human-rights-watchs-world-report-2018-burma-events-o...
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: Rohingya crisis: the world's fastest growing humanitarian crisis
Date of publication: 19 October 2017
Description/subject: "As thousands of Rohingya refugees continue to pour into Bangladesh, Clive Myrie reports on the world's fastest growing humanitarian crisis. The plight of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya people is said to be the world's fastest growing refugee crisis. Risking death by sea or on foot, more than half a million have fled the destruction of their homes and persecution in the northern Rakhine province of Myanmar (Burma) for neighbouring Bangladesh since August 2017. The United Nations described the military offensive in Rakhine, which provoked the exodus, as a "textbook example of ethnic cleansing". Myanmar's military says it is fighting Rohingya militants and denies targeting civilians..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Alternate URLs: Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog World In Pictures https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Big Hitters https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Just Good News https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Statement by Adama Dieng, United Nations Special Adviser on th e Prevention of Genocide and Ivan Simonovic, United Nations Special Adviser on the Respon sibility to Protect, on the situation in northern Rakhine state, Myanmar
Date of publication: 19 October 2017
Description/subject: (New York, 19 October 2017) " The United Nations Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Adama Dieng, and the Special Adviser of the Responsibil ity to Protect, Ivan Simonovic, call on the Government of Myanmar to take immediate action to stop and addres s the commission of atrocity crimes that are reportedly taking place in nort hern Rakhine state. The Special Advisers have been following the situation in northern Ra khine state for several years and have warned that there was a risk that atrocity cri mes could be committed there. Risk factors they identified included very deeply rooted and long-standin g discriminatory practices and policies against the Rohingya Muslims population, a failure to stop acts of violence against that group and a failure to put in place conditions that would support the peaceful coexistence of different communities in Rakhine state. “Despite warnings issued by us and by many other officials, the Government of Myanmar has failed to meet its o bligations under international law and primary responsibility to protect the Rohingya population fr om atrocity crimes. The international community has equally failed its responsibilities in this regard”, the Special Advisers stated..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS PRESS RELEASE
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 October 2017


Title: Myanmar: "My world is finished". Rohingya targeted in crimes against humanity in Myanmar
Date of publication: 18 October 2017
Description/subject: "Early in the morning of 25 August 2017, members of a Rohingya armed group, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), attacked approximately 30 security force outposts in northern Rakhine State.1 In its response, the Myanmar Army, rather than targeting ARSA, launched an attack on the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State as a whole. Often working with Border Guard Police (BGP) and local vigilantes, the military has carried out a campaign of violence that has been systematic, organized, and ruthless. In this briefing, Amnesty International presents evidence that the Myanmar military has killed at least hundreds of Rohingya women, men, and children; raped and perpetrated other forms of sexual violence on Rohingya women and girls; and carried out organized, targeted burning of entire Rohingya villages. This briefing builds on Amnesty International’s published findings since the crisis began, including on the Myanmar military’s use of anti-personnel landmines. In seven weeks, the relentless human rights violations have forced more than 520,000 Rohingya to flee to neighbouring Bangladesh. More cross the border daily. The attack on the Rohingya population has been both systematic and widespread, constituting serious human rights violations and crimes against humanity under international law (see text box below). The violations and crimes have been committed within a context of decades of systematic, state-led discrimination and persecution of the Rohingya population and occasional large-scale outbursts of violence. After ARSA attacks on security force outposts in October 2016, the Myanmar military carried out “clearance operations” marked by widespread and systematic human rights violations, including unlawful killings, sexual violence and other forms of torture, enforced disappearances, and arbitrary arrests, which Amnesty International concluded may have amounted to crimes against humanity. The current campaign is an escalation, with the targeted burning of villages on a massive scale seemingly designed to push the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State out of the country and make it incredibly difficult for them to return..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/7288/2017)
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB-reduced version; 4.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/AI-2017-10-18-My_World_is_Finished-en.pdf
https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa16/7288/2017/en/
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: Note to Correspondents: Visit of the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs to Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 October 2017
Description/subject: "United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman visited Myanmar from October 13 to October 17 at the invitation of the Government. In Yangon and Nay Pyi Taw, he met with State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and Tatmadaw Commander-in-Chief Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, among other officials, as well as with representatives of Myanmar’s civil society. He attended the ceremony commemorating the signing of Myanmar’s historic National Ceasefire Agreement and met with the signatory ethnic organizations. He also met with the resident diplomatic community and representatives of international NGOs. Most of Under-Secretary-General Feltman’s discussions focused on the situation in Rakhine State and the plight of the hundreds of thousands of refugees who have fled to Bangladesh in the aftermath of the 25 August attacks on security positions and subsequent military action. He reiterated Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’ call that humanitarian actors be given full and unhindered access to northern Rakhine State and that refugees be allowed voluntary, safe and dignified return to their place of origin..."
Author/creator: Jeffrey Feltman
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2017


Title: ROHINGYA TARGETED BY ETHNIC CLEANSING IN ARAKAN/RAKHINE STATE
Date of publication: 13 October 2017
Description/subject: "On 25 August 2017 , violence dramatically escalated in northern Arakan/Rakhine State, after insurgents staged a major coordinated attack against security forces outposts. The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) claimed responsibility for the offensive, in order to “liberate our people from dehumanized oppression perpetrated by all successive Burmese regimes”. The ensuing military clearance operations killed hundreds of people and forced over 507,000 civilians from all communities to flee their homes. Independent reports documented that "operations" mostly involved the Tatmadaw indiscriminately burning Rohingya villages and opening fire on their residents, with some instances of villagers joining the militants to fight the security forces. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein declared “[t]his turn of events is deplorable. It was predicted and could have been prevented”. He noted that “decades of persistent and systematic human rights violations, including the very violent security responses to the attacks since October 2016 [see Escalation of violence], have almost certainly contributed to the nurturing of violent extremism, with everyone ultimately losing”. The latest wave of deadly violence in Arakan State did not happen overnight. Independent accounts, including a flash report issued by the Office of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights (OHCHR) on 3 February 2017, showed that, since 9 October 2016, the Tatmadaw has targeted Rohingya with “unprecedented” violence. Burmese authorities, including military Commander-in-Chief Sr Gen Min Aung Hlaing and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, have repeatedly denied the accusations of human rights violations [see Government "terrorist ” narrative]. The outbreak of violence took place just hours after the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State – also known as Annan Commission – released its final report, jeopardizing the implementation of its recommendations. The Annan Commission - inaugurated on 5 September 2016 at the behest of Aung San Suu Kyi and chaired by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan – was mandated with providing recommendations to secure peace and prosperity in Arakan State. Its final report, which did not name the Rohingya at Aung San Suu Kyi’s request, urged Burma to eliminate all restrictions on the people’s ability to gain citizenship, move free ly and participate in politics..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (651K-reduced version; 729K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Briefer/Rohingya%20briefer%20-%20October%2013.pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 October 2017


Title: Attacks against Rohingya ‘a ploy’ to drive them away; prevent their return – UN rights chie
Date of publication: 11 October 2017
Description/subject: " 11 October 2017 – Brutal, well-organized, coordinated and systematic attacks have been carried out against the minority Muslim Rohingya community in Myanmar, with the intention of not just driving them away but also preventing their return, a new United Nations human rights report has revealed. Based on on-the-ground interviews in Cox’s Bazar, in Bangladesh, where hundreds of thousands of Rohingya have sought refuge, the report also draws attention to a strategy to “instil deep and widespread fear and trauma – physical, emotional and psychological” among the Rohingya population. “The [UN human rights] team documented consistent accounts of the Myanmar security forces surrounding or entering villages or settlements, sometimes accompanied by Rakhine Buddhist individuals firing indiscriminately at Rohingya villagers, injuring some and killing other innocent victims, setting houses on fire, and announcing in other villages that the same would befall them if they did not comply with the order to immediately abandon their homes,” notes the report, issued Wednesday by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN News Centre
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh 13-24 September 2017
Date of publication: 11 October 2017
Description/subject: "...Credible information indicates that the Myanmar security forces purposely destroyed the property of the Rohingyas, scorched their dwellings and entire villages in northern Rakhine State, not only to drive the population out in droves but also to prevent the fleeing Rohingya victims from returning to their homes. The destruction by the Tatmadaw of houses, fields, food-stocks, crops, livestock and even trees, render the possibility of the Rohingya returning to normal lives and livelihoods in the future in northern Rakhine almost impossible. It also indicates an effort to effectively erase all signs of memorable landmarks in the geography of the Rohingya landscape and memory in such a way that a return to their lands would yield nothing but a desolate and unrecognizable terrain. Information received also indicates that the Myanmar security forces targeted teachers, the cultural and religious leadership, and other people of influence in the Rohingya community in an effort to diminish Rohingya history, culture and knowledge..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
Format/size: pdf (125K-reduced version; 772K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/MM/CXBMissionSummaryFindingsOctober2017.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 October 2017


Title: UN report details brutal Myanmar effort to drive out half a million Rohingya
Date of publication: 11 October 2017
Description/subject: "Region’s head of human rights calls on Aung San Suu Kyi to stop violence as report says ‘clearance operations’ include killings, torture and rape...Myanmar security forces have driven out half a million Muslim Rohingya from northern Rakhine state, torching their homes, crops and villages to prevent them from returning, the UN human rights office said on Wednesday. Jyoti Sanghera, head of the Asia and Pacific region of the UN human rights office, called on the Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi to “stop the violence” and voiced fear that if the stateless Rohingya refugees return from Bangladesh they may be interned. “If villages have been completely destroyed and livelihood possibilities have been destroyed, what we fear is that they may be incarcerated or detained in camps,” she told a news briefing. 'We die or they die': Rohingya insurgency sparks fresh violence in Myanmar Read more The UN political affairs chief, Jeffrey Feltman, is due to visit Myanmar on Friday, said UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric. In a report based on 65 interviews with Rohingya who have arrived in Bangladesh in the past month, the UN human rights office said that “clearance operations” had begun before insurgent attacks on police posts on 25 August and included killings, torture and rape of children. The UN’s Jyoti Sanghera: ‘If villages have been completely destroyed ... what we fear is that they may be incarcerated or detained in camps.’ Facebook Twitter Pinterest The UN’s Jyoti Sanghera: ‘If villages have been completely destroyed … what we fear is that they may be incarcerated or detained in camps.’ Photograph: Martial Trezzini/EPA The UN high commissioner for human rights, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein – who has described the government operations as “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing” – said in a statement that the actions appeared to be “a cynical ploy to forcibly transfer large numbers of people without possibility of return”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Guardian"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2017


Title: Burma: Military Massacres Dozens in Rohingya Village. Soldiers Shot, Stabbed Men and Boys in Maung Nu, Rakhine State
Date of publication: 04 October 2017
Description/subject: "Since August 25, Burmese security forces have been carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State. Over half a million Rohingya have fled to neighboring Bangladesh to escape killings, arson, and other mass atrocities. The Rohingya, effectively denied citizenship under Burmese law, have faced decades of repression and discrimination. About 120,000 remain internally displaced from waves of violence in 2012 and 2016, in dire humanitarian conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers are reporting from the field on the crisis and its global impact.....Children's Rights ...Refugees and Migrants ...Refugee Rights... Asylum Seekers ...Internally Displaced People... United Nations... Women's Rights... Sexual Violence and Rape ...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://www.hrw.org/blog-feed/rohingya-crisis
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2017


Title: The Rohingya Crisis
Date of publication: 04 October 2017
Description/subject: "Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority group, are fleeing persecution in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State, fueling a historic migration crisis...Discriminatory policies of Myanmar’s government since the late 1970s have compelled hundreds of thousands of Muslim Rohingya to flee their homes in the predominantly Buddhist country. Most have crossed by land into Bangladesh, while others have taken to the sea to reach Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Renewed violence, including reported rape, murder, and arson in 2017, triggered a massive exodus of Rohingya amid charges of ethnic cleansing against Myanmar’s security forces. Those forces claim to be carrying out a campaign to reinstate stability in the western region of Myanmar..." Backgrounder by Eleanor Albert
Author/creator: Eleanor Albert
Language: English
Source/publisher: Council on Foreign Relations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2017


Title: How Myanmar’s Military Wields Power From the Shadows
Date of publication: 02 October 2017
Description/subject: "Despite Myanmar’s recent transition to civilian leadership, the military has retained significant power and is most to blame for the sectarian violence against the Rohingya...State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi has faced the brunt of international criticism for what has been described as ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya, but Myanmar’s military, which has executed the crackdown in Rakhine State, is largely to blame, says Francis Wade, a journalist and author of Myanmar’s Enemy Within: Buddhist Violence and the Making of a Muslim ‘Other.’ The military still retains a great deal of political and economic power despite the country’s recent transition to a civilian-led government, explains Wade. Still, he says that in echoing the military’s rhetoric against the Muslim minority group, Aung San Suu Kyi and her civilian government have only fueled the sectarian violence..."
Author/creator: Interview by Eleanor Albert; Francis Wade, Interviewee
Language: English
Source/publisher: [US] Council on Foreign Relations
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2017


Title: Statement following government - organized visit to northern Rakhine
Date of publication: 02 October 2017
Description/subject: Statement following government-organized visit to northern- Rakhine 2 October 2017The UN appreciates the Government of Myanmar’s invitation to participate in the visit to northern Rakhine organized by national authorities for diplomatic community and the UN. This was a positive step and such visits, under appropriate conditions, could help in our efforts to explore potential areas where the UN could cooperate with the Myanmar authorities in alleviating the dire situation in northern Rakhine. Three UN representatives participated in the field visit -- the UN Resident Coordinator Ms. Renata Lok-Dessallien; the WFP representative and Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator, Mr. Domenico Scalpelli, and senior UNHCR official Ms. Cécile Fradot. Thescale of human sufferingis unimaginable and the UNextends its deepest condolences to all those affected. The UN advocatesfor the end to the cycle of violence and for establishing law and order and the rule of law; to allow unfettered access for humanitarian support; and to ensure the safe, voluntary, dignified and sustainable return of the refugees to their areas of origin. The UN used the field visit also to send a signal of hope to the people in the affected areas, as well as to connect with its staff in northern Rakhine. The UN delegation reiterated the need for a greater access for humanitarian and human rights actors to conduct comprehensive assessments of the situation on the ground in order to address the concerns and needs of all communities in affected areas. The UN called also for access for the media. Building on this visit, the UN looks forward to strengthening trust and cooperation with all communities and the Myanmar Government. This will be critical in addressing the root causes and setting a sustainable path towards peace and prosperity of all people in Rakhine State, irrespective of ethnicity, religion or citizenship status. The UN stands ready to provide its full support to the authorities in responding to the humanitarian and human rights crisis in northern Rakhine, as well as the implementation of the recommendations of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. Contact Stanislav Saling from the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator in Myanmar for more information at stanislav.saling@one.un.org or +95-942 651 9871.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: STATEMENT ON THE DIPLOMATIC TRIP TO NORTHERN RAKHINE ON 2 OCTOBER 2017
Date of publication: 02 October 2017
Description/subject: STATEMENT ON THE DIPLOMATIC TRIP TO NORTHERN RAKHINE ON 2 OCTOBER 2017 At the invitation of the Myanmar Government, we visited Northern Rakhine today. We went to a number of villages in Maungdaw and Rathedaung districts and met a mixture of local communities. This initiative by the Government of Myanmar allowed us to show support for the many people of all communities in northern Rakhine who have suffered and still feel great insecurity. We reiterate our condemnation of the ARSA attacks of 25 August and our deep concern about violence and mass displacement since. This was not an investigation mission and could not be in the circumstances. Investigation of allegations of human rights violations needs to be carried out by experts. We welcome the commitment of the State Counsellor to address human rights violations in accordance with strict norms of justice and call again on the Myanmar authorities to fully investigate allegations of human rights violations and bring prosecutions against those responsible. We also urge them to allow the UN Fact-Finding Mission to visit Rakhine. We saw villages which had been burned to the ground and emptied of inhabitants. The violence must stop. The security forces have an obligation to protect all people in Rakhine without discrimination and to take measures to prevent acts of arson. We welcome the State Counsellor’s statement that the security forces have been instructed to adhere strictly to a code of conduct, to exercise all due restraint and to take full measures to avoid collateral damage and the harming of innocent civilians. We encourage the Myanmar Government to move quickly to enable the voluntary, dignified and safe return to their places of origin of the hundreds of thousands of refugees who have fled to Bangladesh. We saw on our visit the dire humanitarian need. We call once more for unimpeded humanitarian access to northern Rakhine and resumption of life-saving services without discrimination throughout the state. We welcome the media access that has already been allowed but call once more for journalists to be allowed full, unimpeded access to all parts of Rakhine. We have stressed to the Union and State Government and to local authorities in Rakhine that the people we saw during this visit must not be subject to, and should be protected from, any reprisals, such as physical attacks or arbitrary arrest. As friends of Myanmar we remain ready to work with the Myanmar Government to help Rakhine reach its potential. The Advisory Commission on Rakhine State has set out recommendations for a stable, peaceful and prosperous future for all communities in the state, irrespective of ethnicity, religion or citizenship status. We support full implementation of the report. We sincerely hope that our visit is only the very first step in an urgently needed opening up of access for all, including the media, to all parts of Northern Rakhine. This statement is issued by the following diplomats in Myanmar who all took part in a government arranged trip to northern Rakhine state on 2 October 2017: Ambassador Nicholas Coppel, Australia; Ambassador Karen MacArthur, Canada; Ambassador Jaroslav Dolecek, Czech Republic; Ambassador Peter Lysholt Hansen, Denmark; Ambassador Olivier Richard, France; Ambassador Ito Sumardi, Indonesia; Ambassador Giorgio Aliberti, Italy; Ambassador Wouters Jurgens, the Netherlands; Ambassador Steve Marshall, New Zealand; Ambassador Tone Tinnes, Norway; Ambassador Miodrag Nikolin, Serbia; Ambassador Paul Seger, Switzerland; Ambassador Kerem Divanlioglu, Turkey; Ambassador Scot Marciel, the United States; Ambassador-designate Kristian Schmidt, the European Union; Ambassador-designate Dorothee Janetzke-Wenzel, Germany; Mr. Bibian Zamora Giménez, Chargée d’Affaires a.i. Spain; Mr. Johan Hallenborg, Head of the Swedish Section Office; Mr. David Hall, Deputy Head of Mission, the United Kingdom; Ms. Silja Rajander, Deputy Head of Mission, Finland.
Language: English
Source/publisher: U.S.Embassy in Burma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Bearing Witness to Crimes against Humanity - The Forced Expulsion of the Rohingya from Myanmar
Date of publication: October 2017
Description/subject: "Following the violent expulsion of some 400,000 Rohingya in Myanmar in the course of three weeks (now more than 500,000), Refugees International (RI) President Eric Schwartz and Senior Advocate for Human Rights Daniel Sullivan traveled to Bangladesh to assess the situation and bear witness. This policy brief is based on that mission, which involved interviews with Rohingya refugees who recently arrived from Myanmar as well as with United Nations and Bangladesh government officials and international aid workers in Bangladesh. Schwartz and Sullivan visited a hospital in Cox’s Bazar which treats recently arrived Rohingya from Myanmar, four makeshift settlements for Rohingya (Kutupalong, Balukhali, Thaingkhali, and Unchiprang) as well as border crossing areas and a “no- man’s land” where many Rohingya have gathered between the borders of Myanmar and Bangladesh. This policy brief is largely adapted from testimony given by Sullivan before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific on September 27, 2017...he Myanmar military has been executing a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya people of Myanmar, marked by abuses that constitute crimes against humanity. More than 500,000 Rohingya have fled their homes in the course of a month, approaching half of the entire Rohingya population that had been living in Myanmar up to a month ago. Vast swaths of villages have been burned by the Myanmar security forces and Rakhine Buddhist mobs. Rohingya refugees who have arrived in Bangladesh share consistent accounts of Myanmar soldiers surrounding villages, burning homes to the ground, stabbing, shooting, and raping the inhabitants, leaving the survivors to flee for their lives. The Rohingya have faced decades of persecution, but the violence and large-scale displacement have intensified in recent years. The current crisis that began just over a month ago is of an entirely new scale and level of inhumanity. The current campaign began after attacks on 30 security posts in Rakhine State in western Myanmar and the killing of 12 Myanmar security officials by poorly armed Rohingya insurgents, but the military’s response to those attacks has been grossly disproportionate and has broadly targeted the Rohingya civilian population. Many people from other ethnic groups, including Rakhine Buddhists and Hindus have been displaced and killed as well, reportedly in attacks by Rohingya insurgents, but the attacks on other groups has been nowhere on the scale of the attacks on the Rohingya. The outflow of half a million Rohingya has also created a humanitarian crisis in Bangladesh as existing capabilities have been overwhelmed. To its credit, the Bangladesh government has generally welcomed the Rohingya refugees, but much more international assistance is needed to address the still growing humanitarian crisis. Ultimately, the root causes of the crisis will have to be addressed by bringing pressure on the Myanmar government that has continued policies of persecution and on the Myanmar military that has carried out egregious human rights abuses."
Author/creator: Eric Schwartz and Daniel Sullivan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (566K-reduced version; 1.94MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Myanmar%2BPolicy%2BBrief%2BOctober%2B2017...
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2017


Title: October 2017 Bulletin
Date of publication: October 2017
Description/subject: "OHCHR report confirms that the Tatmadawcommitted well-organized, coordinated andsystematic attacks against Rohingya. Medical staff corroborate evidence ofwidespread rape and sexual violence againstRohingya women and girls as young as 5. Rohingya villagers trapped in Arakan state told to accept national verification cards that denytheir identity or "face actions”. Over 603,000 Rohingya are estimated to have fled into Bangladesh as of 31 October. Bangladesh plans to build refugee camp for 800,000 people..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Altsean-Burma
Format/size: pdf (446K)
Alternate URLs: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ftSxXi3TFfYEDEEOMNy7y96FCZy1GuAD/view
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2018


Title: POLICY BRIEFER: BEARING WITNESS TO CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY
Date of publication: October 2017
Description/subject: "The Myanmar military has been executing a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya people of Myanmar, marked by abuses that constitute crimes against humanity.More than 500,000 Rohingya have fled their homes in the course of a month, approaching half of the entire Rohingya population that had been living in Myanmar up to a month ago. Vast swaths of villageshave been burned by the Myanmar security forces and Rakhine Buddhist mobs. Rohingya refugees who have arrived in Bangladesh share consistent accounts of Myanmar soldiers surrounding villages, burning homes to the ground, stabbing, shooting, and raping the inhabitants, leaving the survivors to flee for their lives..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (566K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/10/05/policy-briefer-bearing-witness-to-crimes-against-hum...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: Tribunal finds Myanmar guilty of genocide
Date of publication: 29 September 2017
Description/subject: "The Permanent People’s Tribunal (PPT) on Myanmar last week found the Myanmar government guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The tribunal’s seven judges, comprising legal and human rights experts, handed down the preliminary judgement after hearings took place in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from September 18-22, announcing that: “The State of Myanmar is fully responsible for genocide against the Rohingya people. “It is further responsible not only for genocidal intent against the Kachin and the Muslim minority, but also and more specifically for crimes of war against the Kachins and crimes against humanity against the Kachins and the Muslim groups,” it added. The tribunal based its judgement off witness testimonies both in person in Kuala Lumpur and over video from London, as well as a long list of well documented atrocities including systemic rape, murder and eradication of identity and culture, presented by a team of prosecution lawyers. “The qualification of genocide corresponds to the highest level of criminal responsibility and its foundations are analysed and documented in all its aspects: in the systematic policies of discrimination and physical elimination, in the active denial of identity and culture, including even the prohibition from using the term Rohingya,” the tribunal said..."
Author/creator: Mark Tilly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Khmer Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2017


Title: Government will take over burned Myanmar land - minister
Date of publication: 27 September 2017
Description/subject: "YANGON (Reuters) - Myanmar’s government will manage the redevelopment of villages torched during violence in Rakhine state that has sent nearly half a million Rohingya Muslims fleeing to Bangladesh, a minister was reported on Wednesday as saying. The plan for the redevelopment of areas destroyed by fires, which the government has blamed on Rohingya insurgents, is likely to raise concern about prospects for the return of the 480,000 refugees, and compound fears of ethnic cleansing. “According to the law, burnt land becomes government-managed land,” Minister for Social Development, Relief and Resettlement Win Myat Aye told a meeting in the Rakhine state capital of Sittwe, the Global New Light of Myanmar newspaper said..."
Author/creator: Simon Lewis
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: The law in question, the Natural Disaster Management Law of 31 July 2013, can be found at http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/2013-07-31-Natural_Disaster_Management_Law-en.pdf (English) and http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs16/2013-07-31-Pyidaungsu_Hluttaw_Law21-bu.pdf (Burmese)
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2017


Title: Three Theses on the Crisis in Rakhine
Date of publication: 27 September 2017
Description/subject: "By now, the main contours of the recent events in Rakhine State, in western Myanmar, are well-known. On August 25, an insurgent group calling itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) (previously Harakah al-Yaqin) attacked police posts in northern Rakhine, eliciting a broad counterinsurgency response from the Myanmar military that has displaced over 400,000 Rohingya people into Bangladesh. As in previous cycles of violence, the Myanmar military, or Tatmadaw, has reportedly targeted civilians in its “clearance operations,” leading to allegations of killings, rape, and the burning of villages. The UN’s human rights body has referred to this latest outbreak of violence as “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.” The crisis in, and now, beyond, Rakhine is part of a much longer story of Rohingya oppression and persecution in Myanmar. This history has almost certainly contributed to the growth of the ARSA insurgency. In contrast to its own claims and those of the Myanmar government and media, ARSA comes across as a poor, small, and desperate movement, staging its attacks in a haphazard manner with homemade weapons like knives, swords, and sticks. The Myanmar government and Burmese media, however, have painted ARSA— and in many ways, Rohingya people more broadly— as part of global Islamist networks. In government communications, “extremist Bengali terrorists” is the favored term for the military’s current foe in Rakhine. Notably, the current crisis is unfolding under the government of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. She is Myanmar’s long-time opposition leader, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, and the leader of the National League for Democracy (NLD). The NLD swept into power in the country’s nationwide elections of late 2015, the first open national elections in generations..."
Author/creator: Soe Lin Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: A better political economy of the Rohingya crisis
Date of publication: 26 September 2017
Description/subject: "In the last few weeks, over 400,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled a bloody pogrom in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, crossing into Bangladesh. Among the horrified and largely moralistic reactions in the West, some have pointed to economic factors supposedly behind these events. They are right to highlight the importance of political economy drivers of conflict, but their analysis is disappointingly superficial and crude. This post critiques their approaches and briefly outlines a better one...In short, while simple pecuniary motives can never be entirely discounted, particularly in Myanmar’s borderlands, the political economy underpinning the current Rohingya crisis is far more complicated than is suggested in articles making a few sloppy references to megaprojects and land grabs. Ultimately, like Myanmar’s other ethnic conflicts, it reflects the crisis-ridden nature of the Burmese state since its inception. Burma was founded with no real meaningful consensus among its population groups over the nature of the state or nation, or the extent of power and resource sharing. Bamar-Buddhist chauvinists, unprepared to make the concessions needed to secure others’ consensual participation in nation-building, have instead sought to impose their vision by force, leading to brutality across the borderlands. However, the Rohingya have suffered particularly harshly because their claim to ethnic-minority status is not even recognised. While the Bamar state seeks to coercively incorporate recognised ethnic minority groups into the Union, it seeks to coercively exclude the unrecognised Rohingya. That is, ultimately, traceable to British colonialism and its legacy..."
Author/creator: Lee Jones
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 September 2017


Title: No Excuse for Aung San Suu Kyi’s (In)actions
Date of publication: 25 September 2017
Description/subject: "It’s difficult to imagine a more dramatic drop in public stature than the one Aung San Suu Kyi has experienced these past few weeks. No doubt due in large part to the overwhelming sense of betrayal felt by many, the Nobel Laureate has been harshly criticized for her country’s recent treatment of the Rohingya. Words like “Genocide” and “Ethnic Cleansing” have, to my mind, been aptly used to define the situation in Rakhine State. With hundreds dead and hundreds of thousands fleeing across the border to Bangladesh, it’s difficult to imagine a more systematic and purposeful deprivation of life and human rights currently unfolding. In the bloody corpus of human suffering, this chapter should without a doubt serve as the stereotypical example of ethnic cleansing. To a large extent, the international media agrees with that statement. And yet, though their denunciation of recent events has been forceful, the condemnation of Aung San Suu Kyi has proved a qualified one especially in more analytically minded circles. As it turns out, holding a Nobel prize inclines people, specifically those who consider themselves thoughtful, towards leniency. This is why you’ll hear arguments claiming that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has no good options, that she must appease the military leaders who are truly behind this massacre, that she risks damaging Myanmar’s fledgling democracy with too strong a denunciation of violence, and that the majority Bamar would turn against her should she speak out too strongly in defense of the Rohingya. Suu Kyi’s chief moral failing, by these accounts, is one of inaction. Her silence, rather than any active effort to tangibly harm people, is the main cause for disappointment..."
Author/creator: Haroon Atcha
Language: English
Source/publisher: TEACIRCLEOXFORD
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 January 2018


Title: Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina, Speech At UNGA United Nations
Date of publication: 21 September 2017
Description/subject: The first 7 minutes are abut the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh
Language: English (translation)
Source/publisher: UN General Assembly
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (17 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 22 September 2017


Title: Atrocity Alert No. 70: Myanmar (Burma) and Central African Republic, 20 September 2017
Date of publication: 20 September 2017
Description/subject: Myanmar (Burma) After almost four weeks of so-called “clearance operations” by the security forces, nearly half of Myanmar’s ethnic Rohingya population has fled the country, with more than 420,0000 people, including 250,000 children, arriving in Bangladesh since 25 August. Satellite imagery obtained by Human Rights Watch shows that at least 210 Rohingya villages in Rakhine State have been burned and destroyed. Actions taken by the Myanmar security forces indicate a clear, targeted and sustained policy of ethnic cleansing aimed at expelling the Rohingya minority from the country. In her first major televised address on the crisis, on 19 September State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi spoke of the need to uphold human rights in Myanmar. She also raised the plight of other ethnic minorities who had been affected by violence unleashed since 25 August. However, the State Counsellor’s speech failed to specifically address the reality of ethnic cleansing in Rakhine State and the security forces’ campaign of extrajudicial killings and forced displacement. The State Counsellor also asserted that the government was prepared to repatriate refugees who can establish that they are Myanmar nationals, ignoring the fact that the overwhelming majority of Rohingya lack such documentation as a result of previously being denied citizenship due to discriminatory laws. Yesterday, 19 September, the government of the United Kingdom announced that it was suspending financial aid and training programs with Myanmar’s military. All UN member states with significant ties to Myanmar’s security forces should immediately take similar action. As world leaders gather at the annual UN General Assembly in New York this week, they have a responsibility to draw attention to the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya and put pressure on the Myanmar authorities – particularly State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and Sr. Gen. Min Aung Hlaing – to immediately stop the violence and facilitate the voluntary return of Rohingya refugees. The UN Security Council should also impose an arms embargo on the Myanmar military and targeted sanctions directed at senior officers with command responsibility for forces engaged in ongoing ethnic cleansing. Central African Republic Friday, 15 September 2017, marked three years since the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) began its operations. Despite political advances made in the Central African Republic (CAR), such as President Faustin Archange Touadéra taking office on 30 March 2016 following relatively peaceful elections, recent fighting between armed groups from the anti-balaka, the Front Populaire pour la Renaissance de la Centrafrique (FPRC) and the Union pour la Paix en Centrafrique (UPC) has reached levels not seen since the height of the conflict during 2014. In a climate of growing insecurity, impunity and lawlessness, armed groups continue to fight over resources and trade routes in CAR, targeting ethnic and religious communities in the process. An estimated 1.1 million people remain displaced by violence in CAR, with a 37 percent increase in the past three months in the number of displaced civilians. Due to the deteriorating security situation, MINUSCA is no longer fit for purpose. Armed groups still control nearly 70 percent of the country and the CAR government is unable to provide adequate protection to civilians who live outside of Bangui, the country’s capital. A leaked report reveals that MINUSCA’s leadership has appealed for the authorization of 750 additional troops to help fill a “security vacuum” in the southeast of the country. As the UN Security Council prepares to review MINUSCA’s mandate, it should authorize an immediate increase in troops and help improve the protective capacity of the peacekeeping mission. The Council should also authorize the establishment of an additional Quick Reaction Force within MINUSCA and continue to support the CAR government’s efforts to uphold its responsibility to protect all its people.
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Burma: Satellite Imagery Shows Mass Destruction” Human Rights Watch
Date of publication: 19 September 2017
Description/subject: (New York) – New analysis of satellite imagery from Burma’s Rakhine State shows the near total destruction of 214 villages, Human Rights Watch said today. World leaders meeting at the United Nations should urgently adopt a General Assembly resolution condemning the Burmese military’s ethnic cleansing, while the UN Security Council should impose targeted sanctions and an arms embargo. The detailed satellite images, made possible due to a clearing of monsoon cloud on September 16, 2017, reveal destruction from burning much greater than previously known. They show the destruction of tens of thousands of homes across Maungdaw and Rathedaung Townships, part of the Burmese security forces’ campaign of ethnic cleansing that has forced over 400,000 Rohingya Muslims to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. “These images provide shocking evidence of massive destruction in an apparent attempt by Burmese security forces to prevent the Rohingya from returning to their villages,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “World leaders meeting at the UN should act to end this mounting crisis and show Burma’s military leaders they will pay a price for such atrocities.” New maps of the damage show near-total destruction of the 214 villages seen in satellite imagery analyzed by Human Rights Watch, with more than 90 percent of the structures in each village damaged. The images corroborate accounts gathered by Human Rights Watch from refugees who have described arson, killing, and looting by the Burmese military, police, and ethnic Rakhine mobs. World leaders meeting at the UN should act to end this mounting crisis and show Burma’s military leaders they will pay a price for such atrocities. Phil Robertson Human Rights Watch The Burmese military has rejected credible accounts of widespread abuses and said it is conducting operations against the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), a militant group that attacked about 30 police posts and an army base on August 25, 2017, killing about a dozen members of the security forces. The Burmese military alleges that ARSA militants and Rohingya villagers have burned down their own homes but has provided no evidence to substantiate this claim. The scale, scope, and timing of the burnings, many of which occurred after hundreds of thousands of Rohingya had already fled, is inconsistent with this claim. Burmese army commander Sr. Gen. Min Aung Hlaing recently linked Rohingya demands to be recognized as an ethnic group under Burmese law with the army’s actions. Using “Bengali,” a Burmese ethnic slur for Rohingya, he stated in a Facebook post that, “They have demanded recognition as Rohingya, which has never been an ethnic group in Myanmar. [The] Bengali issue is a national cause and we need to be united in establishing the truth.” On September 15, the Burmese Government Information Committee stated that, “Those who fled the villages made their way to the other country for fear of being arrested as they got involved in the violent attacks” – implying that the hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children who fled to Burma were responsible for militant attacks against the government. Although “ethnic cleansing” is not formally defined under international law, a UN Commission of Experts has described ethnic cleansing as a “purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas… This purpose appears to be the occupation of territory to the exclusion of the purged group or groups.” On September 19, Burma’s Foreign Minister Aung San Suu Kyi is scheduled to deliver a speech on the state of the nation, including the situation in Rakhine State. Rohingya Crisis Rohingya Crisis Human Rights Watch reporting on the Burmese military’s ongoing campaign of ethnic cleansing. Read More “While Aung San Suu Kyi may not have the power or authority to rein in the Burmese military, she can speak out and also ensure the UN Fact-Finding Mission is able to enter Burma,” Robertson said. “Concerned governments should not wait for her to act. They should impose targeted sanctions on those most responsible for the terrible atrocities taking place.”
Language: English
Source/publisher: HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Statement by Mr. Marzuki Darusman, Chairperson of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar
Date of publication: 19 September 2017
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Fences and ghettoes aren’t the answer in Rakhine
Date of publication: 18 September 2017
Description/subject: "The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) has been labeled a terrorist organisation. It has caused a number of deaths—local civilian as well as security personnel. It is to be condemned and rooted out—no doubt about that at all. Indeed, since over two years ago, think tanks and diplomats in neighbouring countries have warned me personally about Islamist terrorist groups making their advent in Myanmar and I had passed this information on. The violence erupted as these friends had foretold, and we are now seeing the nature and the extent of the Myanmar state’s response. At this point we need to deeply consider one fundamental question: is ARSA and its attacks the cause or the consequence? The Rohingya issue has a long provenance, but beginning from the first military junta period (also known as the Burma Socialist Programme Party regime) that community began to be regarded as a problem from at least the 1970s. Immigration operations were carried out in the northern Rakhine border townships of Buthidaung and Maungdaw. At least on two occasions, hundreds of thousands of Muslims (mostly Rohingya) fled into neighbouring Bangladesh. Official negotiations had to be held and most of those who had fled were taken back. The Myanmar government’s next response was to bottle up the Rohingya in those and adjacent townships, in the process stripping them of many basic rights. That region became a ghetto or quarantined area, and the situation festered for decades. The communal violence that erupted in 2012 started in another area of Rakhine state, and quickly spread to central Myanmar and also to north Rakhine. There were burnings and counter-burnings of homes and entire villages, in addition to other atrocities. As a result many Muslim communities were moved into IDP camps ‘for their own safety’, these became in actuality 21st century concentration camps. Rakhine Buddhists have been displaced too, and there are a number of Buddhists from Bangladesh who have sought refuge in Rakhine..."
Author/creator: Khin Zaw Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: The real significance of the Rohingya issue
Date of publication: 18 September 2017
Description/subject: "Horrendous bloodshed would result should the notion of ethnic cleansing take hold in Asia...HONG KONG – The real significance of the crisis of the Rohingya minority of Myanmar extends far beyond the two issues currently at the center of global attention. Yes, it is a humanitarian crisis of huge dimension, and true as well that it has revealed the fragility of Aung San Suu Kyi’s status as a Nobel Peace Prize winner. But what is not properly appreciated yet is that, unless handled with much greater care than seen to date, this issue will long reverberate through all of Southeast Asia, far beyond Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Philip Bowring
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Japan Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 October 2017


Title: The “ethnic cleansing” of Myanmar’s Rohingya Muslims, explained (video)
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "The Rohingya have been systematically driven out by the Myanmar government leading to the fastest growing humanitarian crisis in recent years."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Vox via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (5 minutes 14 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2018


Title: The United Nations and Al Qaeda Respond to Ethnic Cleansing in Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 September 2017
Description/subject: "Less than two weeks after coordinated attacks by Muslim insurgents in Rakhine State, the Myanmar military has responded with a campaign of violence that the UN secretary general has said is tantamount to ethnic cleansing. On Wednesday, Secretary General Antonio Guterres called for an end to the violence that has resulted in nearly 400,000 Rohingya Muslims to be uprooted from their homes in Rakhine State and forced across the border into Bangladesh. The day before the secretary general’s statement, on September 12, al Qaeda leadership released a statement, calling “upon all Mujahid brothers in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines to set out for [Myanmar] to help their Muslim brothers, and to make the necessary preparations—training and the like—to resist this oppression against their Muslim brothers, and to secure their rights, which will only be returned to them by use of force.”..."
Author/creator: Maxwell B. Markusen, Thomas M. Sanderson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2017


Title: Rohingya refugees overwhelm aid groups in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 15 September 2017
Description/subject: "...Almost 400,000 Rohingya refugees have surged into Bangladesh from Myanmar’s Rakhine State over the last three weeks. They come on foot, plodding for days through underbrush and dirt trails; they arrive by boat, risking the monsoon season waves along the coast, or the currents of the Naf River, which divides the two countries along Bangladesh’s southern edge.Aid groups say the influx has exhausted relief supplies and pushed existing refugee camps – filled by earlier waves of Rohingya refugees – to the breaking point. With no space left in the camps, refugees are spreading out on roadsides, or spontaneously forming new settlements in open spaces. “It’s beyond overcrowded,” says Vivian Tan, a spokeswoman for the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR. “A few days ago, we thought it was at saturation point. Since then, more people have arrived. And they’re still coming.” For mile after mile, refugees line the roads around the overflowing camps. Some sit on old rice bags, filled with what belongings they managed to bring with them. Luckier ones carry a solar panel, or a chicken. Others carry their elderly relatives on their backs. For now, the Rohingya are safe in Bangladesh – but they have nowhere to go..."
Author/creator: Verena Hölzl
Language: English
Source/publisher: Irin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017


Title: Myanmar: Scorched-earth campaign fuels ethnic cleansing of Rohingya from Rakhine State
Date of publication: 14 September 2017
Description/subject: "More than 80 sites set ablaze in orchestrated campaign since 25 August... More than 370,000 Rohingya fled across border in less than three weeks... Testimonies show attacks were planned, deliberate and systematic... Amnesty International can reveal new evidence pointing to a mass-scale scorched-earth campaign across northern Rakhine State, where Myanmar security forces and vigilante mobs are burning down entire Rohingya villages and shooting people at random as they try to flee. The organization’s analysis of active fire-detection data, satellite imagery, photographs and videos from the ground, as well as interviews with dozens of eyewitnesses in Myanmar and across the border in Bangladesh, shows how an orchestrated campaign of systematic burnings has targeted Rohingya villages across northern Rakhine State for almost three weeks. “The evidence is irrefutable – the Myanmar security forces are setting northern Rakhine State ablaze in a targeted campaign to push the Rohingya people out of Myanmar. Make no mistake: this is ethnic cleansing,” said Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response Director..." Additional articles and images
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: NOTE TO EDITORS:
Satellite imagery and maps showing the extent of burnings inside Rakhine State are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/y126upmuuityz1weygmqom0z7sdi7but

Still images illustrating fleeing Rohingya and the growing humanitarian crisis across the border in Bangladesh are available for download at: https://app.box.com/s/c8g2ox6oy1pkrlevs590pw9enjdpsl74

Public Document
****************************************
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017


Title: Rohingya crisis, explained
Date of publication: 13 September 2017
Description/subject: "Who are the Rohingyas? What is the Rohingya crisis? Watch this video to learn more about them and as to what is India's role in the entire situation."
Language: English
Source/publisher: India Today
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Alternate URLs: Subscribe To India Today : http://bit.ly/2vrkGte More From This Playlist: _ Follow us: Official Website: www.indiatoday.in Twitter: https://twitter.com/IndiaToday Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IndiaToday
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Rohingya exodus puts pressure back on UN rights probe
Date of publication: 13 September 2017
Description/subject: "Rohingya exodus puts pressure back on UN rights probe While the international community mulls action, deep-rooted Buddhist distrust of aid groups grows in Rakhine State... An unfolding humanitarian emergency along the Myanmar-Bangladesh border is intensifying pressure on the UN to take action, with fears that an unprecedented exodus of Rohingya refugees fleeing a military clampdown in Myanmar’s Rakhine State could amount to ethnic cleansing. A long-delayed UN fact-finding mission to Myanmar is renewing attempts to investigate allegations of serious rights violations, while the UN Security Council is set to hold a meeting on the crisis today after a request from Britain. Since 25 August, more than 370,000 Rohingya refugees have surged over the conflict-torn Myanmar border into crowded refugee camps in Bangladesh, bringing stories of razed villages, executions, and forced expulsions. The violence has underscored the urgency of the UN probe. The fact-finding mission was mandated in March by the Human Rights Council to investigate allegations of severe rights violations, particularly in Rakhine State, where the Buddhist majority has badly strained relations with international agencies and aid groups. “We are working day and night to send a team as soon as it is practically possible to establish the facts,” Marzuki Darusman, an Indonesian lawyer who chairs the three-member team, told IRIN in a statement. "The fact-finding mission is very concerned about the reports coming out on recent developments.”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Irin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017


Title: Interview: Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International
Date of publication: 12 September 2017
Description/subject: Emma Alberici speaks to Amnesty International's crisis response director Tirana Hassan about the ongoing violence against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar and Australia's response to the attacks.
Author/creator: Emma Alberici (interviewer), Tirana Hassan (interviewee)
Language: English
Source/publisher: ABC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (6 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2016/s4733301.htm
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2017


Title: On the latest Rohingya crisis
Date of publication: 12 September 2017
Description/subject: "International media were overwhelmed at the end of August 2017 by reports of widespread attacks by Myanmar’s military forces against elements of the Rohingya population. This occurred once again in northern Rakhine state, near Myanmar’s border with Bangladesh. More than 160,000 Rohingya were reported to have fled to Bangladesh to avoid getting caught up in the violence [at time of posting, UNHCR estimates 313,000—Editor], but were reportedly turned back by the Bangladesh security authorities, or arrested. More than 100 are reported to have been killed in the various military operations that took place. Such fighting has occurred in the past, sometimes resulting in mass illegal movements of Rohingya into Bangladesh border areas, but this may have been the first time such violence was witnessed first hand by international media..."
Author/creator: Trevor Wilson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: BRIEFING PAPER FOR THE ASEAN INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS (AICHR): “UPDATE ON THE MASS DISPLACEMENT OF PEOPLE FROM RAKHINE STATE”
Date of publication: 11 September 2017
Description/subject: "FORUM-ASIA welcomes the opportunity to present this joint briefing paper, in partnership with the Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network (APRRN), to the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). The purpose of this submission is to provide the AICHR with a brief analysis of attacks on civilians and mass displacement of people within and from Myanmar’s Rakhine State. We urge the AICHR to: convince the Government of Myanmar to put an end to the violence, protect civilians, allow for urgently needed humanitarian access, and implement the recommendations of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State; and for this purpose to consider and implement the recommendations provided in this submission..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Pacific Refugee Rights Network via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (192K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Briefing-Paper-on-mass-displacement-...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2017/09/11/briefing-paper-for-the-asean-intergovernmental-commi...
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: Muddling Through in Rakhine is Not Enough
Date of publication: 11 September 2017
Description/subject: "KhinZaw Win on the worsening, bloody business-as-usual in Rakhine...I returned to Myanmar to find the country locked in yet another Rohingya crisis, one that is far more serious this time. Before I left I stated that military administration in Rakhine could be imminent. Then on 25 August there were fresh attacks and the situation blew up again. Security personnel as well as civilians have been killed. On Friday 1 September there was a press conference by the Defence Ministry where the spokesman said that the military had proposed that military administration be installed in north Rakhine but the government of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi had turned it down. If military rule had been established and the violence grew worse, the onus would have been on the military. But now she and the NLD government have to bear the blame for not heeding this advice. The fact of people getting killed and brutalized, whoever they are, is no longer a matter for explanation or blame, much less denial. The inadequacy of such responses stands out. There does not appear to be any well-thought-out approach to the Rohingya issue, much less a national security strategy. Since the beginning of this year there have been calls to convene a meeting of the National Defence and Security Council but the state counselor was extremely reluctant to do so. More is the pity, I should say..."
Author/creator: KhinZaw Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: teacircleoxford
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2017


Title: Who is burning down Rohingya villages?
Date of publication: 11 September 2017
Description/subject: "About 294,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled Myanmar since violence erupted last month. Rohingyas say the military is waging a brutal campaign against them, burning their villages. Myanmar rejects this, saying its military is fighting against Rohingya "terrorists". The BBC's Jonathan Head investigates..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Alternate URLs: Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog World In Pictures https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Big Hitters https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Just Good News https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: ITEM 72: REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: 08 September 2017
Description/subject: "1. The present report, submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 34/22, covers developments in Myanmar since the previous reports of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Yanghee Lee, to the General Assembly in October 2016 (A/71/361) and to the Human Rights Council in March 2017 (A/HRC/34/67) and in an oral progress report in June 2017. 2. The Special Rapporteur conducted her sixth official visit to Myanmar from 10 to 21 July 2017. During the 12-day visit, the Special Rapporteur travelled to Rakhine, Shan and Kayin states, as well as Yangon and Nay Pyi Taw. She addressed a range of human rights issues with Union Parliament and State ministers and other stakeholders, including parliamentarians, political, religious and community leaders, civil society representatives, victims of human rights violations and members of the international community..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Un Special Rapporteur On the Human Rights Situation in Myanmar.
Format/size: pdf (291K)
Date of entry/update: 22 March 2018


Title: The Rakhine State Danger to Myanmar's Transition
Date of publication: 08 September 2017
Description/subject: "The violence since 25 August that has driven 270,000 Rohingya civilians over Myanmar’s border into Bangladesh is not just causing a humanitarian catastrophe. It is also driving up the risks that the country’s five-year-old transition from military rule will stumble, that Rohingya communities will be radicalised, and that regional stability will be weakened... Since 2012, the International Crisis Group repeatedly has warned that, if left unresolved, Rakhine State’s volatile dynamics pose a major risk to Myanmar’s transition. If dealt with primarily through a heavy-handed, indiscriminate security response, rather than in the framework of a political strategy, the dangers were clearly set to become far worse. The events of recent weeks are not just causing enormous suffering to civilians, but bring Myanmar precipitously close to just such an unraveling of much that has been achieved since the end of military rule. The 25 August attacks on Myanmar security forces by the militant group Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), also known as Harakah al-Yaqin, which the government has designated a terrorist group, undoubtedly were intended as a provocation. Neither these attacks nor the reported killing of non-Rohingya civilians, at least some of which are undoubtedly the work of the group, are excusable, no matter what political agenda they claim to represent. Any government has the responsibility to defend itself and the people living in the country. At the same time, such government security responses need to be proportionate and not target civilians..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Statement 8 September 2017
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2017


Title: Myanmar and its Rohingya Muslim Insurgency
Date of publication: 07 September 2017
Description/subject: "Early on the morning of August 25, armed militants from a Rohingya insurgent group in Myanmar mounted coordinated attacks on 30 government targets, including police outposts and an army base, in the northern part of Myanmar’s Rakhine State. Equipped with small arms, machetes, and hand-held explosives, the insurgents killed 10 police officers, a soldier, and an immigration official. Seventy-seven insurgents were killed, with one insurgent captured in the attacks. In response, the Myanmar military has begun conducting “clearance operations” across Rakhine state. Over the past week, this crackdown has forced many Rohingya from their homes, some fleeing across the border to Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Maxwell B. Markusen, Thomas M. Sanderson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2017


Title: In the jungle with Rohingya refugees feeling Myanmar
Date of publication: 04 September 2017
Description/subject: "The BBC's Sanjoy Majumder treks through difficult terrain with people fleeing Myanmar."
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Alternate URLs: Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog World In Pictures https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Big Hitters https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Just Good News https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...'>https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Land of sorrow: Human rights violations at Myanmar’s Myotha Industrial Park
Date of publication: September 2017
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Federation for Human Rights
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Atrocity Alert No. 69: Rakhine State, Myanmar, 30 August 2017
Date of publication: 30 August 2017
Description/subject: Myanmar (Burma) The government of Myanmar has been carrying out “clearance operations” in Rakhine State since Friday, 25 August, after an armed group calling itself the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) carried out coordinated attacks on multiple police posts and an army base. At least 109 people have been killed since 25 August, including civilians, members of the security forces and ARSA militants. There have been reports of widespread burning of villages, large-scale displacement, extrajudicial killings and attacks on ethnic Rohingya communities in northern Rakhine by the security forces. Government authorities evacuated civilians from some areas of Rakhine State during the weekend, but reportedly only provided assistance to non-Muslims. In response, thousands of Rohingya have fled towards the border with Bangladesh, with eyewitness reports stating that the security forces were firing on civilians as they attempted to escape. The government has denounced the ARSA as “Bengali terrorists” and on 27 August the Office of State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi accused international non-governmental organizations of helping the “extremist terrorists” who staged the 25 August attacks. There is no evidence to support this claim, which the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect and other human rights organizations have described as profoundly irresponsible and dangerous. The Myanmar government’s latest “clearance operations” come less than a year after a major counterinsurgency operation was launched in response to October 2016 attacks by Rohingya militants on three border guard posts. According to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, the “widespread and systematic” attacks against Rohingya civilians during those operations may amount to crimes against humanity. The Myanmar authorities have repeatedly denied any atrocities have taken place and no perpetrators have been brought to justice. The government refuses to acknowledge the plight of more than 1.1 million ethnic Rohingya in Myanmar, who are subjected to systematic discrimination and statelessness. The latest “clearance operations” mean that Rohingya civilians are again facing potential mass atrocity crimes as the security forces attack Rohingya communities that they presume support the ARSA. Such an approach will not end inter-communal conflict in Rakhine, nor assist Myanmar in its transition to democracy. The security forces have a responsibility to protect all populations in Myanmar, regardless of their citizenship status, religious affiliation or ethnic identity. All counter-insurgency operations directed against the ARSA must strictly adhere to international humanitarian and human rights law. The Myanmar government should also expeditiously implement the Final Report of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, which was submitted to the government on 23 August. Led by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Advisory Commission’s report offers practical recommendations that address the root causes of conflict in Rakhine, including through reforming the 1982 Citizenship Law. Today, 30 August, the UN Security Council (UNSC) will receive a briefing on the situation in Myanmar under "any other business" at the request of the United Kingdom. The UNSC must end its silence on the crisis confronting one of the largest stateless populations in the world. The UNSC and the international community should make it clear to the government of Myanmar that it must immediately end atrocities and protect the human rights of all of the diverse populations in Myanmar, including the Rohingya.
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 December 2017


Title: Myanmar Tips into New Crisis after Rakhine State Attacks (Statement)
Date of publication: 27 August 2017
Description/subject: "In the early hours of 25 August, militants from Harakah al-Yaqin � a Rohingya insurgent group that noww refers to itself in English as the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army – mounted coordinated attacks on 30 police posts and an army base in the north of Myanmar’s Rakhine state, in the townships of Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung. The government reports that the attackers, equipped with hand-held explosive devices, machetes and a few small arms, killed ten police officers, a soldier and an immigration official. Reportedly, 77 insurgents also were killed and one captured. In response, the military is conducting “clearance operations” across the area and police in rural outposts have moved to more secure locations in case of further attacks. Clashes continue in some locations, and there are reports of vigilantism against Rohingya communities. Both Rohingya and Buddhist residents are attempting to flee the areas affected. Time is not on the government’s side if Rakhine state is to be pulled back from the brink. It must quickly take bold measures to address legitimate Rohingya concerns...The Rohingya insurgent attacks that killed twelve Myanmar soldiers and officials and perhaps 77 of their own number is a serious escalation of a ten-month-old crisis. They make implementation of this week’s recommendations to address Rohingya grievances from Kofi Annan’s Advisory Commission both harder and more urgent."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2017


Title: "Towards a Peaceful, Fair and Prosperous Future for the People of Rakhine": Final Report of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State (English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 24 August 2017
Description/subject: "After one year of consultations held across Rakhine State and in other parts of the country and the region, the Advisory Commission submitted its final report to national authorities on 23 August. The report recommends urgent and sustained action on a number of fronts to prevent violence, maintain peace, foster reconciliation and offer a sense of hope to the State’s hard-pressed population. The final report of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, chaired by Kofi Annan, puts forward recommendations to surmount the political, socio-economic and humanitarian challenges that currently face Rakhine State. It builds on the Commission’s interim report released in March of this year. “Unless concerted action – led by the government and aided by all sectors of the government and society – is taken soon, we risk the return of another cycle of violence and radicalisation, which will further deepen the chronic poverty that afflicts Rakhine State”, said Kofi Annan, Chair of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. The final report addresses in depth a broad range of structural issues that are impediments to the peace and prosperity of Rakhine State. Several recommendations focus specifically on citizenship verification, rights and equality before the law, documentation, the situation of the internally displaced and freedom of movement, which affect the Muslim population disproportionally. An overview of the thematic focus areas of the report and its recommendations can be found here. The report is the outcome of over 150 consultations and meetings held by the Advisory Commission since its launch in September 2016. Commission members have travelled extensively throughout Rakhine State, and held meetings in Yangon and Naypyitaw, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Geneva. “The Commission has put forward honest and constructive recommendations which we know will create debate,” Commission Chair Kofi Annan said. “However, if adopted and implemented in the spirit in which they were conceived, I firmly believe that our recommendations, along with those of our interim report, can trace a path to lasting peace, development and respect for the rule of law in Rakhine State.” With the submission of its final report, the Advisory Commission on Rakhine has completed its mandate. However, the Commission’s report recommends a national mechanism be established to ensure the effective implementation of its recommendations. “We propose a ministerial-level appointment to be made with the sole function of coordinating policy on Rakhine State and ensuring the effective implementation of the Rakhine Advisory Commission’s recommendations,” says Commission Chair Kofi Annan. “The appointee should be supported by a permanent and well-staffed secretariat, which will be an integral part of the Central Committee on Implementation of Peace and Development in Rakhine State and support its work.”
Author/creator: Kofi Annan (Chair), U Win Mra, U Aye Lwin, Dr Tha Hla Shwe, Dr Mya Thida, Daw Saw Khin Tint, U Khin Maung Lay, Mr Ghassan Salamé, Ms Laetitia van den Assum
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Advisory Commission on Rakhine State
Format/size: pdf (English:272K-reduced version; 372K-original. Burmese:9.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/Advisory_Commission_on_RakhineState-FinalReport-2017-08-24-bu-lr... (Burmese, reduced version)
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/20170822-Overview-of-key-points-and-recommendations.pdf
http://www.rakhinecommission.org/ (Commission-English site)
http://www.rakhinecommission.org/mm/ (Commission-Burmese site)
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2017


Title: The Rohingya: Silent Abuse - Al Jazeera World
Date of publication: 13 August 2017
Description/subject: "Many of them have become internally displaced by government moves to exploit land, provoking long-standing friction. In fact, the conflict between Myanmar's ethnic minorities and the ruling Burmese majority represent one of the world's longest ongoing conflicts..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera World
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict (A/72/276)
Date of publication: 02 August 2017
Description/subject: Progress Achieved to Protect Children in Past 20-Years Threaten by Ongoing Crisis - UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict Annual Report to General Assembly Attacks on Schools and Denial of Humanitarian Access Particularly Worrisome in 2016 New York 29 August 2017 – The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Ms. Virginia Gamba, released today her annual report to the General Assembly. The 16-page document outlines immediate priorities as well as a longer-term vision for improving the protection of children affected by armed conflict, with a reflection on the achievements of the children and armed conflict agenda over the past two decades. “The UN engagement with governments and armed groups has enabled positive achievement over the past two decades benefiting children affected by conflict; but lasting wars and complex conflicts could reverse the positive gains, as we keep seeing occurrences of all six grave violations including re-recruitment of freed children, abduction, sexual violence and killing and maiming,” highlights Ms. Gamba. Covering the period from August 2016 to July 2017, the report also depicts emerging issues and challenges including alarmingly high numbers of attacks on schools and protected personnel and cases of military use of schools. With over 245 million children estimated to be living in conflict zones, a whole generation is at risk of missing out on education due to the effects of conflict, with dramatic consequences for the personal development of children but also for long term peace and security. The Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict also condemns the increasing politicization of the provision of humanitarian access for aid delivery, even when it is intended for children. “Besiegement as a method of warfare has dramatic consequences, especially for children. In 2016, 994 incidents of denial of humanitarian access were verified by the United Nations, almost half of them in South Sudan; in Syria, nearly 650,000 people have been deprived from food and life-saving items like medicine; this is unacceptable,” Ms. Gamba adds. The report thus highlights the necessity of depoliticizing the delivery of humanitarian aid to children and of protecting education in situations of armed conflict, including through the deterrence of the military use of schools and the endorsement of the Safe Schools Declaration. Other recommendations include the necessary political, technical and financial support to reintegration programmes for children formerly associated with armed forces or armed groups, giving special attention to the needs of girls, and enhancing legal protection frameworks. 20 Years of Work for Children Affected by Armed Conflict The report also provides an opportunity to reflect on the achievements of the mandate since its inception 20 years ago, and the Special Representative looks forward to building on the gains made since to end and prevent grave violations against children in conflict. Among the accomplishments, the report underlines the signature of 28 action plans by parties to conflict; the delisting of nine parties to conflict; and the success of the Campaign “Children, Not Soldiers” as a catalyst for strengthening the overall child protection architecture. All eight countries that were initially part of the “Children, Not Soldiers” campaign have signed an action plan with the United Nations and thousands of children have been released and reintegrated. Chad has met the benchmarks set out in its action plan on the recruitment and use of children. Solid progress has been observed in the Democratic Republic of Congo, although other violations remain of concern in the country, including cases of rape and other forms of sexual violence and killing and maiming. In addition, the engagement by the United Nations with non-State armed groups has resulted in the signing of two new action plans to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children during the reporting period; in Sudan with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM/N) and in Mali with the Coordination des Mouvements de l’Azawad (CMA). Sadly, ongoing crisis have hampered the progress in implementing action plans in Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen. Reflecting on more recent trends, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General is very concerned at the many violations attributed to non-State actors in general, and violent extremists in particular, and notes a rise in the use of children and their abduction by these groups. Building on lessons-learned, a new campaign to increase public awareness on the six grave violations is currently under development. The Special Representative also intends to engage additional actors and enhance engagement with its current partners, including UN agencies, international, sub-regional and regional organizations, as well as civil society, to pursuing best practices in strengthening the protection of children affected by armed conflict. Read the full report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict to the General Assembly.
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Understanding China’s Response to the Rakhine Crisis
Date of publication: August 2017
Description/subject: " A major humanitarian crisis has unfolded in Burma’s Rakhine State since August 2017, after attacks by a Rohingya armed group on police posts were followed by retaliatory attacks against the Rohingya population. More than six hundred thousand Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh, and reports of human rights abuses have sparked widespread international condemnation, particularly from Western nations and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) countries. In contrast, China’s response has been largely supportive of the Burmese government—in effect affirming Burma’s characterization of the attacks as “terrorism.” Military cooperation between the two states has also been reaffirmed..."
Author/creator: Adrienne Joy
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Institute Of Peace via "Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (136K)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/sr419-understanding-chinas-response-...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/02/08/understanding-chinas-response-to-the-rakhine-crisis/
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2018


Title: Joint report on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material; and trafficking in persons, especially women and children (A/72/164) [EN/AR]
Date of publication: 18 July 2017
Description/subject: Note by the Secretary-General The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the joint report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material, Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, and the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro, submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 71/177 and Human Rights Council resolutions 34/16 and 35/5. Joint report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material and the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children Summary The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 71/177 and Human Rights Council resolutions 34/16 and 35/5. The Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and the Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material have described herein their activities undertaken in accordance with their respective mandates since their previous reports to the Assembly (A/71/303 and A/71/261, respectively). They also provide a study on the vulnerabilities of children to sale, trafficking, and other forms of exploitation in situations of conflict and humanitarian crisis. Their recommendations, at the end of the report, are aimed at reducing the vulnerabilities of those children and enhancing their protection.
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Reluctant Refuge: Rohingya safe but not secure in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 12 July 2017
Description/subject: "Nine months ago, the first of more than 74,000 ethnic minority Rohingya streamed into Bangladesh, seeking refuge from abuses in Myanmar. The influx of refugees and the harrowing stories they carried brought needed international attention to the abuses taking place in Myanmar. But less focus has been given to the humanitarian crisis and inadequate support the situation exposed not only for the new arrivals, but also for the 33,000 Rohingya officially recognized as refugees and as many as 500,000 undocumented Rohingya already living in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh has long refused to recognize the vast majority of Rohingya in the country as refugees and has been reluctant to do more to address their humanitarian needs or to accept international assistance to do so. The response has improved in recent months, but significant gaps remain, particularly regarding needs for food, adequate shelter, and protections against gender-based violence and trafficking risks. Many Rohingya continue to live in crowded conditions in makeshift shelters vulnerable to the high winds and heavy rains of the ongoing monsoon season, some within heartbreaking sight of their homeland. Recent pledges by the Government of Bangladesh on the global stage are encouraging and should be implemented along with ideas for better coordination being discussed by international humanitarian agencies. For more durable solutions, bilateral and multilateral engagement along with pressure when necessary on the Government of Myanmar on issues of safe returns, accountability, and citizenship will be crucial for addressing the root causes of the plight of the Rohingya..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: pdf (10MB)
Alternate URLs: https://reliefweb.int/report/bangladesh/reluctant-refuge-rohingya-safe-not-secure-bangladesh
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2017.7.10Bangladesh.pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 December 2017


Title: A Continuing Humanitarian Tragedy: Ongoing Abuses and Oppression against the Rohingya in Myanmar
Date of publication: 11 July 2017
Description/subject: "This policy brief draws on many years of Refugees International (RI) reporting on the Rohingya, as well as a recent RI mission to Bangladesh, where RI Senior Advocate for Human Rights Daniel Sullivan interviewed recent Rohingya arrivals who fled Myanmar beginning in late 2016. This policy brief is being issued in advance of a separate report on the situation of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, which will be issued on July 13, 2017. RI is issuing this policy brief out of concern that Myanmar’s political reforms have not benefitted the Rohingya. In fact, the Government of Myanmar, and the military in particular, has engaged in, supported or condoned widespread, egregious, and systematic human rights abuses that may constitute crimes against humanity. And while we note statements by the government expressing an intention to address the well-being of all communities in Rakhine State (home to the vast majority of Rohingya in Myanmar), governments and international organizations must not confuse talk with action..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (495K)
Alternate URLs: https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/continuing-humanitarian-tragedy-ongoing-abuses-and-oppression-...
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2017


Title: FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN PART OF RAKHINE STATE Final Report
Date of publication: July 2017
Description/subject: FOOD SECURITY: "In line with the previous remote emergency assessments, the survey confirmed a worsening of the food security situation in already highly vulnerable areas after the October 2016 incidents and subsequent security operations. Nearly one third of the population was severely food-insecure and in need of humanitarian assistance. Only 14 percent of women achieved minimum dietary diversity and none of the children met the minimum adequate diet. Income opportunities were scarce and households could not access sufficient food to cover their needs. About half of the markets were not functioning or were only partially operational, food prices were highly volatile and supply of affordable foods in many markets was scarce...OVERALL SITUATION: Maungdaw district is among the most vulnerable and chronically food-insecure areas in Myanmar and the assessment confirmed a further deterioration of the food security situation. Measured by the food consumption score, about two third of the households could not meet an adequate diet and 28 percent of them had a poor food intake the week prior to the survey. With respect to previous surveys (2014-16), an increase was registered in diet inadequacy rates, from 43 to 62 percent, and in the share of households with poor food consumption, from 9 to 29 percent . During thirty days prior to the survey, about one third of the households faced extreme experiences of food insecurity, such as no food of any kind in the household (28 percent), went to bed hungry (34 percent), or went for the whole day and night without eating (28 percent). Income opportunities were scarce, households could not access sufficient food to cover their needs, and were employing disruptive coping strategies to manage the food gaps. Compared to the period of January-April 2016, food prices have increased on average by 7.4 percent while the purchasing power of households has dropped by 44 percent. Nearly half of the markets were not or only partially functioning. Food prices were highly volatile, and supply of affordable dried fish, a main source of proteins for the population, was scarce. High food insecurity, limited access to essential services including health care, and poor ac-cess to safe water and sanitation may have exacerbated an already serious malnutrition situ-ation (based on DHS 2015-16 for Rakhine State, the Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) was at 13.9 percent while the Severe Acute malnutrition (SAM) - 3.7 percent). None of the children from 6 to 23 months met the minimum adequate diet, only 2.5 percent reached minimum dietary diversity and 8.5 percent met the minimum meal frequency. It was observed that 24 percent of the households in Maungdaw and 17 percent in Buthidaung were composed of female adult members only. This was in line with focus group discussions findings indicating that many male adults had to leave their household due to the security operations. With the highest frequency of episodes of severe hunger, this group was the most vulnerable to food insecurity (Figure 2). Under these circumstances and with the upcoming rainy season that may aggravate an already fragile situation, the capacity of the most vulnerable population to access sufficient food in the long-term is severally undermined and will depend on the humanitarian assistance in the near future. It is estimated that about 38,000 households corresponding to 225,800 people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Preliminary data of early 2017 shows an increase in children requiring treatment of acute malnutrition, and it is estimated that 80,500 children under the age of five are expected to be in need of treatment for acute malnutrition over the next twelve months.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Food Programme (WFP)
Format/size: pdf (1.22MB)
Alternate URLs: http://vam.wfp.org/CountryPage_assessments.aspx?iso3=mmr
http://vam.wfp.org/CountryPage_overview.aspx?iso3=MMR
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2017


Title: Rohingya insurgency takes lethal form in Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 June 2017
Description/subject: "The newly formed Arakan Rohingya Solidarity Association militant group is wreaking havoc in the country's already volatile western Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Kayleigh Long
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2017


Title: Security integration in Myanmar - Past experiences and future visions [EN/MY]
Date of publication: 31 May 2017
Description/subject: Executive Summary Major developments in Myanmar’s peace process have brought to the fore a critical debate about the future of the country’s security sector. In October 2015, the Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw), which ruled the country for decades and retains significant political powers, signed a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) with eight ethnic armed organisations (EAOs). The NCA is yet to be signed by more than ten other EAOs and so is still far from ‘nationwide’ in practice. Nonetheless, the deal is significant because it has committed all sides to undertaking political dialogue towards the establishment of a federal system of government, as long demanded by most EAOs but resisted by the Tatmadaw. Additionally, an agreement has been made regarding a dual process of security sector reform (SSR) and disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR), referred to in the NCA as ‘security re-integration’. This raises important questions about what a transition from a de facto unitary structure to a more federal security structure in Myanmar would look like, and how EAOs might be incorporated into it. This discussion paper aims to support an inclusive and evidence-based approach to SSR in Myanmar and to help contextualise the ongoing discourse and upcoming negotiations. It is based on desk-research of existing open-source materials, supplemented by the authors’ many years experience of researching security issues in Myanmar. The paper was written to inform all stakeholders involved in, or supporting, the peace process about Myanmar’s previous experiences with SSR and future visions among the major stakeholders: the National League for Democracy (NLD), the Tatmadaw and Myanmar’s multiple EAOs. It examines previous attempts at security integration, considers the current state of play in relation to the political context and peace process, and reflects on the positions and perspectives of key stakeholders regarding the future structure and governance of Myanmar’s security sector. From the 1960s through the late 2000s, the Tatmadaw initiated multiple programmes to convert EAOs into paramilitary forces under its command, typically offering EAO leaders security and business concessions in return for their military cooperation.i While dozens of units have been formed over the decades, such programmes have also often led to new conflicts, EAOs have splintered or tensions have arisen between EAOs and the Tatmadaw. In 2009 while still in power, the Tatmadaw demanded all of the country’s 40 ceasefire EAOs to form Border Guard Forces (BGFs), under direct Tatmadaw control, which led to a wave of new and renewed conflicts that still persist today. Furthermore, BGFs and other paramilitaries have poorly-defined roles and are often primarily focused on business activities. The concept of integrating EAOs into the state security forces is therefore not new and has a complex history. Nevertheless, there are hopes that the current peace process will achieve better negotiated and more sustainable arrangements. Since signing the NCA, political dialogue has been broadly structured around a threeway discourse between the Tatmadaw, EAOs and the National League for Democracy (NLD) – led by Aung San Suu Kyi – which has been in power since March 2016. Each of these stakeholders have widely divergent positions on what forms ‘federalism’ and ‘security integration’ should take. The Tatmadaw – a powerful and well-established institution, deeply entrenched in Myanmar’s political and economic life – holds firm to its perceived role as defender of the nation’s sovereignty and integrity. Its vision for the future of the armed forces is primarily focused on the accelerated modernisation of its capabilities, and it has often emphasised the need for EAOs to enter a process of DDR or simply to come under the command of the existing Tatmadaw. The NLD has been long focused on the need for democratic reform of the Tatmadaw, for it to relinquish its political role and come under civilian control, and for it to rebuild trust with the people. Nevertheless, Aung San Suu Kyi has repeatedly voiced a personal commitment to the Tatmadaw, as it was founded by her father,ii and has indicated it remains a crucial institution of the state.iii While Aung San Suu Kyi has loosely given support for the EAOs’ long-held demand of a Federal Union Armed Forces, the NLD has given little indication of if and how it envisages the integration of Myanmar’s numerous EAOs into a reformed Tatmadaw. EAOs vary greatly in their size, history, and interests, and in their positions on SSR. For a core bloc of pro-federal EAOs, the demand for the reform of the armed forces along federal lines has been of paramount importance since at least the late 2000s, and remains their central SSR principle. Informed by the experience of the state’s previous attempts to convert EAOs into BGFs, the EAOs will continue to be sceptical of any SSR process that they regard to be redeploying their capacities to serve the Tatmadaw, unless there is comprehensive decentralisation of the state, including the military. To develop a lasting solution to the interlinked political and security complexes that drive armed conflict in Myanmar, all three of the main stakeholder groups – the Tatmadaw, NLD and EAOs – will need to develop a shared vision of security integration. Reconciling the divergent perspectives outlined above – or even identifying where there is common ground – will be far from easy, and will likely become a long-term and incremental endeavour. While much more research is needed to fully understand these dynamics and to make well-informed policy recommendations, this report concludes with some broad reflections on what the major challenges and key questions will be going forward. It also recommends some particular topics on which further research and learning work could be carried out. Saferworld will publish a companion paper that focuses on comparative models and experience of federal models of security and security integration to equip Myanmar’s stakeholders with knowledge that will help them to participate constructively in discussions about the future of Myanmar’s security sector.
Language: English
Source/publisher: reliefweb
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2017


Title: Myanmar: Are crimes against humanity taking place?
Date of publication: 10 March 2017
Description/subject: "Are there crimes against humanity taking place in Myanmar? And is Aung San Suu Kyi turning a blind eye? Newsnight and BBC Our World's joint investigation reveals the extent of the appalling treatment of the minority Rohingya Muslim community. Jonah Fisher has this report - which contains some shocking images..."
Author/creator: Jonah Fisher
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC Newsnight
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 11 February 2018


Title: Drops of Compassion: a letter from Sister Chan Khong
Date of publication: 16 February 2017
Description/subject: "Sister Chan Khong, the eldest monastic in the Plum Village Community of Engaged Buddhists, and Thay’s long-time collaborator, has written an open letter to Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar, to ask for compassionate action to prevent the violent oppression of Rohingya muslims in her country."
Author/creator: Sister Chan Khong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Plum Village
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 February 2018


Title: Arakan State Advisory Commission Member Describes Inhumane Conditions for Refugees in Bangladesh
Date of publication: 03 February 2017
Description/subject: RANGOON – "An Arakan State Advisory Commission delegate who participated in a three-day trip to Bangladesh, Al Haj U Aye Lwin, told The Irrawaddy on Thursday that the living conditions for Muslim refugees on the Bangladeshi border were “inappropriate even for animals.”..."
Author/creator: Moe Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2017


Title: Buddhists show support of Rohingyas
Date of publication: 2017
Description/subject: " Buddhists show support of Rohingyas Buddhist leaders from around the world issued a statement that urged Buddhists in Burma to show compassion and respect to the Muslims in Rakhine State. Many Buddhists in that state have been complicit in holding demonstrations and acting violently toward the Rohingya Muslims. "We are concerned about the growing ethnic violence and the targeting of Muslims in Rakhine State and the violence against Muslims and others across the country," the statement said. "The Burmese are a noble people, and Burmese Buddhists carry a long and profound history of upholding the Dharma. We wish to reaffirm to the world and to support you in practicing the most fundamental Buddhist principles of non-harming, mutual respect and compassion." "
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Taskforce
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 February 2018


Title: UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM: BURMA CHAPTER – 2017 ANNUAL REPORT
Date of publication: 2017
Description/subject: "The year 2016 marked a historic and peaceful transition of government in Burma, also known as Myanmar. Yet while the political handover occurred without incident, conditions during the year continued to decline for Rohingya Muslims, as well as for other religious and ethnic minorities. In addition, fresh and renewed fighting in some ethnic areas highlighted the schism between Burma’s civilian-controlled leadership and the military, which controls three powerful ministries and significant portions of the economy..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: United States Commission On International Religious Freedom via"Progressive Voice"
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Alternate URLs: https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/2018/01/11/united-states-commission-on-international-religious-...
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Burma.2017.pdf
https://progressivevoicemyanmar.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Burma-2017-reviewed_Burmese.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: Myanmar: A New Muslim Insurgency in Rakhine State
Date of publication: 19 December 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The deadly attacks on Border Guard Police (BGP) bases in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State on 9 October 2016 and the days following, and a serious escalation on 12 November when a senior army officer was killed, signify the emergence of a new Muslim insurgency there. The current violence is qualitatively different from anything in recent decades, seriously threatens the prospects of stability and development in the state and has serious implications for Myanmar as a whole. The government faces a huge challenge in calibrating and integrating its political, policy and security responses to ensure that violence does not escalate and intercommunal tensions are kept under control. It requires also taking due account of the grievances and fears of Rakhine Buddhists. Failure to get this right would carry enormous risks. While the government has a clear duty to maintain security and take action against the attackers, it needs, if its response is to be effective, to make more judicious use of force and focus on a political and policy approach that addresses the sense of hopelessness and despair underlying the anger of many Muslims in Rakhine State. Complicating this is that Aung San Suu Kyi has some influence, but under the constitution no direct control over the military. The insurgent group, which refers to itself as Harakah al-Yaqin (Faith Movement, HaY), is led by a committee of Rohingya émigrés in Saudi Arabia and is commanded on the ground by Rohingya with international training and experience in modern guerrilla war tactics. It benefits from the legitimacy provided by local and international fatwas (religious judicial opinions) in support of its cause and enjoys considerable sympathy and backing from Muslims in northern Rakhine State, including several hundred locally trained recruits. The emergence of this well-organised, apparently well-funded group is a gamechanger in the Myanmar government’s efforts to address the complex challenges in Rakhine State, which include longstanding discrimination against its Muslim population, denial of rights and lack of citizenship. The current use of disproportionate military force in response to the attacks, which fails to adequately distinguish militants from civilians, together with denial of humanitarian assistance to an extremely vulnerable population and the lack of an overarching political strategy that would offer them some hope for the future, is unlikely to dislodge the group and risks generating a spiral of violence and potential mass displacement. HaY would not have been able to establish itself and make detailed preparations without the buy-in of some local leaders and communities. Yet, this has never been a radicalised population, and the majority of the community, its elders and religious leaders have previously eschewed violence as counterproductive. The fact that more people are now embracing violence reflects deep policy failures over many years rather than any sort of inevitability. It is important for the government’s response to start from an appreciation of why a violent reaction from some Muslims in Rakhine State has emerged. The population has seen its rights progressively eroded, its gradual marginalisation from social and political life, and rights abuses. This has become particularly acute since the 2012 anti-Muslim violence in Rakhine. Disenfranchisement prior to the 2015 elections severed the last link with politics and means of influence. At the same time, the disruption of maritime migration routes to Malaysia closed a vital escape valve, particularly for young men whose only tangible hope for the future was dashed. An increasing sense of despair has driven more people to consider a violent response, but it is not too late for the government to reverse the trend. It requires recognising first that these people have lived in the area for generations and will continue to do so. Ways must be found to give them a place in the nation’s life. A heavy-handed security response that fails to respect fundamental principles of proportionality and distinction is not only in violation of international norms; it is also deeply counterproductive. It will likely create further despair and animosity, increasing support for HaY and further entrenching violence. International experience strongly suggests that an aggressive military response, particularly if not embedded in a broader policy framework, will be ineffective against the armed group and has the potential to considerably aggravate matters. So far, though there are indications of some training and solidarity, HaY does not appear to have a transnational jihadist or terrorist agenda. But there are risks that if the government mishandles the situation, including by continued use of disproportionate force that has driven tens of thousands from their homes or across the border to Bangladesh, it could create conditions for further radicalising sections of the Rohingya population that transnational jihadists could exploit to pursue their own agendas in the country. To avoid that requires subordinating the security response and integrating it into a well-crafted, overarching political strategy – building stronger, more positive relations between Muslim communities and the Myanmar state and closer cooperation and intelligence sharing with regional countries."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Asia Report N°283
Format/size: pdf (430K-reduced version; 1.77MB-origibnal)
Alternate URLs: https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/283-myanmar-new-muslim-insurgency-rakhine-...
Date of entry/update: 19 December 2016


Title: Burma: Massive Destruction in Rohingya Villages. Satellite Images Show 430 Burned Buildings; UN-Aided Inquiry Needed
Date of publication: 13 November 2016
Description/subject: "High-definition satellite imagery shows widespread fire-related destruction in ethnic Rohingya villages in Burma's Rakhine State, Human Rights Watch said today. The Burmese government should immediately invite the United Nations to assist in investigating reported destruction of villages in the area. “New satellite images not only confirm the widespread destruction of Rohingya villages but show that it was even greater than we first thought,” said Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “Burmese authorities should promptly establish a UN-assisted investigation as a first step toward ensuring justice and security for the victims.” Human Rights Watch identified a total of 430 destroyed buildings in three villages of northern Maungdaw district from an analysis of very high resolution satellite imagery recorded on the mornings of October 22, November 3, and November 10, 2016. Of this total, 85 buildings were destroyed in the village of Pyaung Pyit (Ngar Sar Kyu), 245 in Kyet Yoe Pyin, and 100 in Wa Peik (Kyee Kan Pyin). Damage signatures in each of the assessed villages were consistent with fire, including the presence of large burn scars and destroyed tree cover. Because of dense tree cover it is possible that the actual number of destroyed buildings is higher..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 November 2016


Title: Myanmar: Kofi Annan to head Commission on Rakhine state 24 August 2016, 12:52 UTC
Date of publication: 24 August 2016
Description/subject: "The establishment of a high-level commission headed by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan is a welcome step towards addressing the human rights situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, Amnesty International said today. “Today’s announcement is a sign that Myanmar’s authorities are taking the situation in Rakhine state seriously. But it will only have been a worthwhile exercise if it paves the way for the realization of human rights for all people in the state,” said Rafendi Djamin, Amnesty International’s Director for South East Asia and the Pacific...."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2016


Title: Establishment of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State
Date of publication: 23 August 2016
Description/subject: "Nay Pyi Taw, August 23 The Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, committed to finding lasting solutions to the complex and delicate issues in the Rakhine State, will establish an Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. A Memorandum of Understanding is to be signed between the Ministry of Office of the State-Counsellor and the Kofi Annan Foundation. The nine-member Advisory Commission, a national initiative to resolve protracted issues in the region, will be chaired by former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Chairman and Founder of the Kofi Annan Foundation and noble laureate, Mr. Kofi Annan and will be composed of (3) international and (6) national persons of Eminence who are highly experienced, respected and neutral individuals. The commission members are : • U Win Mra, Chair of the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission • Dr. Thar Hla Shwe, President of Myanmar Red Cross Society • Mr. Ghassan Salame’, Lebanese Minister of Culture (2000- 2003), UN Special Advisor to Secretary-General (2003-2006) • Ms Laetitia van den Assum, Special Advisor to the UNAIDS (2005-2006), the Netherlands’ Ambassador to the United Kingdom (2012-2015) • U Aye Lwin, Core Member and Founder of Religious for Peace, Myanmar • Dr. Mya Thida, President of Obstetrical and Gynecological Society of MMA, Member of the Myanmar Academy of Medical Science • U Khin Maung Lay, Member of the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission • Daw Saw Khin Tint, Chairperson (Rakhine Literature and Culture association, Yangon) and Vice-Chairperson (Rakhine Women Association) The Commission will undertake meetings with all relevant stakeholders, international experts and foreign dignitaries to hear their views and to analyze relevant issues with a view to finding the best possible solutions to prevailing problems..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar State Counsellor's Office
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2016


Title: Rohingya Crisis - Explained (2 minutes)
Date of publication: 03 July 2016
Description/subject: Rohingyas are a Muslim minority who reside in Myanmar. They have stayed here for several generations and account for 7% of "Myanmar’s population. However, the 1982 citizenship law of Myanmar prohibits Rohingyas from being citizens. This has made nearly 1 million Rohingyas stateless. Know about the Rohingya crisis in 2 minutes by watching the below video..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: LawPith
Format/size: Adobe Flash, html5
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: KEY ISSUES CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN AND GIRLS IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR [CEDAW-64th Session]
Date of publication: 30 June 2016
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 4th and 5th periodic State Party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/4-5) - MYANMAR - June 2016.....RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE CEDAW COMMITTEE: "The Committee should urge the Government of Myanmar: * To take immediate steps to eradicate all discriminatory policies and practices against the Rohingya population; * To combat all acts of incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence against religious and ethnic minorities, in particular against the Rohingya, condemn such acts publicly and take swift legal action against perpetrators; * To take all necessary measures to establish the rule of law in Rakhine State, end impunity, and provide security and equal protection of the law to all, including Rohingya women; * To engage in a confidence-building process with all communities in Rakhine State, inclusive of women, and to promote interfaith and intercommunal dialogue; * To ensure that any Action Plan for Peace and Reconciliation in Rakhine State is in line with international human rights principles, especially those relating specifically to women... On Citizenship and birth registration: * To review the 1982 Citizenship Law in accordance with international standards in order to prevent and eradicate statelessness in Myanmar, to bring Myanmar law into compliance with the universally respected prohibition of racial discrimination and with Myanmar’s obligations under Article 7 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) with the intention of granting citizenship and associated rights to the Rohingyas; * To urgently resolve the legal status of Rohingyas through a transparent process that will provide incentives to all stakeholders to participate in the process in order to grant citizenship and associated rights to the Rohingyas; * To issue birth certificates to all Rohingya children born in Myanmar in compliance with domestic law and Myanmar’s obligations under the CRC (Article 7.1); * To immediately register all Rohingya children by removing burdensome requirements which make it difficult to insert their names in their parents’ family list. * To abolish without delay all local orders restricting movement and marriage, and which seek to limit the number of children a family can have, orders which are exclusively applied on the Rohingya in Rakhine State... On freedom of movement: * To revise and repeal all orders and regulations that restrict the freedom of movement of the Rohingya; * To lift the curfew still in place in Maungdaw and Buthidaung Townships; * To establish conditions conducive to the voluntary return of the displaced Rohingyas to their place of origin or to other places of voluntary resettlement in safety and dignity, and to ensure adequate reintegration and security... On access to livelihood and basic services: * To substantially improve access to quality health care and education services to Rohingya children, in IDP camps as well as in all other locations; * To guarantee unhindered humanitarian access to all Rohingya communities in Rakhine State; * To withdraw the Population Control Healthcare Bill in particular, as this law could result in new restrictions targeting Rohingya women as it allows authorities to impose 3-year birth spacing in any region of the country, in particular as it could further increase discrimination against Rohingya women; * To conduct extensive teacher training among Rohingyas, including for women, and to restore access to higher education, including university education, to Rohingya students; * To ensure access to food and eradicate malnutrition so that women and children can meet their physical and mental needs and responsibilities... On violence against women and access to justice: * To establish support mechanisms for women victims of all forms of violence, including sexual and gender-based abuses; * To increase training, capacity-building and awareness-raising for all actors involved in assisting women subject to violence, including police forces, health practitioners and teachers, community volunteers and other service providers; * To provide legal aid and effective access to justice to encourage women victims of violence to seek redress; * To take legal action against perpetrators of sexual violence against women, and, in particular, investigate and prosecute members of State authorities committing rape and sexual harassment against Rohingya women... On ratifying other international human rights treaties: * To accede to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness; * To become a State Party to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women; and, * To accede to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and other relevant human rights instruments."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 07 July 2016


Title: Situation of human rights of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 June 2016
Description/subject: Human Rights Council Thirty-second session Agenda item 2... Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General..... Situation of human rights of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights....."The present report, submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 29/21, examines the situation of human rights of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar. It analyzes patterns of human rights violations and abuses, particularly discrimination, and concludes with recommendations on measures to be taken by the Government to improve the situation of minorities in Myanmar."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (A/HRC/32/18) - Advance Unedited Version
Format/size: pdf (198K)
Date of entry/update: 22 June 2016


Title: Myanmar is facing, in certain areas, a serious problem with landmines’
Date of publication: 11 June 2016
Description/subject: "...What assistance has the ICRC been providing to IDPs in Kachin and Shan states? I have had the opportunity to see two camps and a settlement where displaced people are living. One in Myitkyina, where people have been living for several years, and then two in Kutkai in northern Shan State, where displaced people had just arrived. I really feel that there is quite a difference in terms of living standards in one camp where there are people newly arrived. There, we provide emergency assistance. Whereas in Myitkyina we support livelihoods, for instance, in providing cash grants, so that people can open their own shop, earn their own money and stand on their own feet. What short- and long-term aid does the ICRC provide to IDPs? In the short term, it is basically humanitarian assistance, for instance the provisions of shelters. It was the first need that I saw in the camps that I visited in the north of Kutkai and we provided material to every family to build shelters. Then, it is about improving access to water, access to health care and to basic food. In order to provide access to food items, for instance, we distribute cash to every family every month so that they can buy their own food. We provide K7,000 per person per month. For a family of five, it’s K35,000 per month..... For the longer term, we develop other supports for families who show interest in developing economic projects, what we call conditional cash grants. With that money, I saw families in a camp in Myitkyina who opened their own shops, for instance, small grocery shops, or started to raise pigs. .....We have a program called Weapon Contamination [to raise awareness among the public]. We have specialists who are working with Myanmar Red Cross volunteers to sensitise the population on the risks of mines. Myanmar is not a signatory to the mine-ban convention known as the Ottawa Treaty. In our sensitisation work with the army and the armed groups, we very much base our arguments on the fact that we say that we understand why they use it for defence. But the problem is that if you use landmines, they will be there for a long time, and 30 years after, even if there is peace they might explode. So you are really creating a problem that will last for many decades and that will make the lives of people in these areas extremely difficult for a very long time. Landmines are a weapon that have lasting consequences. We see it in countries like Colombia, Afghanistan, even in Bosnia there are still landmines more than 20 years after the end of the conflict and people are at risk of getting hurt or their livestock affected. I think Myanmar is facing, not the whole country, but in certain areas, a serious problem with landmines. So our work consists not only of physical rehabilitation but also to encourage all parties to conflict to address this issue urgently, to start talks in order to clear the affected areas of mines so the population will be able to use the land for farming, to have access to water and grazing land. We are ready to help..."
Author/creator: SANN OO
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Frontier Myanmar"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2016


Title: The Rohingya crisis (Echo Factsheet)
Date of publication: May 2016
Description/subject: "The Muslim minority living in western Myanmar/Burma's Rakhine State – at least 800 000 people – identify themselves as Rohingya. For decades they have suffered legal and social discrimination . While there are historical economic relations with the Buddhist Rakhine community there are also long-standing tensions between the two communities. The Rohingyas have been denied the right to citizenship and even the right to self-identify , and were stripped of their voting rights in the last national and local elections. They are also subject to many restrictions in day to day life: banned from travelling without authorization and prohibited from working outside their villages, they cannot even get married without permission from the authorities, and, because of movement restrictions, they lack sufficient access to livelihood opportunities, medical care and education. The number of children per couple is theoretically restricted to two but, because it cannot be enforced, there are thousands of children without any administrative existence..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ECHO (European Commission)
Format/size: pdf (523K-reduced version; 733K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/rohingya_en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 June 2016


Title: IDPs must not be forgotten in wake of elections: UN
Date of publication: 03 March 2016
Description/subject: "United Nations representatives are continuing to pressure Myanmar on the international stage over its treatment of Muslim minorities and internally displaced people. A high-ranking UN official who recently toured IDP camps in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states yesterday spoke of his “heartbreaking” experiences. John Ging, director of operations for the Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), stressed that the welfare of these groups cannot be forgotten in the aftermath of the election as the country continues to transform economically and politically. In Rakhine State, Mr Ging met with some of the 120,000 Muslim Rohingya – who are officially called Bengalis by the government – and 5000 ethnic Rakhine who remain displaced after communal violence in 2012, which saw more than 150 killed and several villages razed. While acknowledging that the government has made progress in improving the living conditions for some, he also described temporary shelters in a state of collapse and appalling sanitation conditions. Many of the camps lack running water or an operational sewage system. UNOCHA noted that Muslim camp inhabitants continue to face extreme restrictions on their movement, and are denied access to local hospitals. “One mother told me that her baby, less than a month old, died from lack of oxygen in December after she was denied access to treatment at the nearby township hospital in Myebon,” Mr Ging said. He appealed for an end to such discriminatory policies. “[These policies] do not reflect the values of the people of Myanmar or the historical diversity of the country. Segregation and disenfranchisement are flawed and inhumane policies, and history teaches us that they fail every time.”..."
Author/creator: Nick Baker
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 March 2016


Title: MIXED MARITIME MOVEMENTS in South-East Asia in 2015
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: Summary: "In 2015, mixed maritime movements in South-East Asia were characterized by two distinct phases: from January to May, when the volume crossing the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea was significantly greater than during the same period in previous years; and from June to December, when such movements all but disappeared following the abandonment of thousands of refugees and migrants at sea in May. Some 1,600 refugees and migrants were estimated to have departed by sea from the Bay of Bengal in the second half of 2015, 96% less than in the second half of 2014. By contrast, the 31,000 departures estimated in the first half of 2015 were 34% higher than in the first half of 2014. Refugees familiar with the route told UNHCR in interviews that the sharp decline in departures in the second half of 2015 was a result of increased scrutiny by—and of —authorities at both departure and arrival points and harsher conditions upon arrival, as demonstrated by the discovery of mass graves and the continued detention in Malaysia of the hundreds of refugees who disembarked in May. In total, approximately 33,600 refugees and migrants travelled through South-East Asia in mixed maritime movements in 2015, including approximately 1,000 who either crossed the Strait of Malacca or attempted to reach Australia from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam. Mixed maritime movements originating from the Bay of Bengal in particular continued to result in scores of deaths at a fatality rate three times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea. In 2015, approximately 370 refugees and migrants who departed from the Bay of Bengal are estimated to have died before reaching land, mostly from starvation, dehydration, disease, and abuse by people smugglers."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB), html (103K)
Alternate URLs: https://unhcr.atavist.com/mmm2015
Date of entry/update: 03 April 2016


Title: COUNTDOWN TO ANNIHILATION: GENOCIDE IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: 29 October 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In May 2015 scenes of desperate people stranded without food or water on captain-less boats off the coasts of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia brought global attention to the Rohingya, a 1.1 million-strong Muslim ethnic group in Rakhine state, Myanmar (formerly Burma). The immediate humanitarian crisis, however, masked a much deeper and more unpalatable crisis – a genocidal persecution organised by the Myanmar State from which the Rohingya were fleeing. Reports of this persecution led researchers from the International State Crime Initiative (ISCI) to explore whether or not well-documented state crimes against Myanmar’s Rohingya do indeed amount to genocide. ISCI’s detailed research found ample evidence that the Rohingya have been subjected to systematic and widespread violations of human rights, including killings, torture, rape and arbitrary detention; destruction of their homes and villages; land confiscation; forced labour; denial of citizenship; denial of the right to identify themselves as Rohingya; denial of access to healthcare, education and employment; restrictions on freedom of movement, and State-sanctioned campaigns of religious hatred. It also found compelling evidence of State-led policies, laws and strategies of genocidal persecution stretching back over 30 years, and of the Myanmar State coordinating with Rakhine ultra-nationalists, racist monks and its own security forces in a genocidal process against the Rohingya. The persecution entered a new and more devastating phase in 2012. Organised massacres left over 200 Rohingya men, women and children dead. Up to 60 Rakhine were also killed during the June violence. Hundreds of homes, the vast majority belonging to Rohingya, were destroyed. Around 138,000 Rohingya were displaced and ended up in what are effectively detention camps. A further 4,500 desperate Rohingya people live in a squalid ghetto in Sittwe, Rakhine state’s capital. The Myanmar government’s escalating institutionalized discrimination against the Rohingya has allowed hate speech to flourish, encouraged Islamophobia and granted impunity to perpetrators of the violence. The systematic, planned and targeted weakening of the Rohingya through mass violence and other measures, as well as the regime’s successive implementation of discriminatory and persecutory policies against them, amounts to a process of genocide. This process emerged in the 1970s, and has accelerated during Myanmar’s faltering transition to democracy. Part I of this report describes the history, politics and economics of the State’s persecution of the Rohingya, affording particular attention to the relationship between the Rakhine Buddhist community and the State. Part II then analyses these processes of persecution using Daniel Feierstein’s delineation of genocide’s six stages, as outlined in his book, Genocide as Social Practice. Specifically, we will focus on genocide’s first four stages: 1) stigmatisation and dehumanisation; 2) harassment, violence and terror; 3) isolation and segregation; and 4) the systematic weakening of the target group. The systematic weakening process that has accompanied the dehumanisation, violence and segregation has been so successful that the Rohingya in Myanmar can be described as a people whose agency has been effectively destroyed. Those who can, flee, while those who remain endure the barest of lives. Now, the Rohingya potentially face the final two stages of genocide – mass annihilation and erasure of the group from Myanmar’s history. The report documents in detail the evidence for genocide, its historical genesis and the political, social and economic conditions in which it has emerged. It identifies the architects of the genocide as Myanmar State officials and security forces, Rakhine nationalist civil society leaders and Buddhist monks, and points to a significant degree of coordination between these agencies in the pursuit of eliminating the Rohingya from Myanmar’s political landscape. The report is based on a 12-month period of research, four of which were spent in the field between October 2014 and February 2015. The research included 176 interviews, observational fieldwork and documentary sources. ISCI concludes that genocide is taking place in Myanmar and warns of the serious and present danger of the annihilation of the country’s Rohingya population"
Author/creator: Penny Green, Thomas MacManus, Alicia de la Cour Venning
Language: English
Source/publisher: International State Crime Initiative (ISCI)
Format/size: html, pdf (3.2MB-reduced version; 5.MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://statecrime.org/data/2015/10/ISCI-Rohingya-Report-PUBLISHED-VERSION.pdf
http://statecrime.org/about-isci/events/isci-rohingya-week-27th-31st-october-genocide-myanmar-annih...
Date of entry/update: 30 October 2015


Title: PERSECUTION OF THE ROHINGYA MUSLIMS: IS GENOCIDE OCCURRING IN MYANMAR’S RAKHINE STATE? - A LEGAL ANALYSIS
Date of publication: 29 October 2015
Description/subject: CONTENTS:- I. SUMMARY... II. METHODOLOGY... III. HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES AGAINST ROHINGYA IN MYANMAR: A. ROHINGYA UNDER MILITARY RULE: FROM MYANMAR’S INDEPENDENCE THROUGH 2011: 1. Denial of Citizenship... 2. Forced Displacement... 3. Forced Labor... 4. Religious Persecution... 5. Marriage Restrictions and Population Control..... B. THEIN SEIN’S ADMINISTRATION: 1. Arbitrary Detention... 2. Forced Labor... 3. Sexual Violence... 4. Restrictions on Freedom of Movement... 5. Marriage Restrictions and Population Control..... C. 2012 UNREST IN RAKHINE: STATE..... D. THE CONTINUED PLIGHT OF THE ROHINGYA: 2013 – PRESENT: 1. Conditions in Internally Displaced Person (IDP) Camps... 2. Discriminatory Laws and Government Practices Against Rohingya..... IV. APPLICATION OF THE LAW OF GENOCIDE TO THE CASE OF THE ROHINGYA: A. INTRODUCTION TO THE LAW OF GENOCIDE.... B. THE “GROUP” ELEMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE: 1. National, Ethnical, Racial, or Religious Group... 2. Rohingya as an Enumerated Group.... 3. Conclusion on the “Group” Element..... C. THE “ACTS” ELEMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE... 1. Killing Members of the Group... 2. Causing Serious Bodily or Mental Harm to Members of the Group... 3. Deliberately Inflicting on the Group Conditions of Life Calculated to Bring About its Physical Destruction in Whole or in Part... 4. Imposing Measures Intended to Prevent Births Within the Group... 5. Conclusion on the “Acts” Element..... D. THE “INTENT” ELEMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE: 1. Anti-Rohingya and Anti-Muslim Rhetoric... 2. Evidence Indicating Intent to Inflict Conditions of Life on Rohingya Calculated to Bring About Their Physical Destruction... 3. Mass Scale of Acts Targeting Rohingya... 4. Conclusion on the “Intent” Element..... V. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE: A. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACTS OF STATE ORGANS... B. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACTS OF NON-STATE ACTORS... C. STATE DUTY TO PREVENT GENOCIDE... VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.
Language: English
Source/publisher: FORTIFY RIGHTS via ALLARD K. LOWENSTEIN INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT S CLINIC, YALE LAW SCHOOL
Format/size: pdf (3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Yale-2015-10-29-Persecution_of_the_Rohingya.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2015


Title: Al Jazeera Investigates - Genocide Agenda (video)
Date of publication: 26 October 2015
Description/subject: 'Documents obtained by Al Jazeera’s Investigative Unit expose the inner workings of the Myanmar government, providing “strong evidence” of genocide against the Rohingya minority'... 'Strong evidence' of genocide in Myanmar, finds Al Jazeera investigation... Exclusive evidence obtained by Al Jazeera’s Investigative Unit reveals government has been triggering communal violence..."
Language: English (some in Burmese or Rohingya with English sub-titles)
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera with Fortify Rights
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/10/genocide-agenda-documents-presented-evidence-1510...
http://www.aljazeera.com/investigations/default.html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: Why Thousands of Rohingya People Are Risking Their Lives to Leave Myanmar, Oct 21, 2015
Date of publication: 21 October 2015
Description/subject: ABC News, featuring Fortify Rights, investigates the ongoing persecution and deprivations of Rohingya in Myanmar, October 21, 2015.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ABC News via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash (8 minutes, 48 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2015


Title: Deadly Journeys - The Refugee and Trafficking Crisis in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: 20 October 2015
Description/subject: "In May 2015 three boats carrying 1,800 women, men and children landed in Aceh, Indonesia. Most of the passengers were Muslim Rohingya, a persecuted religious and ethnic minority from Myanmar. All those who arrived had endured weeks or months at sea, in overcrowded boats controlled by ruthless traffickers or abusive people-smugglers. The report includes testimonies from the Rohingya on the shocking conditions and human rights abuses they suffered on the boats for weeks or sometimes months on end, including killings and beatings while they were held hostage for ransom."
Language: English (available also in Indonesian)
Source/publisher: Amnesty International, (ASA 21/2574/2015)
Format/size: html, pdf (3.2MB)
Alternate URLs: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ASA21/2574/2015/en/
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2015


Title: DISENFRANCHISEMENT AND DESPERATION IN MYANMAR’S RAKHINE STATE: Drivers of a Regional Crisis
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine State is driving a regional crisis. Systematic discrim-ination against Rohingya Muslims has contributed to the largest regional outflow of asylum seekers by sea in decades. Humanitarian conditions in Rohingya villages and internally displaced persons (IDP) camps are dire, and Rohingya suffer frequent abuses at the hands of Myanmar authorities. In May 2015, the region was forced to grapple with the results of these conditions, as thousands of Rohingya asylum seekers were stranded on boats in the Andaman Sea, making international headlines. ASEAN leaders met at the time in the hopes of resolving the crisis, but failed to craft a regional response to the drivers of the outflow, which are rooted in Rakhine State. In the months since, these underlying drivers have been compounded by an increasing sense of desperation among Rohingya, driven principally by political exclusion. The disenfranchisement of an estimated one million Rohingya voters, as well as the rejection of dozens of Rohingya parliamentary candidates in advance of the 8 November general election, has led many Rohingya to believe that there is little hope for their future in Myanmar. With no opportunity to take part in perhaps the most consequential election in Myanmar’s history and no hope of any political representation, Rohingya feel they are being forced out of the country. Furthering this perception is the proliferation of anti-Muslim hate speech and sentiment across Myanmar and the government’s failure to address this growing threat. If left unchecked, Buddhist extremists will continue to vilify Rohingya for political purposes, and further episodes of inter-communal violence could erupt in Rakhine State and other areas, driving still more Rohingya to flee their homes. During 2015, ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR) undertook two fact-finding missions to Myanmar to assess the situation and further investigate the root causes of the Rohingya exodus. APHR’s team of parliamentarians and researchers met with government officials, religious leaders, civil society representatives, and UN agencies, as well as Rohingya and Rakhine community members and IDPs. The findings were clear: ASEAN risks another full-blown crisis as a result of unresolved conditions in Myanmar. Unless serious steps are taken to address the situation of depri-vation and despair in Rakhine State, many Rohingya will have no other option but to flee in search of asylum elsewhere. The next wave of refugees is coming. Tens of thousands of Rohingya have already fled by sea, but nearly a million more are still undergoing heavy persecution throughout Rakhine State. When the remaining Rohingya begin to leave, they will be extremely vulnerable to human trafficking to Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ASEAN PARLIAMENTARIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS via ALSEAN-BURMA
Format/size: pdf (1.20MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Burma%20Bulletin/October%202015%20Burma%20Bulletin.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2015


Title: ROHINGYA BRIEFING REPORT
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: "The controversy surrounding Myanmar’s Rohingya people is evident in conflicting stories about the ethnic group’s origin. The Burmese government and Burmese historians argue that the Rohingya are actually Bengali Muslims, refusing to recognize the term “Rohingya.” They claim that the Rohingya migrated to Rakhine state in Myanmar from Bengal during and after the British colonial era of 1824-1948. However, most experts outside of Myanmar agree that the Rohingya have been living in Rakhine state since at least the 15th century, and possibly as early as the 7th century. Claims that the Rohingya are recent immigrants from Bangladesh are simply untrue. WHO ARE THE ROHINGYA? While the government has played a significant role in the oppression of the Rohingya, it has not been without the help of Burmese citizens. There is widespread dislike and even hatred toward the Rohingya in Myanmar. The Burmese government has ingrained this disdain into it’s citizens, using dislike for the Rohingya as a way to mobilize support. Leading up to November 2015 elections, President Thein Sein has pointed to the passage of numerous discriminatory laws as evidence that he is a strong leader and should be elected for another term. His campaign is fueled, at least in part, by anti-Muslim rhetoric. The Rohingya are a stateless people, hated in their own country and forced to live in appalling living conditions. 1. For the sake of clarity, the term “Myanmar” will be used throughout the report except when referring to the country before 1989, when it’s name was still “Burma.” There are between 800,000 and 1,100,000 Rohingya in Myanmar today, 80% of whom live in Rakhine state. The Rohingya primarily reside in the two northern townships in Rakhine state--Maungdaw and Buthidaung--along the border with Bangladesh. Rakhine Buddhists are the major population group residing in Rakhine state. Tensions leading to violence between these two groups is a regular occurrence..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Equal Rights Trust
Format/size: pdf (867K-reduced version; 3.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/Rohingya%20Briefing%20Report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2017


Title: Briefing on the situation in Arakan and developments in Naypyitaw
Date of publication: 04 September 2015
Description/subject: "Amidst the political and humanitarian crises faced by Rohingya people in Arakan, a powerful tropical cyclone had made its landfall in Arakan, setting off a new wave of humanitarian crises in several townships in the Arakan state. On the political side, the date for the General Election in Myanmar is set for 8 November, 2015. While the ruling military’s USDP-dominated Government continues to deny the basic rights and citizenship of Rohingya and reject their ethnic identity, it has renewed its old strategy — reminiscent to what USDP did in the 2010 General Election — to secure the votes from Rohingya. Simultaneously, the main opposition party of the Nobel laureate Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy, reportedly has also taken dramatic steps against Muslims in Myanmar. Currently, the Rohingya are not in the voters’ list issued by the Government...".....Written NGO statements to the 29th Session of UN Human Rights Council." .....Written NGO statement to the 30th Session of UN Human Rights Council.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Maarij Foundation for Peace and Development via UN Human Rights Council (A/HRC/30/NGO/60)
Format/size: pdf (255K)
Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129 (check here for new documents)
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2015


Title: Rohingya/Bengali: A Snapshot of Community in 1960s
Date of publication: 15 August 2015
Description/subject: Summary: "The underlying reasons for the use of the word “Rohingya” in 1950- 60s by the AFPFL Government to describe Muslim Community of Northern Arakan is examined. A possible State-Military bilateral agreement in 1960s between Burma and Pakistan with regards to that Arakan Muslim community has been identified. Verified the consistent pattern that the Burmese Government since 1960 had agreed to take responsibility, i.e. providing the legal residency, for the Muslim Community of Northern Arakan."
Author/creator: Ne Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Network for International Protection of Refugees via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (282K)
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Rohingya Women Flee Violence Only to Be Sold Into Marriage (text, video)
Date of publication: 02 August 2015
Description/subject: "GELUGOR, Malaysia — The young woman had been penned in a camp in the sweltering jungle of southern Thailand for two months when she was offered a deal. She fled Myanmar this year hoping to reach safety in Malaysia, after anti-Muslim rioters burned her village. But her family could not afford the $1,260 the smugglers demanded to complete the journey. A stranger was willing to pay for her freedom, the smugglers said, if she agreed to marry him. “I was allowed to call my parents, and they said that if I was willing, it would be better for all the family,” said the woman, Shahidah Yunus, 22. “I understood what I must do.” She joined the hundreds of young Rohingya women from Myanmar sold into marriage to Rohingya men already in Malaysia as the price of escaping violence and poverty in their homeland. While some Rohingya women agree to such marriages to escape imprisonment or worse at the hands of smugglers, others are tricked or coerced. Some are only teenagers. Continue reading the main story RELATED COVERAGE France and Britain Seek Help on Calais Migrants From E.U.AUG. 2, 2015 A Bangladeshi Town in Human Trafficking’s GripJULY 23, 2015 Jubair, 13, was left behind when his mother and siblings fled Myanmar for Malaysia. “I didn’t know about it,” he said. “She could not find me. She could not tell me.”A Migrant Mother’s Anguished ChoiceJULY 5, 2015 Oma Salema, 12, holding her undernourished brother, Ayub Khan, 1, in Sittwe Camp.Myanmar to Bar Rohingya From Fleeing, but Won’t Address Their PlightJUNE 12, 2015 Malaysia offers at least some modicum of opportunity for Rohingya migrants. Rohingya gathered at an apartment block in Kuala Lumpur that is home to several families.Even in Safety of Malaysia, Rohingya Migrants Face Bleak ProspectsJUNE 3, 2015 Rohingya migrants with airdropped food. A boat carrying them and scores of others, including young children, was found floating in Thai waters; passengers said several people had died.Rohingya Migrants From Myanmar, Shunned by Malaysia, Are Spotted Adrift in Andaman SeaMAY 14, 2015 How Myanmar and Its Neighbors Are Responding to the Rohingya CrisisMAY 14, 2015 Their numbers are difficult to gauge, but officials and activists estimate that in recent years hundreds, if not thousands, of Rohingya women every year have been married off this way, and that their numbers have been increasing..."
Author/creator: Chris Buckley, Ellen Barry
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New York Times"
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: A Rational Approach to the Rohingya Crisis - The issue is more complex than many commentators suggest.
Date of publication: 08 July 2015
Description/subject: "Disturbing images and reports of decrepit vessels crammed with Rohingya people from Myanmar adrift in the Andaman Sea have featured prominently in Western newspapers and media websites of late. In April, a Thai government crackdown on human trafficking prompted smugglers to abandon their human cargoes at sea, leaving dozens of boats packed with migrants drifting aimlessly for weeks. Almost without missing a beat, media and rights groups condemned Myanmar for creating this humanitarian crisis – in the process reviving the old narrative of the pariah state. The perpetual refrain about desperate attempts by Rohingya (or “Bengalis,” as they are widely called in Myanmar) to flee persecution by powerful Buddhists does not give the full picture – in fact, this narrative of one-sided victimhood will help neither readers who wish to understand the roots of the crisis nor the Rohingya themselves. The people who call themselves Rohingya are a Muslim minority originally from Bangladesh but with a longstanding presence in Myanmar’s western Rakhine state. Some Muslim families can trace their history in Rakhine to the 16th century. When Mughals invaded Bengal in 1575, many Muslim Bengalis sought refuge in neighboring territory, where ethnic Rakhine people had been living and reigning independently for more than three thousand years..."
Author/creator: Mariana Olaizola Rosenblat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 July 2015


Title: Meet Bangladesh's people smugglers Refugees are vulnerable to violence from smugglers who pay off Bangladeshi authorities, insiders say.
Date of publication: 23 June 2015
Description/subject: Text plus links and short videos....."Torture, rape, corruption, and ransom demands - the horror experienced by migrants has been allowed to flourish for decades, according to a source inside the Southeast Asian trafficking industry from Yangon and Bangladesh. Each year thousands of Rohingya refugees flee from Myanmar to camps at Cox's Bazar across the border in Bangladesh. Seeking to continue their journey to countries such as Malaysia, they are vulnerable to the gangs who organise boat travel..."
Author/creator: Syed Tashfin Chowdhury, Florence Looi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 June 2015


Title: Refugee crisis in South East Asia seas affects thousands of people
Date of publication: 17 May 2015
Description/subject: "This week, the full impact of the Burmese government repression [2] of Rohingyas, one of its internal minority populations, was exposed to the world. Thousands of Burmese refugees have been stranded in boats [3] in the Andaman Sea and Malaccan Straits as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia try to prevent them from landing on their shores [4]. There are great fears for the well being of these people. The recent stand by Australian governments to reject asylum seekers and turn boats around [5] has helped to create this inhumane situation by empowering other countries to do the same."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Australia Asia Worker Links
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.aawl.org.au
Date of entry/update: 17 May 2015


Title: "THEY WANT US ALL TO GO AWAY" - Early Warning Signs of Genocide in Burma
Date of publication: 01 May 2015
Description/subject: "In March 2015, staff of the SIMON-SKJODT CENTER FOR THE PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE traveled to Burma, also called Myanmar, to investigate the threats facing the Rohingya, a Muslim minority group that has been subject to dehumanization through rampant hate speech, the denial of citizenship, and restrictions on freedom of movement, in addition to a host of other human rights violations that put this population at grave risk of additional mass atrocities and even genocide.... STARKEST EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF FUTURE MASS ATROCITIES: This list represents some of the concerns we heard the most often from Rohingya leaders and survivors: • Physical violence targeted against Rohingya people, homes, and businesses • Physical segregation of the Rohingya from members of other ethnic groups • Blockage of humanitarian assistance, including necessary health care • Deplorable living conditions for those displaced from their homes • Rampant and unchecked hate speech against Rohingya and other Muslims • Restrictions on movement • Stripping of citizenship • Destruction of mosques, onerous processes for Rohingya to maintain or fix mosques, and other restrictions on freedom of religion • Extortion and illegal taxation • Land confiscation • Two-child policy and restrictions on marriage in some areas of Rakhine State • “Supply checks” or raids by security forces on Rohingya homes • Sexual violence and arbitrary arrest and detention • Abuses in detention • Revocation of legal or other documents • Inability to pursue livelihoods and restrictions on business opportunities • Lack of opportunities to pursue education • Restrictions on voting • Government blockage of information flow in and out of Rohingya communities..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM (IMON-SKJODT CENTER FOR THE PREVENTION OF GENOCIDE)
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 1.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.haaretz.com/news/world/1.654779
http://www.ushmm.org/m/pdfs/20150505-Burma-Report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2015


Title: The Rohingya Crisis and the Risk of Atrocities in Myanmar: An ASEAN Challenge and Call to Action
Date of publication: April 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The longstanding persecution of the Rohingya Muslim minority in Myanmar has led to the highest outflow of asylum seekers by sea since the U.S. war in Vietnam. Human rights violations against Rohingya have resulted in a regional human trafficking epidemic, and there have been further abuses against Rohingya upon their arrival in other Southeast Asian countries. This protracted culture of abuse threatens Myanmar’s political transition, puts strains on regional economies, and supports the rise of extremist ideologies that pose potential security threats throughout the region. Ongoing human rights abuses against Rohingya pose a threat to regional peace and security and must end. Broader anti-Muslim rhetoric and violence has also flared up in locations across Myanmar in recent years. These incidents, as well as ongoing abuses against ethnic minority groups throughout the country, pose similar risks for Myanmar and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). In April 2015, ASEAN Parliamentarians for Human Rights (APHR), an organization of members of parliament from several ASEAN countries, conducted a fact-finding mission in Myanmar. APHR is deeply concerned about the current dynamics there and how they affect the region and the broader global community. APHR is equally concerned with the failure of ASEAN nations to adequately respond. Critical national elections in Myanmar are slated for the end of 2015. APHR has found an alarmingly high risk of atrocities against Rohingya, other Muslims, and other ethnic minority groups in the lead up to the election. These risks constitute a regional concern, not only due to potential cross-border spillover effects, but also because ASEAN member states share a moral responsibility to take all possible measures to prevent the commission of atrocities within ASEAN. Despite these troubling realities, the Rohingya issue remains conspicuously absent from the agenda of the ASEAN Summit. ASEAN and other global leaders ignore these dynamics at their own peril. The Rohingya crisis and broader animosity toward other Muslims and ethnic minorities in Myanmar are not just a Myanmar problem—they are an ASEAN problem. Nearly every common risk factor for atrocity crimes identified in the United Nations’ Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes is present in Myanmar today. This report draws upon APHR’s collective knowledge to analyze the situation in Myanmar within the context of this United Nations’ Framework. Based on this analysis, it is clear that there is a high risk of ongoing atrocity crimes in Myanmar in 2015 and beyond. The report represents a call to action. It demonstrates that the escalating human rights crisis in Myanmar and Southeast Asia more broadly is exacerbated by the failure of ASEAN to take effective action. ASEAN should:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ASEAAN Parlaimetarians for Human Rights (APHR)
Format/size: pdf (510-reduced version; 1.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.aseanmp.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/The-Rohingya-Crisis-and-the-Risk-of-Atrocities-in...
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2015


Title: Human rights situation of the Rohingya in Myanmar
Date of publication: 24 February 2015
Description/subject: Written statement submitted by the Society for Threatened Peoples, a non - governmental organization in special consultative status...."Currently, the Myanmar parliament is debating a controversial legislative package called the “Laws on Protection of Race and Religion” which includes the Religion Conv ersion Bill, Interfaith Marriage Bill, Population Control Bill, and the Monogamy Bill. The legislation has been proposed by an extremist Buddhist organization called the Association for the Protection of Race and Religion, which is connected to the nationa list Buddhist monk Wirathu and the 969 Movement. This group of bills is not only violating human rights in several ways but it is also endangering the peace and unity of the country. The Religion Conversion Bill includes restrictions on converting to an other religion especially for those who are wishing to convert from Theravada Buddhism to a minority religion or to atheism. The bill set out a process for applying for official permission to convert from one religion to another, giving Township - level offi cial from various government departments the power to determine whether an applicant has exercised free will in choosing to change religion. Penalties up to two years are foreseen for those who are found to be applying for conversion “with the intent of in sulting or destroying a religion” or “undue influence or pressure...".....Written NGO statement to the 28th Session of UN Human Rights Council.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Society for Threatened Peoples via United Nations (A/HRC/28/NGO/66)
Format/size: pdf (181K)
Alternate URLs: http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?c=125&su=129 (check hear for new documents)
http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/034/59/PDF/G1503459.pdf?OpenElement
Date of entry/update: 11 March 2015


Title: The Formation of the Concept of Myanmar Muslims as Indigenous Citizens: Their History and Current Situation
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "...Bamar Muslims began to actively express their awareness of being Bamar Muslims as indigenous citizens around the 1930s, almost at the same time that Burmese nationalism was on the rise. Bamar Muslims continued to raise their voices during the last military regime, yet most Buddhist Burmese did not recognize them as native. Using documents and interviews, this study will explore how the idea of Muslims as indigenous citizens emerged during the colonial period, and how it evolved up through the present time..."
Author/creator: SAITO Ayako
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies No.32 (2014)
Format/size: pdf (664K)
Alternate URLs: http://dept.sophia.ac.jp/is/iac/en/publish/asia/32.html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2015


Title: MYANMAR: A TIPPING POINT FOR ROHINGYA RIGHTS?
Date of publication: 17 November 2014
Description/subject: "Two years after a wave of violence hit the region, Myanmar’s Rakhine State has become a segregated zone. Two million ethnic Rakhine live apart from 1.2 million stateless Rohingya, who are trapped inside displacement camps or barred from leaving their villages. Ending this segregation and protecting the rights of the Rohingya are necessary components of Myanmar’s move toward democracy. However, the Rakhine leadership has rejected – both politically and with force – any reintegration of the two communities, and it is seeking to exclude the Rohingya from any role in the state’s development, distribution of resources, and political representation. Recently, Myanmar’s central government developed a draft “Rakhine Action Plan” that would provide some Rohingya with the opportunity to apply for citizenship, but only if they identify as ethnically “Bengali.” Those who are found ineligible for citizenship, or who refuse to comply, would be rendered to internment camps. The plan as currently drafted is indefensible, and the international community must demand that it be revised to reflect the rights of Rohingya to self-identify; secure citizenship; and live without arbitrary restrictions on their movement, religion, education, and livelihoods. The plan must also support the positive development of all communities in Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Sarnata Reynolds
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (200K-reduced version; 379K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.refugeesinternational.org/sites/default/files/111714_myanmar_a_tipping_point_for_rohingy...
Date of entry/update: 25 November 2014


Title: Myanmar: A Tipping Point for Rohingya Rights?
Date of publication: 17 November 2014
Description/subject: "Two years after a wave of violence hit the region, Myanmar’s Rakhine State has become a segregated zone. Two million ethnic Rakhine live apart from 1.2 million stateless Rohingya, who are trapped inside displacement camps or barred from leaving their villages. Ending this segregation and protecting the rights of the Rohingya are necessary components of Myanmar’s move toward democracy. However, the Rakhine leadership has rejected – both politically and with force – any reintegration of the two communities, and it is seeking to exclude the Rohingya from any role in the state’s development, distribution of resources, and political representation. Recently, Myanmar’s central government developed a draft “Rakhine Action Plan” that would provide some Rohingya with the opportunity to apply for citizenship, but only if they identify as ethnically “Bengali.” Those who are found ineligible for citizenship, or who refuse to comply, would be rendered to internment camps. The plan as currently drafted is indefensible, and the international community must demand that it be revised to reflect the rights of Rohingya to self-identify; secure citizenship; and live without arbitrary restrictions on their movement, religion, education, and livelihoods. The plan must also support the positive development of all communities in Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Sarnata Reynolds
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (202K)
Alternate URLs: http://static1.squarespace.com/static/506c8ea1e4b01d9450dd53f5/t/5610d330e4b0521c793a503d/144394321...
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2016


Title: Who Are The Rohingya Of Myanmar?
Date of publication: 13 November 2014
Description/subject: "The Rohingya are an ethnic minority who have lived in Myanmar for generations – and according to Human Rights Watch, they're victims of an ongoing ethnic cleansing. Myanmar recently emerged from half a century of military dictatorship, but democracy hasn't come for all of its citizens. The Rohingya have been burned out of their homes, massacred, held in de facto open-air prisons and were recently excluded from the country's first census in 30 years..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: AJ+
Format/size: Adobe Flash,or html5
Alternate URLs: Download the AJ+ app at http://www.ajplus.net/'>http://www.ajplus.net/ Subscribe for more videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCV3Nm... Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/ajplus Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ajpluscommunity Learn more about AJ+: http://www.ajplus.net/'>http://www.ajplus.net/
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Myanmar’s Muslim mosaic and the politics of belonging
Date of publication: 04 November 2014
Description/subject: "...We need to see this diversity inherent in Myanmar’s population, and this includes within the Muslim communities. How do we begin to capture the diversity and richness of Myanmar’s Muslim mosaic? Central to the politics of belonging is how Muslims define themselves. Let me take the 2014 census as an example of how Muslims are seeking to redefine their identity. International commentary on the census primarily focused on the categories the government would use to mark religion and ethnicity, and specifically whether it would allow individuals to identify as ‘Rohingya’. But there was an absence of coverage of broader Muslim responses to the census. Observers failed to see the fierce discussion and debate within Muslim communities about what categories they wanted to use to define their religious and ethnic status in the census. Many in the Burmese Muslim community were confused: they did not want to list their ethnicity as ‘Burman’, even if they identified as part Burman. This was because they felt that the ethnic category ‘Burman’ may be conflated by the government with ‘Buddhists’, and therefore overestimated the numbers of Buddhists. On the other hand, as Muslims who take pride in their ‘Burmeseness’ – both in terms of their ancestry as well as the use of Burmese language, clothing and culture – wanted recognition that they belong to Myanmar too..."
Author/creator: Melissa Crouch
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


Title: The Slow Burning Genocide of Rohingyas: Four Decades of Systematic Destruction of Burma’s Indigenous Muslims part 1 (video)
Date of publication: 04 November 2014
Description/subject: Speakers and panel discussion: 3-hour video - 2 parts: Panel 1: Rohingya voices. Chair: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Daw Khin Hla, a Rohingya refugee and a researcher with Rohingya Blogger and former Middle School teacher [NOTE: former Middle School teacher from Northern Rakhine – on health and education of Rohingya] b) Tun Khin, President, Burmese Rohingya Organization of United Kingdom [NOTE: grassroots activism and on the history and status of Rohingya nationality and statelessness c) U Ba Sein, Rohingya refugee and co-founder of Rohinger Blogger, former staff of Burma’s Ministry of Cooperatives d) Wakar Udin, General Secretary, Arakan Rohingya Union [NOTE: a political NGO with an official status with the OIC and a leading spokesperson on Rohingya affairs – on international perspectives and policies related to persecution of Rohingya]..... Panel 2: Historical, political and human rights perspectives Chair: Afsan Bhadelia, Research Associate, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Amartya Sen, Lamont University Professor, Harvard University; Nobel Prize Laureate, Economics, 1998; and Chair, Steering Committee, Harvard Global Equity Initiative b) Maung Zarni, Lecturer, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; co-author of The Slow Burning Genocide of Myanmar’s Rohingya, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, Spring 2014 c) Malik Mujahid, Chair, Parliament of the World’s Religions; and President, Justice for All.... Panel 3: The right to health and essential life services Chair: Lincoln Chen, President, China Medical Board a) Lilianne Fan, Research Fellow, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute b) Susannah Sirkin, Director of International Policy and Partnerships & Senior Advisor, Physicians for Human Rights Commentator: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative..... Panel 4: Developing an evidence-for-advocacy research agenda Chair: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Amartya Sen, Lamont University Professor, Harvard University; Nobel Prize Laureate, Economics, 1998; and Chair, Steering Committee, Harvard Global Equity Initiative b) Maung Zarni, Lecturer, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; co-author of The Slow Burning Genocide of Myanmar’s Rohingya, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, Spring 2014 c) Lincoln Chen, President, China Medical Board
Language: English
Source/publisher: Harvard Global Equity Initiative
Format/size: Adobe Flash (1 Hour 22 Minutes)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014


Title: The Slow Burning Genocide of Rohingyas: Four Decades of Systematic Destruction of Burma’s Indigenous Muslims part 2 (video)
Date of publication: 04 November 2014
Description/subject: Speakers and panel discussion. Panel 1: Rohingya voices Chair: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Daw Khin Hla, a Rohingya refugee and a researcher with Rohingya Blogger and former Middle School teacher [NOTE: former Middle School teacher from Northern Rakhine – on health and education of Rohingya] b) Tun Khin, President, Burmese Rohingya Organization of United Kingdom [NOTE: grassroots activism and on the history and status of Rohingya nationality and statelessness c) U Ba Sein, Rohingya refugee and co-founder of Rohinger Blogger, former staff of Burma’s Ministry of Cooperatives d) Wakar Udin, General Secretary, Arakan Rohingya Union [NOTE: a political NGO with an official status with the OIC and a leading spokesperson on Rohingya affairs – on international perspectives and policies related to persecution of Rohingya]..... Panel 2: Historical, political and human rights perspectives Chair: Afsan Bhadelia, Research Associate, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Amartya Sen, Lamont University Professor, Harvard University; Nobel Prize Laureate, Economics, 1998; and Chair, Steering Committee, Harvard Global Equity Initiative b) Maung Zarni, Lecturer, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; co-author of The Slow Burning Genocide of Myanmar’s Rohingya, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, Spring 2014 c) Malik Mujahid, Chair, Parliament of the World’s Religions; and President, Justice for All.... Panel 3: The right to health and essential life services Chair: Lincoln Chen, President, China Medical Board a) Lilianne Fan, Research Fellow, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute b) Susannah Sirkin, Director of International Policy and Partnerships & Senior Advisor, Physicians for Human Rights Commentator: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative..... Panel 4: Developing an evidence-for-advocacy research agenda Chair: Felicia Knaul, Director, Harvard Global Equity Initiative a) Amartya Sen, Lamont University Professor, Harvard University; Nobel Prize Laureate, Economics, 1998; and Chair, Steering Committee, Harvard Global Equity Initiative b) Maung Zarni, Lecturer, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School; co-author of The Slow Burning Genocide of Myanmar’s Rohingya, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, Spring 2014 c) Lincoln Chen, President, China Medical Board
Language: English
Source/publisher: Harvard Global Equity Initiative
Format/size: Adobe Flash (1 hour 52 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014


Title: Exiled To Nowhere: Burma's Rohingya (photo essay)
Date of publication: November 2014
Description/subject: 30 high-quality black and white photographs of the Rohingya living conditions in displacement camps in Burma/Myanmar.....Navigation of the essay is difficult, with no apparent means to copy text.
Author/creator: Greg Constantine
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://www.exiledtonowhere.com/
Format/size: jpeg
Alternate URLs: http://issuu.com/nppress/docs/viewpoint-1-the_rohingya
http://www.exiledtonowhere.com/
http://www.gregconstantine.com/Clients/ss/exiled/rohingya/ss/index.html
Date of entry/update: 18 November 2014


Title: Myanmar: The Politics of Rakhine State
Date of publication: 22 October 2014
Description/subject: The International Crisis Group’s latest report, Myanmar: The Politics of Rakhine State, looks at how the legacy of colonial history, decades of authoritarian rule and state-society conflict have laid the foundation for today’s complex mix of intercommunal and inter-religious tensions. Rakhine State, whose majority ethnic Rakhine population perceive themselves to be – with some justification – victims of discrimination by the political centre, has experienced a violent surge of Buddhist nationalism against minority Muslim communities, themselves also victims of discrimination. The government has taken steps to respond: by restoring security, starting a pilot citizenship verification process and developing a comprehensive action plan. However, parts of this plan are highly problematic, and risk deepening segregation and fuelling tensions further, particularly in the lead-up to the 2015 elections. The report’s major findings and recommendations are: Rakhine Buddhists have tended to be cast as violent extremists, which ignores the diversity of opinions that exists and the fact that they themselves are a long-oppressed minority. They are concerned that their culture is under threat and that they could soon become a minority in their state. These fears, whether well-founded or not, need to be acknowledged if solutions are to be developed. The desperate situation of Muslim communities including the Rohingya, who have been progressively marginalised, must also be frankly recognised and resolutely addressed. The government faces a difficult challenge: the demands and expectations of Rakhine and Rohingya communities will be very difficult to reconcile. Ways must be found to allay Rakhine fears, while ensuring the fundamental rights of Muslim communities are respected. To end the climate of impunity, the government must bring to justice those who organised and participated in violence. Clarifying the legal status of those without citizenship is important. But many Muslims will likely refuse to identify as “Bengali”, fearing this is a precursor to denial of citizenship. A negotiated solution should be pursued, or the citizenship process may stall. Coercion is likely to spark violence. The international community – especially UN agencies on the ground – have a critical role in supporting the humanitarian and protection needs of vulnerable communities, which are likely to persist for years. The government itself must do more in this regard. Unless Myanmar is successful in creating a new sense of national identity that embraces the country’s cultural, ethnic and religious diversity, peace and stability will remain elusive nationwide. “Any policy approach to the problem must start from the recognition that there will be no easy fixes and that reconciliation will take a long time” says says Jonathan Prentice, Chief Policy Officer and Acting Asia Program Director. “Halting extremist violence requires starting a credible process now that can demonstrate to the Rakhine and Muslim communities that political avenues exist in which their legitimate aspirations might be realised”.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG) Asia Report N°261
Format/size: pdf (430K-reduced version; 2.68MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/261-myanmar-the-politic...
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2014


Title: Myanmar: The Politics of Rakhine State (media release)
Date of publication: 22 October 2014
Description/subject: The highly volatile situation in Myanmar’s Rakhine State adds dangerously to the country’s political and religious tensions. Long-term, incremental solutions are critical for the future of Rakhine State and the country as a whole.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2014


Title: Identität und historisches Bewusstsein: Muslime in Arakan und die Entstehung der Rohingya
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: "Arakan ist die herkömmliche Bezeichnung einer Küstenre- gion im Westen Myanmars, die seit 1974 verwaltungsmäßig als Rakhine State bekannt ist. Die Region an der Grenze zu Bangladesch blickt zurück auf die Geschichte eines bis 1785 unabhängigen buddhistischen Königreichs, das sich im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert erfolgreich gegen die Bedrohung durch die Mogulverwalter Bengalens wie auch birmanische Inva- sionen zur Wehr setzte. Wie in anderen buddhistischen König tümern des kontinentalen Südostasien, bildeten auch in Arakan Muslime verschiedener Provenienz einen Bestand- teil des wirtschaftlichen und kulturellen Lebens. »Rohingya« ist der Name einer politischen Bewegung der Muslime im Norden Arakans, die sich nach der Unabhängig - keit Pakistans (1947) und Birmas (1948) entwickelte. Sie ver- langte die Anerkennung der Muslime als ethnischer Gruppe der Rohingya und die Schaffung eines autonomen muslimi - schen Gebiets. Während letzteres Ziel mit der Schaffung der »Mayu Frontier Zone« (1961 – 1964) kurzzeitig erreicht wur- de, kam es langfristig weder zu einer legalen Verankerung noch zu einer sozialen Akzeptanz einer separaten ethnischen Identität der Rohingya im Land. Spannungen und Gewalt prägten das Verhältnis der buddhistischen und muslimi- schen Volksgruppen seit der Zeit der japanischen Besatzung. Davon zeugen insbesondere zwei massive Fluchtbewegun- gen von jeweils einer viertel Million Muslimen nach Bang- la desch in den Siebzigern und frühen Neunzigern des 20. Jahrhunderts. Über die Jahre wurden die unheilvollen Ge- gensätze und ungelösten Konflikte im Dreiecksverhältnis zwischen der birmanischen Militärregierung, den Buddhis- ten und den Muslimen Arakans in den westlichen Medien aber trotzdem kaum besprochen. Erst die Gewaltausbrüche zwischen Muslimen und Buddhisten im Juni und Oktober 2012 provozierten eine Flut von gleichlautenden Berichten über Menschenrechtsverletzungen und Elend im Rakhine State. Über 200 Menschen starben. Mehr als 130.000, über- wiegend muslimische Bewohner, verließen fluchtartig ihre Wohngebiete und leben seitdem, von internationalen Hilfs- werken betreut, in notdürftigen Behausungen."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (256K)
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Rohingya and national identities in Burma
Date of publication: 22 September 2014
Description/subject: "The most controversial aspect of the census recently held in Burma has been the denial of the large Muslim population in Arakan to identify themselves as Rohingya, the term of their choice. The government ban means as many as one million people remain uncounted in Arakan. That is scarcely surprising, as the Burmese government, Rakhine ultra-nationalists and seemingly a majority of the Burmese population have denied for years the existence of the Rohingya identity. According to them, the Rohingya ethnicity is an invention devised by immigrants from Bangladesh to take over the land in Arakan. Few people have made more effort to deny the claims of ethnicity by the Rohingya than Derek Tonkin, former British ambassador to Thailand and editor of the website Network Myanmar. Mr. Tonkin has reached his conclusions after digging deeply in colonial British archives, where he has not found a single use of the term Rohingya. His command of the British colonial records is nothing less than impressive, but by relying almost solely on these sources he only offers a partial picture, from which I think he draws incorrect conclusions..."
Author/creator: Carlos Sardiña Galache
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2014


Title: Briefing: Myanmar’s “Rohingya” - what’s in a name?
Date of publication: 15 September 2014
Description/subject: "Already widely reduced to statelessness and in many cases forced into camps for displaced people, an 800,000-strong population of Muslims in western Myanmar now faces increasing efforts to eradicate the very word they use to identify themselves as a group. Under pressure from Myanmar’s nominally-civilian government, the international community sometimes appears complicit in the airbrushing of “Rohingya” from official discourse. In this briefing, IRIN breaks down some of the questions about a group of people that has been called one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2014


Title: Rohingya: The name. The movement. The quest for identity
Date of publication: 28 January 2014
Description/subject: "For quite a long time during the nineteenth and twentieth century, ethnicity was defined by cultural and racial criteria supported by the underlying assumption that cultural characteristics were markers of a fixed identity. People could thus be divided and subdivided into essentialized ethnic categories. It is this “culturalist” and racial understanding of ethnic identity, read back into history and widely spread in Myanmar, that has led to the formulation of the so-called list of 135 ethnic groups, a list that reflects political choices based on ethnic, cultural and historical criteria. These groups are hierarchi zed and co-exist in a multi-layered context that is determined by historical precursors, socio - economic environments and changing political conditions. Some are arguably more dominant and prominent than others. In Myanmar the constitutionally defined ethnic categories are often said to derive from the colonial state. But one may as well trace the concept of such categories back to various lists of 101 peoples found in precolonial Myanmar, Rakhine and Mon texts.1 While ethnicity is a rigid concept that dominates political and social relations in Myanmar, contemporary scholarship would not support the inflexibility of such categories, because it rejects the “reification of ethnic distinctions” and the “obscuring” of processes of ethnic change.2 Anthropological research tells us that ethnic identity is not intrinsically given and fixed, but subject to change as much as society as a whole is nowhere fitting a once-for-all model. Identities undergo transformation, as people migrate and adapt to new places, to socio-economic change and to cultural challenges. The close observation and analysis of such changes is precisely one of the objects of social studies in general and historians, in particular, have been interested in identities that fade and new collective id entities that take shape. Collective self-awareness and cultural markers form the visible and vocal parts of novel identities, but it is the creation of new political borders (or state-building) and the emergence of divisive political projects that appear, at hindsight, as the key determinant factors. When the formation of identities is analyzed, the deeply political nature of this process cannot escape our attention. Identity, in the view of modern scholars, is not merely a naturally given, but it is very m uch written into a collective, open-ended historical experience, both construed and fluid. This does not mean though that newly emergent identities will automatically take hold, go socially and legally uncontested and obtain recognition. The issue can be highly controversial. When social scientists focus, for example, on the building of a collective national identity in the State of Singapore, a relatively new country, or the issue of recognition of the Palestinians as a nation, they face such highly complex, historically individualized and eventually contested contexts..."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (584K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Jacques-P-Leider-2014-01-28-Rohingya-The_Name-The_movement-The_q...
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: You Die with It or You Fight for It
Date of publication: 09 December 2013
Description/subject: "Khaing Hla Pyaint is an incredibly determined young Arakanese man who decided that whatever it takes, he will work for his country and help his people. On a long journey from Arakan State near Bangladeshi border to the Thai border town of Mae Sot, Khaing Hla Pyaint experienced deportation, imprisonment, and torture, until he could finally reach his goal and become a soldier in the jungles of Karen State. Despite the hardship, Khaing Hla Pyaint has never regretted the choices he has made. Why was he so determined to work for his country? How did his childhood experiences and further education make him realise he wants to help his people? Read the second part of the unbelievable story of this young dedicated soldier and learn how he feels about the root causes of the conflict, and how he thinks the international community and donors can promote change instead of funding more arms and training for the Burma Army."...See the Alternate link for part 2.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalink.org/my-aim-in-life-is-to-work-for-my-country-but-i-ended-up-on-a-fishing-boat/
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2016


Title: Myanmar: sectarian violence in Rakhine — issues, humanitarian consequences, and regional responses
Date of publication: 24 July 2013
Description/subject: Introduction: "The plight of Myanmar’s Muslim Rohingya people has received renewed international attention over the past year as a result of ongoing sectarian violence and displacement in the country’s western state of Rakhine. A report published in The Economist in November 2012 provides a compelling summary of the Rohingya’s plight: The political transformation in Myanmar this past year or more has so far seemed one of history’s more remarkable revolutions. It has seemed, indeed, to be a revolution without losers. The army, which brutalised the country for half a century, remains influential and unpunished. Political prisoners have been freed by the hundreds. The opposition and its heroine, Aung San Suu Kyi, have successfully entered mainstream politics. ... One group, however, has lost, and lost terribly. Around 1m members of the mostly Muslim Rohingya minority remain in Myanmar’s impoverished western state of Rakhine. They are survivors of relentless rounds of persecution that have created a diaspora around the world that is perhaps twice as big ... Rakhine politicians say frankly that the only alternative to mass deportation is a Burmese form of apartheid, in which more Rohingyas are corralled into squalid, semi - permanent internal - refugee camps. This Research Paper surveys the issues and regional responses, including that of Australia, surrounding the current conflict and humanitarian situation in Rakhine state. It argues that while the ongoing humanitarian emergency presents the most pressing concern for Myanmar, its neighbours and its international partners , the conflict also highlights a n intensification of a dangerous uncertainty surrounding the future place of the Rohingya, and possibly Muslims more generally, within a multi - ethnic and plural Myanmar . This uncertainty threatens Myanmar ’ s current reform process and, through the large - scale displacement of communities, undermines wider regional security".
Author/creator: Dr. Cameron Hill
Language: English
Source/publisher: Australian Parliament
Format/size: pdf (762K-reduced version; 1.36MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/2613925/upload_binary/2613925.pdf;fileT...
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2013


Title: Final Report of Inquiry Commission on Sectarian Violence in Rakhine State
Date of publication: 08 July 2013
Description/subject: Executive Summary: 1. Introduction "On August 17th, 2012, President U Thein Sein established the Rakhine Commission of Inquiry through a Presidential Executive Order. This Commission composed of prominent historians, social scientists, legal experts, and civil society leaders, from a broad range of sectors was asked to examine the following 8 areas: (1) investigate the root causes that led to the disturbance of peace and security; (2) verify the extent of loss of life, property and other collateral damage; (3) examine the effort to restore peace and promote law and order; (4) outline means to provide relief and implement resettlement programs; (5) develop short- and long-term strategies to reconcile differences; (6) establish mutual understanding and promote peaceful co-existence between various religious and ethnic groups; (7) advise on the promotion of the rule of law; (8) advise on the promotion of social and economic development. The Commission drafted its report after an extensive survey and archival research on Rakhine state. The Commission received support from various government agencies, civil society organisations, political parties, and the general public. In gathering and analyzing the data it received the Commission aimed to maintain its impartiality. The overarching goal of the Commission’s final report was to promote peace and development in the region rather than place the blame on a specific group or community. The implementation of its recommendations will require close cooperation between the various government agencies, the general public and all sectors of society, as well as from all citizens to create and sustain the desired environment of peace and communal stability. This stand-alone précis was drafted on the basis of the translation of the original report from Myanmar into English, which after editing is still over 60 pages long. The Commission would like to make a shorter version available to the international community to give it access to the essential information with some more details than the original Executive Summary. It does not change the essence of the original report, but in the interest of conciseness has regrouped some of the issues and recommendations, and therefore does not follow the structure of the original report exactly. Two caveats have to be made to understand the original report or this summary: on one hand, the Commission faced several constraints in its work: (a) the nature of the Commission’s mandate was not easily understood and its neutrality was often rejected by Rakhine; (b) outside actors, in particular some Bengali leaders in Yangon, exercised undue influence by trying to impose interviewees on the Commission, and by controlling the answers interviewees gave to the Commission; (c) access to people in more remote areas was hampered by the fact that not all Bengalis speak Myanmar language. In order to counter these constraints the Commission trained local young people on how to collect data, and used purposive and quota sampling instead of probability or random sampling. The Commission also enlisted the help of moderate Muslim and Bengali leaders in Yangon. On the other hand, the use of certain terms needs to be made clear: the report uses the term “Bengalis” when referring to people of Bengali origin. The term “Rohingya” is not recognized in Myanmar and its use has become increasingly politicized; as to the term of “Kala”, it was traditionally used for all foreigners from west of the country. The Brits were referred to as Kala Hpyu (white kala). Today it is used colloquially for people originating from the Indian subcontinent. Opinions differ as to what it is derogatory or not..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2013


Title: Muslim population growth and migration from Bangladesh
Date of publication: July 2013
Description/subject: "The 1953/54 Census was partial due to security issues in various parts of Burma. Based on the complete urban enumeration and partial rural sampling, the nation’s population in 1955 w as projected to be 20.4 million. The proportion of urban population is not given, but was independently estimated at 19% in 1960 by a World Bank source. The 1953/54 Census found 8% of urban national population was Muslim and 3% of rural, for a weighted average of 4% for the whole country. The Arakan population had 52% of the national rural Muslim population and 10% of the urban Muslim population. Using the 1955 population, there would have been 805 thousand Muslims in all of Burma, 310 thousand in urban and 495 thousand in rural areas. In the Arakan (now Rakhine) state, there would have been 31 thousand urban Muslims and 257 thousand rural Muslims for a total of 288 thousand Muslims out of a total state population of 1.4 million or 20.6% Muslim to total pop ulation in the state. 25 After 1962, Buddhists but not Muslims in Rakhine were allowed to migrate to other parts of Burma, which may have raised the Muslim share of the total population since then..."
Author/creator: David Dapice and Nguyen Xuan Thanh
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ash Center, Harvard via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (129K)
Alternate URLs: http://ash.harvard.edu/files/creating.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: Limited health options for Myanmar’s Rohingya IDPs
Date of publication: 31 May 2013
Description/subject: "SITTWE, 31 May 2013 (IRIN) - Aid workers are calling for better health access for an estimated 140,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State, most of them Rohingya Muslims. Although a number of NGOs and government mobile clinics are providing basic health services inside the roughly 80 camps and settlements, they are limited, and emergency health referrals remain a serious concern, they say. According to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), conditions inside the camps, combined with the segregation of ethnic Buddhist Rakhine and Muslim Rohingya and ongoing movement restrictions, are having a severe impact on health care. Movement restrictions were slapped on Rohingyas around Sittwe, the Rakhine State capital, after bouts of sectarian violence in June and October 2012. Another concern is the negative attitude of many ethnic Rakhine to assistance provided to Muslim IDPs. “With threats and intimidation both to health provider and patient, this becomes an irreconcilable dilemma,” Carol Jacobsen of the medical NGO Merlin told IRIN, adding that “hostile access”, limited transportation and poor security were obstacles to health care for the Muslim population..."
Language: English, Arabic
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://arabic.irinnews.org/Report/3737/
Date of entry/update: 06 June 2013


Title: MYANMAR: Official report on Rakhine State conflict gravely flawed
Date of publication: 23 May 2013
Description/subject: A written statement submitted to the Human Rights Council, 23rd session by the Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC), a non-governmental organisation with general consultative status... 1. Following the communal violence that wracked the western parts of Myanmar near the border of Bangladesh in 2012, the country's president established a commission of inquiry comprising of retired public servants, religious figures, politicians, academics and members of civil society. The commission handed down its findings on 22 April 2013. Despite high expectations, the 119-page report is gravely flawed. Although it contains a few useful recommendations and observations, to which the Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar alluded in a press release of 1 May 2013, the commission's positive contributions are outweighed by a range of omissions and misrepresentations and by an us-versus-them mentality that pervades the document..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.alrc.net/doc/mainfile.php/hrc23/758
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2013


Title: Will Ethnic Tensions Undermine US Myanmar Relations?
Date of publication: 21 May 2013
Description/subject: "Key Conclusions: Three interconnected and difficult issues need attention for the country to move forward—citizenship for the Rohingya; building capacity in the police to prevent violence against Muslims; and re-envisioning the country as one that is multi-ethnic, multilingual, and multi-religious. The transition from authoritarian rule to democracy could take decades. Key waypoints are the 2015 elections, implementing constitutional reforms, and the achievement of true civilian leadership. The US should engage on a broad range of issues and stop using sanctions as a diplomatic tool. An enduring partnership would involve sustained support for the transition across the spectrum of political interests, and transitional development assistance would expand to include programs for education, health, and the media..."
Author/creator: Jim Della-Giacoma
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html (35K)
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2013


Title: UN OCHA Flash Update 4, Cyclone Mahasen, Bangladesh and Myanmar
Date of publication: 14 May 2013
Description/subject: "A red Storm Alert remains in effect for Tropical Cyclone Mahasen which is currently moving across the Indian Ocean towards Bangladesh and Myanmar. The cyclone does appear to have weakened and it is has been downgraded to a category-1 cyclone. It is expected to reach land now early on Friday morning (17 May). In its current path the cyclone is expected to hit north of Chittagong, Bangladesh but could, depending on its final trajectory, bring life threatening conditions for 8.2 million people in northeast India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The highest impact, tidal surge and rainfall predictions are for the Chittagong and Cox's Bazaar areas of Bangladesh...n Myanmar, relocation and evacuation efforts according to the Government's plan are underway. As part of stage-1, the plan is to move 38,000 IDPs yesterday and today (14 May). It is unclear how many people have been relocated. Teams from humanitarian agencies have been monitoring the relocation efforts. Some IDPs are reluctant to relocate and some communities have refused to use military vehicles or to shelter in military barracks. Discussions between Government and communities in Sittwe are ongoing to negotiate alternative sites. The Government agrees that relocations are to be done in consultation with the IDPs. Muslim leaders have issued a statement encouraging people to cooperate with authorities. Humanitarian agencies are keen to understand what the triggers are for starting stage-2 of the evacuation plan which involves moving 100,000 IDPs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 May 2013


Title: Myanmar / Rakhine Commission: “Positive starting point but Government must address impunity” – UN expert
Date of publication: 01 May 2013
Description/subject: GENEVA (1 May 2013) – "The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today welcomed some forward thinking recommendations from the Rakhine Investigation Commission report. However, he expressed concerns over the lack of recommendations to address impunity and ensure investigations into credible allegations of widespread and systematic human rights violations targeting the Muslim community in Rakhine State..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Information Centre, Yangon
Format/size: pdf (69K)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/Dish.aspx?loc=80&pg=110
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


Title: Plan of Action from the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission - summary of recommendations to the Government (English and Burmese)
Date of publication: 01 May 2013
Description/subject: The recommendations are in the form of a 7-page table listing Task, Implementation Department and Responsible Committees for the following issues: Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) Situation... Temporary Shelters before the Monsoon Season... Resettlement... Reopening of Schools... Food Security and Malnutrition... Livelihoods... Permanent Settlement... Social Kaman Ethnic Group Issue... Population Growth...Social Integration... Formation of Truth-Finding Committee...Citizenship...Economy... Health... Education...Religion...INGO and LNGO Interaction...Security and Administration...Rule of Law...Peaceful Coexistence...Media
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission via "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (158K-English; 445K-Burmesse)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Rakhine_Commission_chart-bu.pdf
http://www.burmapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/RecommendationEnglish-Version.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


Title: Islamophobia: Myanmar's racist fault-line
Date of publication: 30 April 2013
Description/subject: "Myanmar's Rohingya suffer brutal state crime because of deeply entrenched and unchecked Islamophobia...The Rohingya are an ethnic group with ancient traditions in Myanmar and a continuous physical presence there for at least past two centuries. But they are defined by the Myanmar state as Bangladeshi nationals with no right to the privileges of Myanmar citizenship. Abu Tahay, chair of the Union National Development Party, shows me the historical evidence which positions the Rohingya ethnic minority in Myanmar before the military's pre-colonial citizenship cut-off date of 1823. He shows me research from the Australian National University which identifies 8th century Rohingya stone monuments, in the Myanmar state of Arakan (also known as Rakhine). It is compelling evidence and he leaves nothing out. On its basis, the Rohingya are surely entitled to Myanmar citizenship and ethnic minority recognition. Instead, theirs is a "bare life" in which every aspect of social and political life is restricted and diminished..."
Author/creator: Penny Green
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 June 2015


Title: Myanmar must look beyond 'flawed' report to stop cycle of Buddhist-Muslim violence
Date of publication: 30 April 2013
Description/subject: "Recommendations in a government-backed report investigating last year's devastating violence in Myanmar fail to effectively tackle discrimination against Rohingya Muslims and could trigger more human rights abuses, Amnesty International said. The government-appointed Rakhine Commission this week issued a briefing on its investigation into violence between Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine state, western Myanmar, which first erupted in June 2012. The clashes have resulted in a considerable loss of life and left thousands displaced. The Commission, which did not include any Rohingya on its panel, called on the government to “double” the presence of security forces in Rakhine state, including the Border Security Force (NaSaKa)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: Report of the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission (Executive Summary - English)
Date of publication: 30 April 2013
Description/subject: "British bring in large numbers of Bengali from neighbouring country" - Nay Pyi Taw, 29 April—The Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission released its report. The executive summary of the report is as follows:-
Language: English
Source/publisher: Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission via the "The New Light of Myanmar" 30 April 2013
Format/size: pdf (539K)
Date of entry/update: 29 April 2013


Title: Arakan Report Angers Rohingya Leaders
Date of publication: 29 April 2013
Description/subject: "RANGOON — Rohingya leaders have reacted angrily to the findings of the official investigation into a wave of brutal violence that hit Arakan State in 2012, slamming the report findings as selective and slanted. Speaking after members of a commission formed last year to investigate the violence presented a summary of their report today in Rangoon, Myo Thant, a Rohingya representative of the Democracy and Human Rights Party, told The Irrawaddy that the report did not present a completely accurate picture of the Arakan situation. “This report has some good suggestions, but in ways it is biased and incomplete,” he said. Commission members, including former political prisoners Ko Ko Gyi and Maung Thura, better known as Zarganar, launched the summary of the commission’s findings today at the Myanmar Peace Center..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


Title: Report of the Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission (full text, Burmese)
Date of publication: 29 April 2013
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rakhine State Conflicts Investigation Commission
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2013


Title: "All You Can Do is Pray" - Crimes Against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Arakan State
Date of publication: 22 April 2013
Description/subject: "This 153-page report describes the role of the Burmese government and local authorities in the forcible displacement of more than 125,000 Rohingya and other Muslims and the ongoing humanitarian crisis. Burmese officials, community leaders, and Buddhist monks organized and encouraged ethnic Arakanese backed by state security forces to conduct coordinated attacks on Muslim neighborhoods and villages in October 2012 to terrorize and forcibly relocate the population. The tens of thousands of displaced have been denied access to humanitarian aid and been unable to return home..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: pdf (5MB-OBL version; 15.08-original; Summary and recommendations, 6.73MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/04/22/all-you-can-do-pray-0
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0413_FullForWeb.pdf
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/burma0413_brochure_web.pdf (summary and recommendations: Photo feature)
http://www.hrw.org/features/burma-ethnic-cleansing-arakan-state (slide show)
http://www.hrw.org/fr/node/115009 (video)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2013


Title: Sectarian tensions in Myanmar limit aid worker access
Date of publication: 16 April 2013
Description/subject: "Ongoing tensions between Buddhist and Muslim communities in Myanmar's western Rakhine State have created a threatening environment for aid workers, hindering assistance to more than 127,000 displaced persons. 'Access to IDPs [internally displaced persons] is being seriously hampered by ongoing intimidation [of aid workers] by some members of the local community,' noted the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Yangon. Humanitarian organizations, including medical NGO Médecins Sans Frontières, report aid staff have faced accusations by the local Rakhine community - who are mostly Buddhist - that their assistance favours the Muslim Rohingya minority. The majority of the displaced are Rohingya, but there are also hundreds of Buddhists among them, according to government estimates..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irinnews.org/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?KW=myanmar (Search results on IRIN for Myanmar)
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2013


Title: Burma’s Treatment of the Rohingya and International Law
Date of publication: 08 April 2013
Description/subject: "This briefing paper finds that Burma’s treatment of the Rohingya violates at least eight international laws, treaty obligations and international human rights guidelines. Burma’s 1982 Citizenship Law violates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and international norms prohibiting discrimination of racial and religious minorities, such as the UN General Assembly Resolution on the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination. Burma’s treatment of the Rohingya violates UN definitions of the rule of law. The investigation committee set up by the government of Burma violates international human rights guidelines. Burma and the international community are failing in their duty of Responsibility to Protect"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
Format/size: pdf (288K)
Date of entry/update: 08 April 2013


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin, Rakhine State, Myanmar - Special Issue, April 2013
Date of publication: April 2013
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS: • Preparedness Plan for the rainy season focuses on m eeting the immediate shelter needs of 69,000 people deemed the most vulnerable. • HC/RC highlight s priority actions needed by Government for a swift implementation of the Plan . • The Central Committee for Peace and Development in Rakhine chaired by the Vice President formed last month. • CERF contributes $5 million in response to immediate needs in Rakhine
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: html, pdf (400K)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/myanmar-rakhine-state-humanitarian-bulletin-special-issue-april...
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: Inter-Agency Preparedness/Contingency Plan - Rakhine State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 31 March 2013
Description/subject: "This document has been elaborated by humanitarian partners to address existing humanitarian concerns in view of protracted displacement and the likelihood of the worsening of the humanitarian situation in Rakhine State anticipating the upcoming rains and the possibility for further violence across the State and possibly beyond. It is composed of three sections: a) Introduction, b) Preparedness Plan for the rains (to be implemented between March and June 2013) and c) Contingency Planning for natural and human-made disasters. Chapter a) and b) are included in this document, while chapter c) is under elaboration. Inter-communal conflict in Rakhine State started in early June 2012 and resurged in October 2012. This has resulted in the displacement of people, loss of lives and livelihoods and restricted movement for many. Conditions in most camps are still far below international emergency standards eight months after the crisis started: shelter, water and sanitation, health and other services are insufficient. Access to livelihood and basic services has been further complicated by prolonged displacement of people or their living in isolated villages. Rakhine State is prone to impacts of cyclones and s uffered of severe floods and the situation of IDPs camps is going to further worsen during the rainy season which will start in May unless immediate action is taken. Meeting the immediate shelter needs of 69,000 people before the rainy season is a top priority as they are located in flood-prone camps and/or living in tents and makeshift shelters which will not withstand the rains. The situation is particularly concerning in 13 camps in Sittwe (40,000 people), Pauktaw (20,000 people), Myebon (3,900) people which will be inundated as they are in former paddy fields or close to the shore and at risk of storm surge. Another 5,000 IDPs are not in appropriate shelters to withstand the rains. Flooding will result in a rapid deterioration of shelter, water a nd sanitation and health conditions. Overflowing of latrines and lack of drainage will increase risks of water-borne diseases, morbidity and mortality. The following actions, which can only be taken by the Government are needed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Country Team in Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.87MB)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/inter-agency-preparednesscontingency-plan-rakhine-state-myanmar...
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2013


Title: Conquest and Resistance (Power Point Presentation)
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: Towards a historical appreciation: "  The Myanmar conquest of Rakhine  Important chapter of Rakhine’s history: period of dramatic changes and a point of historical no-return  Negatively viewed from a Rakhine nationalist point of view  Need for a critical historical review:  A complex picture  The past (what happened), history (what is written down), memory (what and how people chose to remember), identity (who you are), autonomy (to stand on one’s own feet) and connection  The central perspective of the conqueror vs the view of the victims  Political and economic context  Long decline of Rakhine monarchy and receding political and economic role in the Bay of Bengal: not a threat anymore  Rise of Western colonialism: East India Company in Bengal (the British in India)  Resurgence of Myanmar expansionism (early Konbaung dynasty..."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.51MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Jacques-P-Leider-2013-Conquest_and_Resistance-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: BURMA: Islamic community leader unfairly tried and imprisoned over communal violence
Date of publication: 01 February 2013
Description/subject: "The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has received detailed information concerning the case of a prominent retired medical doctor and Islamic community leader in the west of Burma imprisoned for allegedly sending news abroad about the first wave of violence in his town during mid-2012. Border security personnel detained Dr Tun Aung in June and accused him not only of sending news but failing to notify them of events that would lead to violence, even though he had reportedly put his own life at risk to stop the violence from occurring. A court in November sentenced Dr Tun Aung to 11 years in jail in a patently unfair trial. He is currently imprisoned and suffering from serious health conditions that require specialist treatment but have so far gone unattended..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 February 2013


Title: WASH woes for Myanmar’s Rakhine IDPs
Date of publication: 18 January 2013
Description/subject: "YANGON, 18 January 2013 (IRIN) - Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) will be a key issue for thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State as the weather gets warmer, say aid workers. “As the hot season approaches, intervention measures are needed to solve the problem of drinking water shortages and reduce the risks of water-borne disease,” said Tun Thaung, project supervisor of Myanmar Health Assistant Association (MHAA), speaking from Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine State. According to the UN, some 115,000 people are still displaced in Rakhine following inter-communal violence in June and October 2012, in which thousands of homes and buildings were burned or destroyed and dozens of people killed. About 85 percent of the IDPs are in and around Sittwe..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRIN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2013


Title: Rohingya or Bengali? Revisiting the politics of labelling
Date of publication: 2013
Description/subject: "The sectarian violence that erupted in Rakhine (Arakan) state in Myanmar has prompted heated discussions over ethnicity, citizenship and belonging. Subsequently, in an effort to determine accurate numbers, a fortnight-long registration exercise was conducted by government authorities in Pauktaw Township in Rakhine state in November 2012. However, the Rohingya reportedly refused to register because the authorities erased the term ‘Rohingya’ from completed forms and replaced it with ‘Bengali’. The Rohingya fear that, once registered as ‘Bengali’, they would be declared illegal immigrants by the authorities and summarily deported from the country. The Rohingya’s claim to being a bona fide ethnic group of Myanmar, and hence their claim to citizenship, is steeped in controversy. They assert that they have been living in Rakhine state for thousands of years, even before the Burmans conquered the Arakan kingdom in 1748. This is disputed by the government and certain sectors of Myanmar society who assert that the Rohingya are, in fact, illegal migrants from Chittagong in Bangladesh who crossed into Burma in the nineteenth century. The classification of ethnicity in the registration exercise may be inaccurate, but it is not accidental. The Rohingya’s refusal to being labelled ‘Bengali’ highlights their acute awareness of the politics of labelling, and is a way of resisting state-imposed definitions and manipulations of ethnicity, and thus criteria of belonging..."
Author/creator: Su-Ann Oh
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) "The Newsletter"| No.66 | Winter 2013
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 November 2014


Title: Racism to Rohingya in Burma
Date of publication: 27 December 2012
Description/subject: The present document is a critique of a 2005 paper by Dr Aye Chan, "The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)" - see Alternate URL
Author/creator: Dr. Abid Bahar
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (313K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.soas.ac.uk/sbbr/editions/file64388.pdf (Dr. Aye Chan's paper)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: The Rohingya Problem: Part 4
Date of publication: 15 December 2012
Description/subject: "...On the matter of annual increase or decrease in the Indian population in Burma due to immigration from and emigration to India, the report notes, “Unfortunately, the records are so flagrantly at variance and lead to conclusions so widely different that it seems hardly worth while trying to draw any inferences whatsoever from such dubious material.” As to the nature of such trends, the report says, “Indian immigrants ordinarily spend from two to four years in Burma before going home, the period being shorter or longer according s the savings they accumulate are greater or less. Immigrants arriving in 1927 and 1928 would expect to revisit their homes in India in about 1930 and 1931. High immigrant figures in 1927 and 1928 would therefore connote high emigrant figures about 1930 and 1931.” As to the causes governing periodic fluctuations in the volume of Indian immigration and emigration, the report says, “Immigrants are in search of work and it would seem reasonable to suppose that they come to Burma either because employment at home is hard to find or is not sufficiently remunerated to content them and because they expect to find work more easily in Burma or earn higher wages. The evidence indicates that wage levels in Burma, though only sufficient to support a low standard of living, are attractive to the Indian immigrant in comparison with the levels in his province of origin. As already stated, he comes with the intention of staying in Burma for three years or thereabouts after which he revisits his home and in the majority cases returns to Burma after an interval varying from a few months to the best part of a year, but probably on an average of about six months.” A closer look at the Baxter Report, therefore, shows that the Chittagonian workers who came to Arakan came as seasonal workers and left when their job was terminated or ended in Burma. Unlike Indian workers, who had to save enough money to return to their homes, the proximity of Chittagong did not require them to overstay. It would be a terrible mistake to confuse those migrant workers with the indigenous community of Arakanese Muslims (e.g., the Rohingyas of Burma), who were culturally Indian/Bengali/Muslim."
Author/creator: Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Tribune via Network Myanmar
Format/size: html (30.9K, 76.8K, 90K and 106K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/11/24/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-1
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/01/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-2
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/08/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-3
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: US President Barack Hussein Obama's historic visit to Burma
Date of publication: 12 December 2012
Description/subject: Special news pictorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (3.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: Al Jazeera Investigates - The Hidden Genocide (video)
Date of publication: 09 December 2012
Description/subject: "Earlier this year a Buddhist woman was raped and murdered in western Myanmar. The authorities charged three Muslim men. A week later, 10 Muslims were murdered in a revenge attack. What happened next was hidden from the outside world. Bloodshed pitted Buddhists against minority Rohingya Muslims. Many Rohingya fled their homes, which were burned down in what they said was a deliberate attempt by the predominantly Buddhist government to drive them out of the country. "They were shooting and we were also fighting. The fields were filled with bodies and soaked with blood," says Mohammed Islam, who fled with his family to Bangladesh. There are 400,000 Rohingya languishing in Bangladesh. For more than three decades, waves of refugees have fled Myanmar. But the government of Bangladesh considers the Rohingya to be illegal immigrants, as does the government of Myanmar. They have no legal rights and nowhere to go. This is a story of a people fleeing the land where they were born, of a people deprived of citizenship in their homeland. It is the story of the Rohingya of western Myanmar, whose very existence as a people is denied. Professor William Schabas, the former president of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, says: "When you see measures preventing births, trying to deny the identity of the people, hoping to see that they really are eventually, that they no longer exist; denying their history, denying the legitimacy of their right to live where they live, these are all warning signs that mean it's not frivolous to envisage the use of the term genocide."
Author/creator: Paul Rees
Language: Voice-over and sub-titles, English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash (50 minutes)
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/aljazeerainvestigates/2012/12/2012125122215836351.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54RzqiXLvnw&feature=youtube_gdata_player
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqCcoXVb-fI
Date of entry/update: 10 December 2012


Title: The Rohingya Problem: Part 3
Date of publication: 09 December 2012
Description/subject: "The Burmese history is replete with accusations against the British government of following a policy of divide and rule; deliberately separating the hilly people from the Burmans/Burmese. According to historian Maung Aung, this policy had the full support of the Christian missions, who wanted to convert the hilly people to Christianity. The British government also kept the racial groups further apart by denying military training to the Burmans and Shans, and giving that privilege to Chins, Kachins and Karens. The latter fought alongside the British and Indian forces – drawn mostly from the Gurkha (Nepalese) and Sikh population - in campaign against the guerillas. The Burmese also hated that in the Anglo-Burmese wars, the Indian troops had fought side by side with the British in their regiments..."
Author/creator: Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Tribune via Network Myanmar
Format/size: html (106K, 76.8K, 90K and 30.9K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/11/24/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-1
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/01/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-2
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/15/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-4
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: The Rohingya Problem: Part 2
Date of publication: 02 December 2012
Description/subject: "When the British occupied Arakan, the country was a scarcely populated area. Consequently, formerly high-yield paddy fields of the fertile Kaladan and Lemro river valleys germinated nothing but wild plants for many years. It is worth noting here that those valleys in the pre-Burman colonization period used to be cultivated by Rohingya Muslims and Hindus, whose forefathers were abducted from Bengal in the 16th and 17th centuries by the Magh and Portuguese pirates to work as slave labors..."
Author/creator: Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Tribune via Network Myanmar
Format/size: html (90K, 76.8K, 106K and 30.9K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/11/24/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-1
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/08/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-3
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/15/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-4
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: Cyclone Giri: Two Years On - Voices from the Arakan State of Western Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: December 2012
Description/subject: "...This independent assessment and report has been written to raise awareness of the on-going impact cyclone Giri has had on Arakan state and its citizens. Victims and witnesses have had the opportunity to speak out and reach a wider audience and we wish to spread their voices and the situation to the international community, but also to the rest of Burma who seem to have forgotten about their people in the west who are still dealing with the impact of cyclone Giri two years on. The damage and the role of the local population in the relief and recovery effort has been recorded so that these stories are not forgotten. More details are needed, and this report should be the beginning of internal and external enquiries into the on-going state of the situation there..."
Language: English; Burmese press release
Source/publisher: Arakan Human Rights and Development Organisation (AHRDO)
Format/size: pdf (893K; -main text; Burmese press release, 121K; English summary, 247K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Report%20Summary%20of%20CYCLONE_GIRI-TWO_YEARS_ON-summary-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Cyclone_Giri-2_Years_On-PR-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2012


Title: BURMA – COMPLEX EMERGENCY
Date of publication: 30 November 2012
Description/subject: KEY DEVELOPMENTS: "A resurgence of violence between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya, as well as non-Rohingya, Muslims that began on October 21 in Rakhine State had resulted in nearly 90 deaths, the displacement of approximately 36,000 people, and the destruction of 5,300 houses or religious buildings, primarily as a result of arson, as of November 15. The violence had diminished by early November, with the Government of Burma (GoB) deploying security forces to affected areas and enforcing curfews, but sporadic clashes continue. In a letter to U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon dated November 16, Burma’s President Thein Sein condemned the violence in Rakhine State and noted that the GoB was prepared to address contentious political issues concerning Rohingya, including resettlement of displaced populations, granting of citizenship, birth registration, work permits, and permits for moving within the country. On November 21, President Sein announced that the GoB would pursue a multifaceted plan aimed at addressing tensions between Muslim and Buddhist communities in Rakhine State, according to international media sources. Components of the plan include reducing prejudices, promoting education, creating jobs, and introducing a birth control program in accordance with international standards. In a speech delivered during a November 19 visit to Burma, President Barack Obama called for the end of sectarian violence in Rakhine State and for national reconciliation. President Obama also announced $170 million in new U.S. Government assistance for Burma to be provided over a two-year period and encompassing a range of programs, including governance, development, humanitarian, and reconciliation interventions. USAID’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA), USAID’s Office of Food for Peace (USAID/FFP), and the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (State/PRM) continue to address the humanitarian needs of Rakhine’s conflict-affected populations, particularly those displaced by violence, through ongoing programs funded in FY 2012 and new programs initiated in FY 2013..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: USAID - FACT SHEET #1, FISCAL YEAR (FY) 2013
Format/size: pdf (250K)
Date of entry/update: 09 December 2012


Title: The Rohingya Problem: Part 1
Date of publication: 25 November 2012
Description/subject: "To many Burmese and Rakhine Buddhists of today’s Myanmar the existence of the non-Buddhist Rohingya people is mostly seen as a direct result of Indian, or more particularly, Bengali immigration during the post-1826 era of British occupation of the territories. To them, the Rohingya history starts with the British occupation of Burma, dating back to 1826 after the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824-26 in which Arakan and Tenasserim came under the East India Company, with its bases in Calcutta (today’s Kolkata in West Bengal of India). The so-called Indian immigration to Burma is intimately linked with the colonial administration’s desire to transform Burma into a rice bowl for the British Empire. In this paper an attempt is made to reappraise the events during the British occupation of Burma starting with its annexation of Arakan and its commercial attractiveness which drew people from other parts of the region to settle – mostly temporarily – there. The questionable influx of Bengalis, or more particularly Chittagonians (from nearby Chittagong District of British Bengal), to beef up the number of Arakanese Muslims, especially, the Rohingyas of Burma is also examined from available sources..."
Author/creator: Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Tribune via Network Myanmar
Format/size: html (76.8K, 90K, 106K and 30.9K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/01/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-2
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/08/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-3
http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2012/12/15/letter-america-rohingya-question-%E2%80%93-part-4
Date of entry/update: 14 November 2015


Title: Resentment Runs Deep in Arakan State
Date of publication: 22 November 2012
Description/subject: "...There is a deep ignorance within both communities regarding the other that the policy of absolute segregation applied by the authorities since June is doing nothing to remedy. Both Muslims and Buddhists consistently told The Irrawaddy that they lived peacefully and amiably before the violence first broke out in June. But now there is no daily interaction between these estranged communities, and both are abuzz with rumors depicting the other people as little more than blood-thirsty monsters. It seems that each day of segregation will only make it more difficult for Buddhists and Muslims to live together ever again."
Author/creator: Carlos Sardiña Galache
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 January 2013


Title: Revised Rakhine Response Plan (Myanmar) July 2012–June 2013 (Revision: 16 November 2012)
Date of publication: 21 November 2012
Description/subject: "The inter-community conflict in Rakhine State, which started in early June 2012 and resurged in October 2012, has resulted in displacement and loss of lives and livelihoods. As of early November, the number of people displaced in Rakhine State has surpassed 115,000, of whom about 75,000 individuals have remained displaced since June and over 36,000 people were displaced following a resurgence of violence in late October 2012. Others continue living in tents close to their places of origin while their houses are being rebuilt, or with host families. Life-saving assistance for this caseload is urgently needed.Notwithstanding these 115,000 people, there are also many others who out of fear are unable to move and have had restricted access to livelihood, food, and medical services, which has in the past attracted them to the IDPs camps with potential for further displacement. Government sources indicate that 167 people were killed (78 in June and 89 in October); 223 injured (87 in June and 136 in October); and 10,100 private, public and religious buildings were burned or destroyed (4,800 in June and 5,300 in October).Curfews have been imposed since June in seven locations and in two additional ones in October. Additional military personnel have been dispatched to the area to control the situation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) with humanitarian partners
Format/size: pdf (1MB-OBL version; 2.26MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://unic.un.org/imucms/userfiles/yangon/file/Revised%20Rakhine%20Response%20Plan%20%28amended%29...
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


Title: Rohingya Leaders Angry About Suu Kyi’s Comments
Date of publication: 21 November 2012
Description/subject: 'Rohingya leaders are condemning recent comments by opposition leader Daw Aung Suu Kyi during her trip to India. “There's a lot of illegal crossing of the border still going on that they have got to put a stop this," Suu Kyi said in interview with the Indian NDTV television network. Nurul Islam, president of Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO), said the comments Suu Kyi made about Rohingyas in Arakan State is unacceptable. “Her silence or so-called neutrality cannot be justified because such standpoint encourages Rakhine extremists and the elements in the governments to carry on their campaigns of systematic racism, racial extermination and campaigns of genocide against the Rohingyas and Kamans.” The ARNO President said Suu Kyi's comments belie the truth, either by choice or ignorance, when she stated that there is still illegal immigration of people from Bangladesh into Arakan State. On the contrary, expulsion of Muslim Rohingyas from Arakan into Bangladesh and other countries is a regular phenomenon. If Suu Kyi needed to be convinced she could have visited thousands of Rohingya refugees from Burma within the vicinity of Delhi. There are also thousands of Rakhines and Mramas from Bangladesh who have entered and settled down in Arakan under a state administered program, said Nurul Islam...'
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Kaladan News" via BNI
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://bnionline.net/index.php/news/kaladan/14201-rohingya-leaders-angry-about-suu-kyis-comments.ht...
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2012


Title: Myanmar Facing Unfolding Crisis ,
Date of publication: 17 November 2012
Description/subject: "... The violence in Rakhine State represents a major test for the government as it seeks to maintain law and order without rekindling memories of the recent authoritarian past. It also represents a challenge for Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy to demonstrate a greater commitment, publicly and privately, to the fundamental rights of all those who live in Myanmar. Above all, both government and opposition need to show moral leadership to calm the tensions and work for durable solutions to a problem that could threaten Myanmar’s reform process and the stability of the country."
Author/creator: Louise Arbour
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/Op-eds/arbour-myanmar-faci...
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2012


Title: MYANMAR: STORM CLOUDS ON THE HORIZON (English; Burmese Executive Summary)
Date of publication: 12 November 2012
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar’s leaders continue to demonstrate that they have the political will and the vision to move the country decisively away from its authoritarian past, but the road to democracy is proving hard. President Thein Sein has declared the changes irreversible and worked to build a durable partnership with the opposition. While the process remains incomplete, political prisoners have been released, blacklists trimmed, freedom of assembly laws implemented, and media censorship abolished. But widespread ethnic violence in Rakhine State, targeting principally the Rohingya Muslim minority, has cast a dark cloud over the reform process and any further rupturing of intercommunal relations could threaten national stability. Elsewhere, social tensions are rising as more freedom allows local conflicts to resurface. A ceasefire in Kachin State remains elusive. Political leaders have conflicting views about how power should be shared under the constitution as well as after the 2015 election. Moral leadership is required now to calm tensions and new compromises will be needed if divisive confrontation is to be avoided...The ongoing intercommunal strife in Rakhine State is of grave concern, and there is the potential for similar violence elsewhere, as nationalism and ethno-nationalism rise and old prejudices resurface. The difficulty in reaching a ceasefire in Kachin State underlines the complexity of forging a sustainable peace with ethnic armed groups. There are also rising grassroots tensions over land grabbing and abuses by local authorities, and environmental and social concerns over foreign-backed infrastructure and mining projects...A key factor in determining the success of Myanmar’s transition will be macro-political stability. In 2015, Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD) will compete for seats across the country for the first time since the abortive 1990 elections. Assuming these polls are free and fair, they will herald a radical shift in the balance of power away from the old dispensation. But an NLD landslide may not be in the best interests of the party or the country, as it would risk marginalising three important constituencies: the old political elite, the ethnic political parties and the non-NLD democratic forces. If the post-2015 legislatures fail to represent the true political and ethnic diversity of the country, tensions are likely to increase and fuel instability. The main challenge the NLD faces is not to win the election, but to promote inclusiveness and reconciliation. It has a number of options to achieve this. It could support a more proportional election system that would create more representative legislatures, by removing the current “winner- takes-all” distortion. Alternatively, it could form an alliance with other parties, particularly ethnic parties, agreeing not to compete against them in certain constituencies. Finally, it could support an interim “national unity” candidate for the post-2015 presidency. This would reassure the old guard, easing the transition to an NLD-dominated political system..."
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (exec. Sum)
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°238)
Format/size: pdf (454K-OBL version; 2.73MB-original); Exec Sum in Burmese (166K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/Burmese/238-myanmar-sto... - Executive Summary in Burmese
http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/238-myanmar-storm-cloud...
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2012


Title: Nowhere to go for the Rohingya
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "...For the Rohingya, straddling post-colonial borders, losing one nationality was a predictable misfortune. Losing two was a matter of calculated, official carelessness - in the most literal sense. The rocky road began back in the 1960's, during General Ne Win's "Burmanisation" campaign. Eager to clear up racial business left over from Burma's British days, when Indian and Chinese traders swanned across the border, Ne Win's Revolutionary Council embarked on a campaign of nationalization. Confiscating their businesses ensured the ethnically-foreign enterprising classes got the message. Approximately 300,000 Indians and 100,000 Chinese fled, hobbling vital rice and timber export industries and ensuring vital goods like medicine and petrol were in short supply. To ensure these "foreigners" didn't return, and to give Burmanisation official meaning, the government passed an Emergency Immigration Act in 1974. This required all citizens to carry identity cards (registration cards), which neatly gave the military government the practical means of saying who was and was not entitled to Burmese nationality. The Rohingya weren't, they got "Foreign Registration Cards". At this stage, citizenship-stripping proved more ominous than critical to Rohingya. They lived in a remote part of a rebellious province, largely outside the realm of official Burma. For two decades after independence, Arakan/Rakhine separatists had fought with the Rangoon government and armed Rohingya Jihadi occasionally lent a hand. But during the late 1970s and early 1980s, Ne Win, his generals and their Burma Socialist Programme Party extended central control over some of Burma's recalcitrant provinces, including Arakan. Non-citizens found their rights to travel and marry curtailed, and then citizenship started to matter very much indeed..."
Author/creator: Phil Radford
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 November 2012


Title: Rohingya miss boat on development
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "The ethnic conflict that ravaged much of Rakhine State in western Myanmar last month was an opportunity for more than settling old and new scores between Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhines and co-religionist new arrivals from elsewhere in the country. Those involved were also clearing land in a densely populated area that is set to be among the country's prime bits of real estate as energy-related projects start transforming the impoverished state. More than 100 people (some reports indicate many times that number) were killed last month, untold others were wounded, and an estimated 28,000 fled or were driven from their homes in clashes between the stateless Rohingya and Buddhist citizens in a recurrence of violence last June. They are the latest incidents involving evicted ethnic groups around the country weeks before US President Obama visits Myanmar later this month. "The government has taken the opportunity to create more violence allowing a destabilized and vulnerable state which they can then take the natural resources from. This is believed to be the main reason to why so many villages [in Rakhine State] were razed to the ground," the representative of one non-government organization (NGO) told Asia Times Online, citing the source as a Rakhine resident..."
Author/creator: Syed Tashfin Chowdhury and Chris Stewart
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 12 (6 November 2012)
Date of publication: 06 November 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government reports that the total estimated number of IDPs in Rakhine reached over 110,000 people, including some 36,400 people displaced in October. • As of 4 November, inter-agency rapid needs assessment was conducted in most IDP locations in Minbya, Mrauk-U, Myebon, Pauktaw, Kyauktaw and Rathedaung townships. At the same time, emergency relief supplies were distributed, including food and plastic sheets to some 27,200 people. • Preliminarily findings of the assessments indicate that urgent needs are food, health, shelter, water sanitation and hygiene (WASH).
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (286K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: In Sittwe, relief camps struggle to cope with new influx
Date of publication: 05 November 2012
Description/subject: "The Rakhine State government is unable to accept more Rohingya refugees seeking shelter in Sittwe, an official said last week, as aid workers warned of a deepening humanitarian crisis with critical shortages of food, water and medicine. More than 100,000 people have been displaced since June in two major outbreaks of violence in Rakhine State, where renewed clashes last month between Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims uprooted about 30,000 people. Dozens were killed on both sides and thousands of homes were torched. Rakhine State Attorney-General U Hla Thein said the Sittwe camps could only take care of those displaced during violence in June..."
Author/creator: Soe Than Lynn
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2012


Title: Ethnic violence imperils Myanmar reform
Date of publication: 03 November 2012
Description/subject: "Renewed violence in Myanmar's western Rakhine State threatens to spread across the country as rising sentiment against ethnic Rohingyas becomes more generally anti-Muslim. Surging Buddhist versus Muslim violence underscores the urgent need for reforms related to ethnic minorities and the rule of law, issues that were neglected or exploited for political gain during the era of direct military rule..."
Author/creator: Brian McCartan
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 11 (2 November 2012
Date of publication: 02 November 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: * The total IDPs caseload in Rakhine reached close to 110,000 people. The Rakhine State Government’s estimates of 31 October indicates that over 35,000 people were displaced in the recent wave of violence, and about 75,000 IDPs are in Sittwe and Kyauktaw since June. * The October violence also caused 89 fatalities and 136 injuries. Over 5,300 houses and religious buildings were burned or destroyed. * The Government requested the international community’s assistance for all those affected. * Inter-agency assessment/distribution teams visited Minbya, Mrauk-U and Myebon. IDPs need urgent food, shelter and health care assistance. Some 48.5 MT of food and 240 non-food items have been distributed to about 3,000 people in Minbya and in Mrauk-U townships. Other items are being dispatched but stocks are low. The Government and the private sector are also distributing food, health and non-food items to affected people.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (301K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar Issue: November 2012
Date of publication: November 2012
Description/subject: Dire humanitarian needs P.1... Access constraints P.2... Funding requirements P.3... Sector needs and responses P.4..... HIGHLIGHTS The Government reports that the total estimated number of IDPs in Rakhine reached 115,000 people, including over 36,000 newly displaced in late October. Up to 75,000 people are estimated to have been displaced by insecurity in Kachin and northern Shan States which started in June 2011. The Government indicates that at least 17 people were killed and 114 injured due to an earthquake in upper Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) with humanitarian partners
Format/size: pdf (442K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


Title: Myanmar urged to end violence and protect vulnerable communities in Rakhine State – UN experts
Date of publication: 31 October 2012
Description/subject: "...“If the country is to be successful in the process of democratic transition, it must be bold in addressing the human rights challenges that exist,” said the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana. “In the case of Rakhine State, this involves addressing the long-standing endemic discrimination against the Rohingya community that exists within sections of local and national Government as well as society at large.”...“The Government has an obligation to protect all of those affected by recent violence, including the Muslim Rohingya community which is particularly vulnerable, to guarantee their safety and respond urgently to their needs, including shelter, food and medical care,” said the UN Independent Expert on minority issues, Rita Izsák. “It must act rapidly to ensure that this situation does not deteriorate leading to further loss of life and displacement of communities..."...the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons, Chaloka Beyani, said that “the Government must take urgent steps to halt further displacement and destruction of homes.” “All displaced groups, including the Rohingya community, must be assisted to return and rebuild their homes with assurances of their human rights and security in the short, medium and long-term,” Mr. Beyani said. “All humanitarian agencies must have full access to the affected populations.” The human rights experts underscored that this situation must not become an opportunity to permanently remove an unwelcome community, and expressed their deep concern about the assertion of the Government and others that the Rohingya are illegal immigrants and stateless persons..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (282K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: The Rohingya: stateless and unwanted
Date of publication: 31 October 2012
Description/subject: Links to several articles and videos
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
Alternate URLs: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/rohingya/
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: ROHINGYA IN BANGLADESH: MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO; SQUANDERING A RARE OPPORTUNITY
Date of publication: 30 October 2012
Description/subject: "For decades, Burmese Rohingya fleeing persecution have sought refuge in Bangladesh. June’s inter-communal violence in Burma’s Rakhine State, as well as subsequent state-sponsored persecution and targeted attacks against Muslim populations, have cast an international spotlight on this neglected population, and offered an opportunity to resolve the status of both stateless Rohingya inside Burma and those Rohingya who are refugees in neighboring countries. This could be an opportunity for Bangladesh to engage fully on this issue and develop its long-awaited refugee policy. Instead, the nation is rallying against the Rohingya by refusing entry to refugees and restricting humanitarian assistance. This response, besides representing a breach of international law, will weaken Bangladesh’s ability to secure international support as discussions of the Rohingya’s plight intensify. The governments of Bangladesh and Burma should be engaging in bilateral – and perhaps multilateral – discussions about how to protect the rights of the Rohingya community..."
Author/creator: Melanie Teff and Sarnata Reynolds
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (90K), html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: ROHINGYA IN BURMA: SPOTLIGHT ON CURRENT CRISIS OFFERS OPPORTUNITY FOR PROGRESS
Date of publication: 30 October 2012
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "Long one of the most persecuted peoples in the world, the stateless Rohingya community has endured even greater suffering since the June inter-communal violence and subsequent displacement of tens of thousands of people. Violence is already recurring, with further deaths and over 1,000 more houses destroyed by fire in October. This crisis could even de-rail the Burmese government’s overall reform process if the underlying structural discrimination against Rohingya, including their lack of citizenship, is not addressed. In the short-term, there is a humanitarian imperative to urgently improve the conditions in the displacement camps and to allow humanitarian access to all communities in need of assistance. The rule of law in Rakhine State must be restored, the segregation of communities in Sittwe must come to an end, and the Rohingya should be recognized as citizens of Burma. For the long-term, Burma’s government must commit to the robust economic, social, and political development of Rakhine State. But that will not be enough. While a functioning economy, political representation, and land ownership will go a long way toward reconciliation, hostilities will not end until Burma’s government commits to promoting and protecting the human rights of both communities."
Author/creator: Melanie Teff and Sarnata Reynolds, with Chris Lewa of the Arakan Project
Language: English
Source/publisher: Refugees International
Format/size: pdf (242K), html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: RAKHINE UNREST SINCE 21 OCTOBER 2012
Date of publication: 29 October 2012
Description/subject: Photos and maps of incidents, estimates of numbers of IDPs...Destruction in Myebon... Anti-Rohingya demonstation in Myebon... IDP location in Myebon... Villages affeted in Mrauk-U and Minbya...People who lost their houses in several villages of Minbya township...IDP locations in Kyaukpyu and Ramree...IDP accommodation in GAD office...Destruction in Ramree...Destruction in Ramree...Destruction in Kyaukpyu...IDP camps - Giri response tents being used...Pauktaw affected areas...Rathedaung affected areas.
Language: English
Source/publisher: OFFICE OF THE RESIDENT AND HUMANITARIAN COORDINATOR IN MYANMAR
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB-OBL version; 4.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/docs/Situation_in_Rakhine_MS_briefing_29_October_2012.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 10 (28 October 2012)
Date of publication: 28 October 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • Although the figures are most likely to increase, as of the evening of 28 October the Government’s partial estimate indicates that over 28,000 people have been displaced and that at least 76 persons have been killed in the recent violence that started on 21 October. More than 4,600 houses and several religious buildings have been destroyed in the unrest. • A high-level delegation led by the Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator and the heads of UNCHR, WFP and OCHA accompanied the Ministers of Border Affairs to affected areas of Rakhine State. • The Government requested the international community assistance for all those affected.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (271K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: Burma: New Violence in Arakan State - Satellite Imagery Shows Widespread Destruction of Rohingya Homes, Property
Date of publication: 27 October 2012
Description/subject: "The government of Burma should take immediate steps to stop sectarian violence against the Rohingya Muslim population in Arakan State, in western Burma, and ensure protection and aid to both Rohingyas and Arakanese in the state, Human Rights Watch said today. New satellite imagery obtained by Human Rights Watch shows extensive destruction of homes and other property in a predominantly Rohingya Muslim area of the coastal town of Kyauk Pyu – one of several areas of new violence and displacement. Human Rights Watch identified 811 destroyed structures on the eastern coastal edge of Kyauk Pyu following arson attacks reportedly conducted on October 24, 2012, less than 24 hours before the satellite images were captured. The area of destruction measures 35 acres and includes 633 buildings and 178 houseboats and floating barges adjacent on the water, all of which were razed. There are no indications of fire damage to the immediate west and east of this zone of destruction. Media accounts and local officials said that many Rohingya in the town fled by sea toward Sittwe, the capital of Arakan State, 200 kilometers to the north. Violence renewed between Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims on October 21 and continued all week in at least five townships: Minbya, Mrak-U, Myebon, Rathedaung, and Kyauk Pyu. This was the first time violence had reached Kyauk Pyu and most of these other parts of the state since the sectarian violence and related abuses by state security forces against the Rohingya began in early June. The Rohingya have suffered the brunt of the violence..."
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2012


Title: Statement by Tomás Ojea Quintana SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: 25 October 2012
Description/subject: "...We should all acknowledge and commend the Government of Myanmar for what has been achieved thus far, which I have previously stated has improved the country’s human rights situation. Yet, recent developments highlight that Myanmar continues to grapple with ongoing human rights concerns that could pose risks to the reform process..."
Author/creator: Tomás Ojea Quintana
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations General Assembly (67th session)
Format/size: pdf (100K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: UN Expert: Human rights should lie at the heart of Myanmar’s reform process
Date of publication: 25 October 2012
Description/subject: "The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today highlighted the importance of keeping human rights on the agenda for Myanmar. This, he stressed, is particularly relevant in light of the ongoing violence in Rakhine State. The Special Rapporteur expressed concern that more lives have been lost in the violence and emphasised that the underlying causes of the tension and conflict between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine State must be addressed as a priority...NEW YORK (25 October 2012) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Myanmar, Tomás Ojea Quintana, today highlighted the importance of keeping human rights on the agenda for Myanmar. This, he stressed, is particularly relevant in light of the ongoing violence in Rakhine State. The Special Rapporteur expressed concern that more lives have been lost in the violence and emphasised that the underlying causes of the tension and conflict between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Rakhine State must be addressed as a priority..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (169K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2012


Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE QUESTION OF ROHINGYA’S NATIONALITY - LEGAL NEXUS BETWEEN ROHINGYA AND THE STATE
Date of publication: 23 October 2012
Description/subject: "It is difficult for general Burmese to understand the legal status of Rohingya. Majority does not know the Geo-Political and historical background of Arakan. To general Burmese, a Burmese is a Buddhist. If a pure Burmese happens to be a Muslim he is regarded as a Kalah or a foreigner. Here, Rohingyas are Muslims, their complexions are different from general Burmese, so they are generally seen as foreigners or descendants of foreigners that mean Rohingyas are regarded as non-natives. However, Bokyoke Aung San, father of the nation and the leaders of post-independence period studied the affairs of all minorities in the nation and generously accepted Rohingyas as an indigenous race of Burma at the same par with Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon and Rakhine. He (Bokyoke) sought the cooperation of Rohingyas. He assured them of their genuine nationality in Myanmar during his meeting with Muslim elders at Akyab in May 1946. U Aung Zan Wai and Mr. Sultan Mahmood (Ex-Health Minister) were said to have been assigned to go up to Maungdaw to organize Rohingyas there for AFPFL. In early British census Rohingya, Kaman, Myedu and Chittagonians or Bengalis were all censured under the column of Muslims. Sometimes Arakanese (Rakhine) Muslims were categorized as Sheikhs and sometimes they were put under the column of Indian Muslims. Arakanese Muslims protested not to mix them with foreign Muslims. So in 1921 census only some Rakhine speaking Muslims were shown under separate column as Arakan Mohammedan. Then again in 1931 census Myedu and Kaman only were separately listed, whence some Rohingyas still remained under general Muslim headline. Yet Rohingyas are not foreigners in independent Burma. Grounds for this claim are:..."
Author/creator: U Kyaw Min
Language: English
Source/publisher: " "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (568K)
Date of entry/update: 23 October 2012


Title: “The Muslims in Rakhine and the political project of the Rohingyas "
Date of publication: 18 October 2012
Description/subject: Perception of the conflict: " -Displacement of “ Rohingya ” and refugee crisis: humanitarian and human rights crisis -Key words in reports and media: Human rights violations, “racism”; harassment, extortion, “stateless people”; citizenship issue -Government failure to protect -Recurrence of communal crises/persecution (1942, 1947-54, 1977-8, 1991-2) -More recent aspects: -Presence of NGOs and UNHCR in Rakhine/ close observation -Media involvement (traditional news; web related social networks) -Andrew Selth: “Accurate and objective analyses tend to be drowned out by passionate interventions from activists and others, amplified by the internet.” -Internationalization : -Calls to the government of Myanmar to shoulder its responsibility -Involvement of Muslims countries and organizations (visits; donations)..."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.14MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Jacques-P-Leider-2012-The_Muslims_in_Rakhine_and_the_political_p...
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Give Citizenship to the Rohingya Community-
Date of publication: 08 October 2012
Description/subject: "...Global Movement of Moderates Chairman Tan Sri Razali Ismail has called on the Myanmar government to consider giving citizenship to the Rohingya community. Razali, who was formerly the United Nations’ special envoy to Myanmar, talks to the New Straits Times on the role of Malaysia and the international community in forming solutions to the plight of the Rohingya. Q :. You took part in the recent Perdana Global Peace Foundation Conference on the Plight of the Rohingyas, in which they came up with 16 resolutions to be handed to various parties including to the Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak), the Myanmar government, and the United Nations. What is the progress on the resolutions?...A FORMER Amnesty International Thailand researcher said violence against the Rohingya in Myanmar was because of systemic discrimination, which was manifested in law, policy and practices of the Myanmar government...DID THE GOVT. INCITE THE RACIAL VIOLENCE TARGETING THE ROHINGYA ?... Reply To The Demands to the Government from the People’s Gathering in Yathetdaung, Arakan (Part-1)[separate link]...The social and economic conditions of refugees should be improved...
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (452K)
Date of entry/update: 09 October 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 9 (5 October 2012
Date of publication: 05 October 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government of Myanmar estimates that approximately 75,000 IDPs are accommodated in 40 camps and temporary locations in Sittwe and Kyauktaw Townships as of 2 October. However, most are in nine camps outside of Sittwe. • A two-day workshop on Rakhine organized by the Ministry of Border Affairs and UN agencies concluded with recommendations/ways forward to address ongoing concerns as well as to achieve sustainable development for Rakhine State.
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (129K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


Title: Plight of the Rohingya - Solution? (Special News Pictorial of "Arakan Magazine") - revised
Date of publication: 30 September 2012
Description/subject: Text of the resolution adopted by the PERDANA GLOBAL PEACE FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “PLIGHT OF THE ROHINGYA: SOLUTIONS?” held on 17 September 2012 in Kuala Lumpur. Also,extracts and summaries of some of the presentations and many photos... "The Conference is divided into 3 sessions which will be moderated by Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Razali Ismail, UN Secretary- General’s Special Envoy for Myanmar (2000-2005), Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dr. Mohd. Rais Karim, acting Secretary-General PERKIM/former Vice Chancellor UPSI) and Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Ahmad Fuzi Abdul Razak (former Secretary-General Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malaysia) for each session respectively. The speakers are experts and renowned personalities including Mr. Nurul Islam (President of ARNO), Dr. Maung Zarni (Civil Society and Human Security Unit, LSE), Mr. Jacob Zenn (International Affairs Analyst, Washington DC), Mr. Benjamin Zawacki (former Researcher of Amnesty International), Mr. Matthew Smith (Human Rights Watch), Mr. Saiful Huq Omi (Research Consultant, Equal Rights Trust, Bangladesh), Dr. Sriprapha Petcharmesree (Human Rights & Peace Studies, Mahidol University Thailand and Dr. Abdullah Ahsan, International Movement for Just World (JUST) Malaysia. The Conference is attended by participants comprising representatives from the diplomatic corps, international organisations, parliamentarians, human rights groups, academia, civil society movements, non-governmental organisations, members of the media, as well as leaders of Rohingya organisations who are based in countries outside Myanmar. “It is indeed a collective and united call to action as part from calling upon the Myanmar authorities to acknowledge and resolve the crisis, UN and international agencies could very well play their part in ensuring their “responsibility to protect”, said Norian Mai, Chairman of Perdana Global Peace Foundation in his closing remarks"
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


Title: Nowhere To Go (video)
Date of publication: 28 September 2012
Description/subject: "Reviled in Myanmar and unwanted in Bangladesh, where does one of the world's most persecuted minorities really belong?... The Rohingya are a stateless people described by the UN as one of the world's most persecuted minorities. They are reviled in Myanmar, the country many Rohingya call home, and unwelcome in neighbouring Bangladesh, where tens of thousands live in refugee camps. And now they could be facing their worst crisis yet. Violent ethnic clashes in Myanmar's Rakhine state have led to calls for their expulsion from the country. Boatloads of Rohingya refugees have been denied entry into Bangladesh. Those already there live on the fringes of society, undocumented and at risk of exploitation. In late May, news broke of the brutal rape and murder of a Buddhist woman in Myanmar's Rakhine state. It was, by all accounts, a horrific crime. What made it worse for some was that the alleged perpetrators were men from the Muslim Rohingya minority. Five days later a crowd attacked a bus and killed nine Muslims in what appeared to be a retaliatory attack. The clashes erupted suddenly, and ferociously. Rakhine state has since become the scene of more violence. Entire villages have been burnt down and people driven from their homes. Both sides accuse each other of atrocities and the Myanmar government has declared a state of emergency in the region. Tens of thousands of Rohingya people now live in refugee camps, with their movements being restricted. In Myanmar they are not recognised as citizens and their access to opportunities are severely curtailed. In the aftermath of the Rakhine riots, human rights observers fear they might become the target of more discrimination. Myanmar does not want them. But neither does neighbouring Bangladesh, the country with the second-largest concentration of the Rohingya. So where do the Rohingya really belong? 101 East looks at who should take responsibility for the community."
Language: English (including subtitles), Arakanese, Rohingya, Burmese
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (101 East)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: Sectarian strife in western Myanmar
Date of publication: 28 September 2012
Description/subject: [Edited version of Dr Farrelly's presentation at the ANU conference "'The Western Gate is Broken': Myanmar's Rohingya Problem" - link to the podcast in the Alternate URL]...."In early June 2012 we were confronted with the lacerations of violence pitting Buddhist Rakhine against Muslim Rohingya. While Myanmar’s old wounds fester – across the gamut of political, economic, social and cultural issues – new incisions have cut to the bone of a brittle body politic, still scarred by generations of hardship and horror. Big questions are raised by the fresh wounds in western Myanmar, where at least 90 people have been killed and around 90,000 displaced in recent spurts of sectarian violence. We want to know how bad the damage has been, whether the prognosis is bleak, and what remedies can be prescribed. Introducing the violence that erupted only 3 months ago requires sensitivity to the competing interpretations of these events. Today, it is my task to briefly summarise the violence; providing a general framework for our discussions. I will, first, very briefly describe the recent violence in western Myanmar; second, highlight the broader social and demographic situation; third, explain the reception in the media and online; and fourth introduce a brief interpretation of the political and geopolitical ramifications..."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/__data/assets/mp3_file/0020/7391/20120927-Rohingya.mp3 (MP3 podcast of the conference (32MB)
http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/newmandala/category/burma/
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2012


Title: Text of the resolution adopted by the International Conference on the Plight of the Rohingya: Solution?
Date of publication: 17 September 2012
Description/subject: Text of the resolution adopted by the International Conference on the Plight of the Rohingya: Solution? Kuala Lumpur, 17 September 2012
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 02 October 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 8 (4 September 2012
Date of publication: 04 September 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Rakhine State Government estimates that over 70,000 IDPs are accommodated in 50 camps and temporary locations in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships as of 31 August. • Following an inter-agency assessment to villages in Kyauktaw affected by inter-communal violence in early August, assistance in the form of food, NFIs and health care has been provided to over 3,800 people.....This report is produced by OCHA on behalf of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It covers the period from 16 August to 4 September.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (117K)
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


Title: Popular ‘Buddhist’ racism and the generals’ militarism
Date of publication: 04 September 2012
Description/subject: "As a Mandalay-born dissident with deep roots in Buddhism, I find it revolting that thousands of Buddhist monks, human rights dissidents and the public in my hometown of Mandalay staged an anti-Rohingya rally this past weekend. They mimicked the regime’s discourse that promotes “national security” and “national sovereignty”, while espousing an anachronistic view of blood-based citizenship as opposed to the notions of multicultural citizenship. Where has the vociferous human rights rhetoric gone when it comes to the persecuted Rohingyas? We listened in vain for the metronomic chants of the saffron-robed monks who defied threats and flooded the streets of Rangoon and other towns proclaiming their “loving kindness” for all sentient beings in 2007. Now the very same monks chant mantras supporting exclusive citizenship. When a mob protests against an ethnic group then, it is no longer a citizens’ protest. It is a Nazi rally..."
Author/creator: Maung Zarni
Language: English
Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Humanitarian Bulletin - Myanmar, September 2012
Date of publication: September 2012
Description/subject: "Concurrent emergencies in Rakhine and Kachin. Approximately 150,000 persons remain displaced in Kachin and Rakhine States and many more have been affected in the two crises. These emergencies continue to place serious pressure on humanitarian partners to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, in an environment where resources are inadequate and access is challenging. The number of IDPs in Kachin and northern Shan states increased to some 75,000 in September from approximately 70,000 in August, following the intensification of clashes in some areas and the forced return from China of some 5,900 people. Since mid-July international humanitarian partners have not been permitted to reach some 54 percent of the IDPs (over 39,000 people). Between April and mid-July, access was officially granted to all but 14,000 IDPs in hard to reach areas. Humanitarian assistance provision is urgently required, especially for those who have been recently displaced. An additional concern is also the situation of some 8,000to 10,000 IDPs in or around Hpakan being stranded due to ongoing clashes with several civilian casualties being recorded. By mid-October, clashes moved out of urban areas and some of the civilians managed to return home.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2012


Title: Forced labour during the Arakan crisis: An overview of forced labour practices in North Arakan, Burma (June to August 2012)
Date of publication: 31 August 2012
Description/subject: "Additional Submission to the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) for consideration by the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) – ILO Convention 29 31 August 2012.....The systemic and discriminatory practice of forced labour against the Rohingya, has continued, or even intensified, across large areas of North Arakan/Rakhine State in Burma/Myanmar, since deadly communal violence broke out in June 2012...in areas not directly affected by the June 2012 violence, ie. North Maungdaw and Buthidaung Township, forced labour remains much the same as in previous years and has even intensified in some areas. Large contingents of army troops have been deployed after a state of emergency was declared on 10 June. As a result, there was a substantial increase in demands for porters and guides in North Maungdaw and North Buthidaung to carry additional rations or to accompany soldiers on patrol in border areas. Villagers were forced to remain 4 to 5 days at a time in the hills along with army patrols. Large groups of forced labourers have also been summoned for road clearing and emergency camp repair damaged by monsoon rains and forced cultivation in army camps and paddy fields has been reported in many parts of Buthidaung..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (182K)
Date of entry/update: 13 September 2012


Title: On the term “Rohingya”
Date of publication: 26 August 2012
Description/subject: "As most countries in continental Southeast Asia, Burma/Myanmar is home since many centuries to Muslim communities whose ethnic and geographic origins are traced to either China, India, Malaysia and more recently Persia. Since the 1950s, leaders of the Muslim community in Arakan (Rakhine; Western Burma/Myanmar) have raised the claim of being a separate ethnic group within Burma’s already highly complex patchwork of ethnicities. By that way the Arakan Muslims set themselves consciously apart from other Indian immigrants who took root in Burma/Myanmar mostly during the British colonial period. This claim has been contested for various reasons. It is clear that the country of origin of most Muslims from Arakan is Bengal. Both the old Muslim community that lived in Arakan before the fall of the kingdom in 1785 and the more recent and much more numerous one that developed during the British colonial period (after 1825) trace their origins overwhelmingly to Bengal. This is not surprising as Bengal/East Pakistan/Bangladesh is the neighbouring country and historical relations have existed for centuries between East Bengal and Arakan. Chittagong, today the second biggest city of Bangladesh, was controlled by the Arakanese kings for over eighty years. The language of the Muslims is derived from Chittagonian Bengali. North-south migrations (and earlier deportations) of the population are the rule rather than the exception, as well for Tibeto-Burman as for Aryan populations ..."
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (959K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Jacques-P-Leider-2012-On_the_term_%93Rohingya%94-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Discrimination: A Buddhist perspective
Date of publication: 17 August 2012
Description/subject: "...The Pali Canon has a very strong and unequivocal teaching that mental attachment is extremely detrimental – a biased view which asserts that people achieve freedom from suffering in any way other than their conduct is a distorted and perverted view. It is a mental attitude that leads to a very detrimental rebirth, and to pain and unhappiness in this life. It can be stated then with some certainty that in the Pali Canon there is a very strong teaching that any form of discourse that proposes a racist opinion is a wrong view, it will lead to suffering and, indeed, is dukkha itself. Those holding such opinions will not only suffer in the future but are themselves an expression of mental turmoil while holding such views. They are immersed in dukkha not metta."
Author/creator: Dr. Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: pdf (94K)
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: Myanmar conflict threatens regional stability
Date of publication: 16 August 2012
Description/subject: "AGARTALA and IMPHAL - As a rising number of Rohingya Muslims flee sectarian conflict in Myanmar and take sanctuary in India's northeastern states, the flow of refugees is putting a new strain on bilateral relations. New Delhi has called on Naypyidaw to stem the rising human tide, a diplomatic request that Indian officials say has so far gone unheeded. Ongoing sporadic violence between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhist Rakhines in western Myanmar has left more than 80 dead and displaced tens of thousands. The Myanmar government's inability or unwillingness to stop the persecution of Rohingyas has provoked strong international reaction, raising calls for retribution in radical corners of the Islamic world, including a threat from the Pakistani Taliban to attack Myanmar's diplomatic missions abroad. Fears are now rising that Myanmar-borne instability is spreading to India's northeastern frontier regions, threatening to spiral into a wider regional security dilemma. At the same time that Muslim Rohingyas and Buddhist Rakhines clashed in Myanmar, fighting erupted between Muslims and Hindus in India's northeastern Assam State. As in Myanmar, where the Rohingyas are considered illegal Bangladeshi settlers, the Muslims targeted in Assam are accused of being ethnic Bengalis who have migrated illegally from Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Subir Bhaumik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 September 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 7 (15 August 2012)
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: * The Rakhine State Government estimates that over 68,500 IDPs are accommodated in 63 camps in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships... * A response plan prepared by the UN and NGO partners estimates that US$32.5 million are required to provide assistance to some 80,000 vulnerable people until December 2012...."Of the over 100,000 people affected at the beginning of the crisis, many have already returned home as the overall security situation is improving across the state. As of 11 August, the Rakhine State Government estimates that over 68,500 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are accommodated in 63 camps in Sittwe, Kyauktaw and Maungdaw Townships, of which nine camps in Sittwe are sheltering close to 60,000 IDPs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf, html
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/displacement-rakhine-state-situation-report-no-7
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2012


Title: THE ROHINGYA PROBLEM: WHY AND HOW TO MOVE FORWARD
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: [Author’s Note: Keynote speech delivered at the International Conference on “Contemplating Burma’s Rohingya People’s Future in Reconciliation and (Democratic) Reform,” held on August 15, 2012 at the Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand].....A legal and historical analysis
Author/creator: Dr. Habib Siddiqui
Language: English
Source/publisher: " "Arakan" - Arakan Rohingya Organisation (ARNO)
Format/size: pdf (829K)
Date of entry/update: 03 January 2013


Title: The Rohingya: A humanitarian crisis (video and articles)
Date of publication: 15 August 2012
Description/subject: "Does a solution to the persecution and discrimination of one of Myanmar's ethnic minorities lie within its own borders?...The UN calls Myanmar's Rohingya community one of the world's most persecuted minorities. It has made an appeal for more than $30m to get aid to displaced Rohingya in Myanmar's western Rakhine state.More than a million Rohingya are currently caught in a cycle of violence and poverty. They are without a country to call their own after being denied citizenship in Myanmar under a law that was passed 30 years ago. Tens of thousands of them, mostly Muslims, are now living in makeshift camps in Myanmar after clashes with Buddhist locals. Hundreds of thousands more are being denied access to aid in neighbouring Bangladesh, where an estimated 30,000 registered Rohingya refugees are living in UN camps..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25 mnutes), html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


Title: 'Mass graves' for Myanmar's Rohingya
Date of publication: 09 August 2012
Description/subject: "Exclusive report from Rakhine state exposes an entire region divided by religious and racial discrimination...A recent journey to western Myanmar has revealed a provincial capital divided by hatred and thousands of its Muslim residents terrorised by what they say is a state-sponsored campaign to segregate the population along ethno-sectarian lines. Decades-old tension between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims in coastal Rakhine state exploded with new ferocity in June, leaving at least 78 people dead and tens of thousands homeless. Exclusive reporting conducted last week in the highly restricted region suggests that the long-term fallout from recent violence could be even more damaging than the bloodshed. The United Nations has estimated that 80,000 people are still displaced around the cities of Sittwe and Maungdaw, and international rights groups continue to denounce Myanmar for its role in the conflict. As it stands, any thought of reconciliation between local Buddhists and Muslims appears a distant dream. Many Rohingya have fled the polarised region, fearing revenge attacks and increasing discrimination. Their status has sparked international concern and disagreement. Rights groups have condemned the violence. The Myanmar government has denied any wrongdoing, while neighbouring Bangladesh has rejected an influx of refugees and slashed access to aid. For those Rohingya caught up in the dispute, the day-to-day situation is rapidly slipping from desperate to dire..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (Features)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2012


Title: “The Government Could Have Stopped This” - Sectarian Violence and Ensuing Abuses in Burma’s Arakan State
Date of publication: 01 August 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In June 2012, deadly sectarian violence erupted in western Burma’s Arakan State between ethnic Arakan Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims (as well as non-Rohingya Muslims). The violence broke out after reports circulated that on May 28 an Arakan woman was raped and killed in the town of Ramri allegedly by three Muslim men. Details of the crime were circulated locally in an incendiary pamphlet, and on June 3, a large group of Arakan villagers in Toungop stopped a bus and brutally killed 10 Muslims on board. Human Rights Watch confirmed that local police and soldiers stood by and watched the killings without intervening. On June 8, thousands of Rohingya rioted in Maungdaw town after Friday prayers, destroying Arakan property and killing an unknown number of Arakan residents. Sectarian violence then quickly swept through the Arakan State capital, Sittwe, and surrounding areas. Mobs from both communities soon stormed unsuspecting villages and neighborhoods, killing residents and destroying homes, shops, and houses of worship. With little to no government security present to stop the violence, people armed themselves with swords, spears, sticks, iron rods, knives, and other basic weapons, taking the law into their own hands. Vast stretches of property from both communities were razed. The government claimed that 78 people were killed—an undoubtedly conservative figure—while more than 100,000 people were displaced from their homes. The hostilities were fanned by inflammatory anti-Muslim media accounts and local propaganda. During the period after the rape and killing was reported and before the violence broke out, tensions had risen dramatically in Arakan State. However, local residents from each community told Human Rights Watch that the Burmese authorities provided no protection and did not appear to have taken any special measures to preempt the violence. On June 10, fearing the unrest would spread beyond the borders of Arakan State, Burmese President Thein Sein announced a state of emergency, transferring civilian power to the Burmese army in affected areas of the state. At this point, a wave of concerted violence by various state security forces against Rohingya communities began. For example, Rohingya in Narzi quarter—the largest Muslim area in Sittwe, home to 10,000 Muslims—described “THE GOVERNMENT COULD HAVE STOPPED THIS” 2 how Arakan mobs burned down their homes on June 12 while the police and paramilitary Lon Thein forces opened fire on them with live ammunition. In northern Arakan State, the Nasaka border guard force, the army, police, and Lon Thein committed killings, mass arrests, and looting against Rohingya. In the aftermath, local Arakan leaders and members of the Arakan community in Sittwe have called for the forced displacement of the Muslim community from the city, while local Buddhist monks have initiated a campaign of exclusion, calling on the local Buddhist population to neither befriend nor do business with Muslims..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
Format/size: pdf (630K-original; 575K-OBL version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/The_Government_Could_Have_Stopped_this-HRW-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 August 2012


Title: Rakhine Response Plan
Date of publication: 31 July 2012
Description/subject: "Inter-community conflict in Rakhine State, which started in early June 2012, has resulted in displacement, loss of lives and livelihood. Of the over 100,000 people affected at the beginning of the crisis, many have already returned home, and as of 29 July, official Government statistics indicate that some 64,000 people remain displaced and are accommodated in 61 camps in Sittwe and Maungdaw townships. Population movement continues, and figures are being revised on a weekly basis. The Ministry of Information also indicated that 78 people were killed and 87 injured as a result of the violence and that over 4,800 buildings were destroyed. Since the beginning of the unrest, the Government has been providing assistance such as food, shelter, non-food-items (NFIs) and medical supplies to Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). In order to support the Government response, UN and NGO staff have been mobilized and relief supplies are being distributed. An inter-agency multi-sectoral rapid needs assessment was conducted between 20 June and 10 July in 121 locations in four townships (109 in Sittwe, four in Rathedaung, seven in Maungdaw, one in Pauktaw), covering 107,886 IDPs (18,697 households). The assessment identified as major needs in food, shelter, NFI, WASH and health sectors, together with access to sanitation facilities and drinking water. In an effort to enhance assistance and coordination, humanitarian partners undertook an analysis of the present situation and identified scenarios for the coming six months, against which sectoral plans and priorities were identified, taking into consideration the results of the inter-agency rapid assessment as well as the response priorities indicated by the Government and affected communities. The plan concentrates on the immediate relief requirements until December 2012, and will be revised in September 2012. Priorities of sectoral interventions include:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Humanitarian agencies in Rakhine State via MIMU
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-OBL version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://themimu.info/docs/Rakhine%20Plan_final.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 6 (26 July 2012)
Date of publication: 26 July 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES • Some IDPs returned home and the Government indicates that, as of 24 July, some 61,000 people are displaced in 58 locations in Maungdaw and Sittwe...II. Situation Overview: "The general security situation across Rakhine State remains stable even though the level of tension is reportedly high in some areas. The curfew is still in force in six townships. The level of economic and livelihood activities has increased in Sittwe with shops, markets and banks in operation, although there are concerns as parts of the population is yet to resume their economic activities. The Government has taken some measures to address concerns related to anti UN and NGO sentiments by some members of the public. While hostile slogans on posters, t-shirts and stickers still circulating in Sittwe, assistance is now welcome in some camps previously inaccessible. The IDPs are slowly returning to their place of origin or sources of livelihood. As of 24 July, the Rakhine State Government estimated that there are over 61,000 IDPs accommodated in 58 camps in Maungdaw and Sittwe townships..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (65K)
Date of entry/update: 31 July 2012


Title: Burma's Human Rights Blind Spot: A Compendium on Violence Against Rohingyas in June/July 2012
Date of publication: 25 July 2012
Description/subject: Compendium of 30 or so reports... Introduction: "By virtue of its geography (great river valleys, plains, plateaus and mountain chains) and history (migration and settlement along the rivers and in the uplands) Burma is a multicultural crossroads of Southeast and South Asia. Peoples, ways of life and religions from the Indian subcontinent, Himalayas, Indo-China and beyond, have intermingled in a land which became a nation under British colonization and has struggled with ethnic identities ever since. Although the vast majority of inhabitants are Buddhists, with the overwhelmingly Buddhist Burmans the largest ethnic group, nearly all other religions are represented in the population. Tolerance and cosmopolitanism were among Burma's strengths in times of peace. Unfortunately, military rule and the promulgation of ethnic-majority nationalism have been in effect since General Ne Win's takeover in 1962, and even in the post-British democracy of U Nu, establishment of Buddhism as a state religion appeared to sideline Burma's people of other faiths. Ne Win's dictatorship favored the assimilation of Buddhist groups like the Rakhines, Mons and Shans into a Burman nationalism, discouraging those peoples' knowledge of their own languages, civilized history and cultures. Targeting Christians and Muslims, Ne Win's armed forces often burned churches and mosques, torturing and killing pastors and imams. In western Burma's Arakan State (aka Rakhine State), military rule brought decreased rights for the Buddhist Rakhine people and absolute denial of citizenship for the Muslim Rohingya people. The mass exodus of Rohingyas fleeing repression to neighboring Bangladesh took place in 1978 and 1991, resulting in tens of thousands of refugees cordoned off in squalid camps in Bangladesh or permanently stranded overseas (Gulf States, Pakistan, Malaysia, India, Thailand.) As Rohingyas left the northern Arakan region, particularly Buthidaung and Maungdaw, out of fear of extreme repression, Burma's post-1988 junta settled Buddhist Rakhine and Burman villagers in the area -- a scenario guaranteed to make both groups resent each other. Rohingyas who remained were often preyed upon by border security forces and other military personnel, and were severely restricted in rights such as marriage and travel. Military rape and other violent victimization of Rohingyas was well-documented by respected international human rights organizations..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2012


Title: Why is the world ignoring Myanmar's Rohingya? | Inside Story
Date of publication: 23 July 2012
Description/subject: "They have been persecuted and discriminated against for decades but few can even pronounce their name let alone know their plight. The UN describes them as one of the most persecuted minorities, yet the suffering of Myanmar's Rohingya population increases..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera English
Format/size: Adobe Flash (25:09 Min)
Date of entry/update: 20 February 2018


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 5 (19 July 2012)
Date of publication: 19 July 2012
Description/subject: I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government indicates that over 70,000 people are currently displaced. • An inter-agency multi-sectoral rapid needs assessment was conducted in 114 locations in four townships (102 in Sittwe, 4 in Rathedaung, 7 in Maungdaw, 1 in Pauktaw), covering 104,719 IDPs. Major needs are identified in food, shelter, NFI, WASH and health.....II. SITUATION OVERVIEW: Although tensions continue to be high, the number of security incidents across Rakhine State is reportedly decreasing. Additional military and Myanmar Police Force personnel have been deployed in affected locations. The state of emergency and curfew from 6 pm to 6 am continue in six townships of the state. In the capital of the state, Sittwe, Government offices, banks, markets, several basic education schools and technical university reopened since early July. Some organizations continue to issue statements against communities and against UN/NGOs, fueling tensions and hampering assessments and delivery of relief support to the victim of the violence in the State. In Maungdaw and Sittwe, T-shirts and stickers against UN/INGOs have appeared in several locations. The Government is taking steps to resolve the situation. On 11 July, UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres, visited Myanmar and met with the President and other senior Government officials. Mr. Guterres expressed the willingness of UNHCR and the humanitarian community in general to work with the Government to provide humanitarian assistance ‘to the victims of the incident, namely to those that were displaced by the incident, of both communities, the Rakhine community and the Moslem community without any discrimination and in the spirit of attending to the needs of the people, whoever they are, and wherever they are’. He stressed his hope that ‘our efforts might also give a humble contribution to hopefully what will be a true reconciliation between communities’ and ‘after these events, it will be slowly possible, to establish in (…) Rakhine State a situation where the rule of law will prevail in a human-rights minded way and the communities will be able to respect each other and look positively into the future’. On 8 July, Pyithu Hluttaw Speaker U Thura Shwe Mann visited Rakhine to provide relief aid to IDPs in Maungdaw, Rathedaung and Sittwe townships. On 11 July, the Myanmar Human Rights Commission issued a statement, highlighting the need for strengthening of rule of law, effective legal action against the perpetrators of the violence and building mutual trust among communities to restore normalcy to the situation. From 16 to 18 July, a high level Government delegation led by the Minister for Border Affairs with the participation of representatives from UN and NGOs visited Rakhine to assess the situation and discuss the way forward. The Minister indicated that a longer-term solution to the problem needs to be found, in respect of the rule of law. This includes a comprehensive town planning exercise that will take into consideration the situation of all those that have land property certificates, and that have been displaced, as well as the requirements for those who are in need of other forms of aid and support.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (92K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: U.N. rejects Burma’s offer to resettle Rohingya
Date of publication: 13 July 2012
Description/subject: The U.N. has rejected an offer by the Burmese government to resettle Royingya Muslims, a stateless people who live in western Burma and who have been denied citizenship in the country. The Burmese president told the U.N. refugee representative on Thursday that non-citizen Rohingya Muslims in far western Burma should be placed in refugee camps or deported, following sectarian violence in the country in June which claimed up to 79 lives of both Muslims and Buddhists. The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres on Thursday rejected the suggestion by Burmese President Thein Sein, saying it was not the U.N.’s job to resettle the Rohingya, who the U.N. calls one of the most persecuted people in the world. “The resettlement programs organized by UNHCR are for refugees who are fleeing a country to another, in very specific circumstances. Obviously, it's not related to this situation,” Guterres told the media after a meeting with the president..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.mizzima.com/news/inside-burma/7514-un-rejects-burmas-offer-to-resettle-rohingya.html
Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Dilemma
Date of publication: 09 July 2012
Description/subject: "In the past, the people who called themselves “Rohingya” had to contend with successive military governments’ indifference to recognizing — or regularizing - their status as persons living on the territory of Myanmar. The latest incidence of anger against the Rohingyas, however, did not have immigration woes at its source. An unfortunate crime of rape and murder — committed by Muslim men against a Buddhist woman in a strongly nationalistic state — escalated into communal violence fraught with racial and religious undertones. The views, many of them inflammatory, on social media platforms indicate deep-seated prejudices that threaten the unconsolidated stability in Myanmar under President Thein Sein’s reform-minded administration. President Thein Sein made a statement on 10 June to calm seething sentiments on the present conflict. Myanmar also received the visit of United Nations (UN) Special Envoy Vijay Nambiar to the conflict areas. The measures have resulted in lessening tensions somewhat, and won praise from the European Union and the United States2. Responding to questions by media, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi highlighted the importance of handling the situation with “delicacy and sensitivity” while also underscoring the need for the rule of law as “essential [..] to put an end to all conflicts in the country”. However, the Rohingya issue is still far from reaching a lasting solution...".....THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EVOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT...THE ROHINGYA AND THE CITIZENSHIP LAWS...CHALLENGES AHEAD
Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than and Moe Thuzar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ("Perspective")
Format/size: pdf (499K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.academia.edu/3106711/Myanmars_Rohingya_Dilemma
http://web1.iseas.edu.sg/Iseas_Perspective/ISEAS%20Perspective_9jul12.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 4 (5 July 2012)
Date of publication: 05 July 2012
Description/subject: "This report is produced by OCHA on behalf of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It covers the period from 28 June to 5 July. The next report will be issued on 12 July... I. HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: • The Government indicates that some 55,000 people are currently displaced. Humanitarian partners estimate that some 100,000 persons have been affected. • A high-level delegation, led by the Union Ministers of Defense, of Border Affairs, and of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, with the participation of representatives from UN agencies, NGOs and donors visited Rakhine state between 27 and 30 June. • The Government highlighted that urgent needs include shelter, food, WASH and NFIs, with priority areas being Sittwe, Rathedaung and Maungdaw. Support in all other sectors is also required. The Inter-Agency assessment is ongoing. Results will provide a clearer indication of the needs. Preliminary observations confirm Government prioritization..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (64K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: Burning Homes, Sinking Lives - A situation report on violence against stateless Rohingya in Myanmar and their refoulement from Bangladesh
Date of publication: 02 July 2012
Description/subject: "...this report documents the severity of the human rights abuses suffered by Rohingya within Myanmar – including mass violence, killings and attacks, the burning and destruction of property, arbitrary arrests, detention and disappearances, the deprivation of emergency healthcare and humanitarian aid. Such human rights abuses are being carried out with impunity by civilians and agents of the state alike. The organised and widespread nature of this state sponsored violence raises serious questions of crimes against humanity being committed by Myanmar. This report also documents the refoulement of Rohingya refugees from Bangladesh and related human rights violations, including the push-back of boats carrying Rohingya into dangerous waters and the failure to provide refuge, shelter and humanitarian aid to those fleeing persecution. Historically, the Rohingya have faced acute discrimination and human rights abuse in Myanmar, and Rohingya refugees fleeing persecution to Bangladesh have faced severe hardships including the lack of humanitarian aid, shelter and security. This present crisis is a tragic reminder of the vulnerabilities of stateless people when their countries of habitual residence and the international community fail to protect them. Urgent action is required to end the violence, protect the victims and bring those responsible to justice. Of equal importance is the need for a long-term process of reinstating Myanmar nationality to Rohingya who were arbitrarily deprived of a nationality in 1982, resolving ethnic conflicts and protecting the human rights and freedoms of Rohingya within Myanmar and in other countries. The Equal Rights Trust makes the following urgent and long-term recommendations to the governments of Myanmar and Bangladesh and to the UNHCR and international community..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Equal Rights Trust
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2.26MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/The%20Equal%20Rights%20Trust%20-%20Burning%20Homes%...
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 3 (28 June 2012)
Date of publication: 28 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• The overall security situation is reported to be stable. Emergency rule and curfew remain in place in six Townships across Rakhine State. • According to official figures, 78 people are dead, 87 injured and 3,000 residential buildings are damaged as of 24 June. Over 52,200 people remained newly displaced across Rakhine State. Humanitarian partners estimate that around 90,000 people are affected, including the newly displaced people. • As of 25 June, WFP has provided 725 metric tons of food commodities (rice, pulses, oil and salt) to over 92,000 affected people in five townships, Sittwe, Pauktaw, Maungdaw, Rahtedaung and Buthidaung. • A total of 14 representatives from six UN agencies, six INGOs and two donor agencies left for Sittwe on 27 June to take part in a mission organized by the Government to observe the situation in Rakhine State and to strengthen coordination with the State Government as a primary focal point for the response. • The traffic on the road between Buthidaung and Maungdaw is interrupted due to a landslide..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: UNREST IN BURMA’S ARAKAN STATE: A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS (UPDATED)
Date of publication: 26 June 2012
Description/subject: • The rape and murder of a 27-year-old Buddhist Rakhine woman and the murder of 10 Muslim pilgrims trigger deadly sectarian clashes between Buddhists and Muslims in Arakan State starting on 8 June. • According to the regime, as of 21 June, 62 people had died and over 2,000 buildings, including seven mosques and nine Buddhist monasteries, had been destroyed as a result of the unrest. However, various organizations say that the death toll might be much higher as a result of escalating attacks and reprisals affecting Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhine. • Regime imposes a curfew and a ban on public gatherings of more than five people in six of 17 townships in Arakan State. President Thein Sein declares an indefinite state of emergency which allows the military to take over administrative control of Arakan State. • World Food Program estimates that 90,000 people have been displaced due to the unrest. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warns of a risk of a severe humanitarian crisis due to ongoing violence and poor conditions in IDP camps. • Bangladeshi authorities push back more than 2,000 Rohingya fleeing violence in Arakan State. Bangladeshi FM Dipu Moni says Bangladesh is already “overburdened” with Rohingya refugees and cannot take any more “under any circumstances.” • Regime warns journalists that they could be charged under existing laws, including the Emergency Provisions Act, if they publish inflammatory reports on the ongoing violence in Arakan State. • Daw Aung San Suu Kyi expresses concern over the handling of the situation by local Rakhine authorities, in particular their failure to dampen anti-Muslim sentiment. Daw Suu also calls on Buddhists to “have sympathy for minorities.” • International reactions: UN warns that discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities poses a threat to Burma’s democratic transition; US, UK are “deeply concerned” over the ongoing violence; EU welcomes the regime’s “measured response” to the crisis; OIC “condemns systematic acts of violence and intimidation against the peaceful Rohingya population.” • The authorities’ decades-long discriminatory policies and practices targeting Rohingya have reinforced the racial and religious animosity between the two communities in Arakan State. Rohingya have suffered restrictions on marriage, freedom of movement, and religious practice. In addition, the regime has routinely subjected Rohingya to forced labor, extortion, land confiscation, and other human rights abuses.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Thematic%20Briefers/Unrest%20in%20Burmas%20Arakan%20State%... (13 June)
Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 2 (20 June 2012)
Date of publication: 20 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES" "• According to official Government statistics dated 18 June, over 52,200 people have been displaced and are accommodated in 66 camps/villages. Unofficial estimates indicated that 80,000 to 90,000 people have been affected. • The Government has requested the RC/HC and humanitarian partners to support its response efforts. Humanitarian assistance delivery is ongoing. It includes food, medical, water and sanitation interventions. Food distribution that reached some 82,000 people as of 19 June. • The situation in Rakhine State has somewhat eased, although sporadic incidents continue to be reported..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (255K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: Myanmar: Displacement in Rakhine State. Situation Report No. 1 (15 June 2012)
Date of publication: 15 June 2012
Description/subject: HIGHLIGHTS/KEY PRIORITIES: "• Instability in Rakhine State that started since 28 May has resulted in displacement of over 36,000 people who are now located in 43 camps/locations, loss of lives and damages to houses and communal buildings. This is an initial estimate which will need to be revised as more information becomes available and assessment are carried out. • The violence prompted the Government to impose curfew in six locations and declare the state of emergency on 10 June across the State. • At the invitation of the Minister for Border Affairs, a UN delegation led by Special Advisor of the UN Secretary-General and the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Myanmar visited IDPs locations in Maungdaw. • The Government called for humanitarian partners to support the Government’s efforts to respond to the crisis. The UN and its humanitarian partners confirmed their readiness to provide humanitarian assistance all the affected people across Rakhine."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
Format/size: pdf (179K)
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2012


Title: An Open Letter from the Asian Human Rights Commission to the President of Myanmar (Burma) and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Date of publication: 14 June 2012
Description/subject: "...the AHRC strongly urges you to communicate with one another so as to open the border immediately to allow for the movement of people seeking shelter from the violence, and to make appropriate arrangements for the temporary settlement of persons fleeing the parts of Myanmar affected by violence. Furthermore, in order to enable the provision of adequate food and health services to the affected populations, both of your governments are requested to cooperate with one another so as to provide complete, unimpeded, secure access to international agencies at the earliest possible opportunity, in order that these agencies can assess the situation and make arrangements for the necessary provision of emergency relief supplies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


Title: What is behind Myanmar's ethnic unrest? (video)
Date of publication: 13 June 2012
Description/subject: As sectarian tensions run high in the country's west, we ask how it will impact the government's fragile reform plan. Myanmar is on a very uneven and fragile road towards democracy but around 25 people have been killed and 41 others wounded in five days of riots in the country's western region. The coastal state of Rakhine saw Buddhists once again fighting Muslims, including Rohingya migrants - most of whom are stateless. They are described by the United Nations as one of the world's most persecuted minorities. The violence seems to have started after a Buddhist woman was raped and murdered last month. The Rohingya were blamed and since then, more people have been killed on both sides of the religious divide. In response, the government has imposed a state of emergency in the area and the UN is relocating its staff. But for a country that has been under military control for five decades, the latest clashes could threaten some of the democratic reforms that President Thein Sein has been introducing since taking office last year. In April, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi of the NLD party was elected to parliament in a landmark by-election. And the EU has agreed to suspend most sanctions against the country, as have the US and Australia. But how the government handles the latest crisis will be a test of its fragile reform programme. So what does the fighting mean for the future of Myanmar and what is behind this ethnic tension? Is it religious - Buddhist against Muslim? Or is it a case of the minority being persecuted for being stateless? Could attempts at reform be halted because of this unrest? Inside Story, with presenter Stephen Cole, discusses with guests: Nurul Islam, the president of the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation; Nyo Myint, a spokesman and head of foreign affairs at the National League for Democracy; and Wakar Uddin, a Rohingya from Myanmar and director general of the Arakan Rohingya Union (ARU) - a group supported by the Organisation of Islamic Conference. "What is currently happening in the Rakhine state is about putting grievances, hatred, and desire for revenge at the forefront based on racial and religious grounds and that's why anarchic actions are becoming widespread." Thein Sein, Myanmar's president..."...FACTS ABOUT ETHNIC TENSION IN MYANMAR The government has declared an emergency in Rakhine state after seven people were killed during riots The alleged rape and murder of a Buddhist woman last month led to the initial attacks The latest unrest is reaction to the killing of 10 Muslims by Buddhists Government troops were deployed to Rakhine to help the police keep order Many Muslims in Myanmar are ethnic Rohingya from Bangladesh The minority Rohingya Muslims are denied citizenship in Myanmar Many in Myanmar consider the Rohingya to be illegal immigrants The Rohingya are not recognised by either Myanmar or Bangladesh 800,000 Rohingya live in Rakhine, with another 200,000 in Bangladesh There are concerns that the unrest could derail Myanmar's recent democratic reforms Myanmar's new civilian government was elected in 2010
Language: English
Source/publisher: AL Jazeera (Inside Story)
Format/size: html, Adobe Flash (25 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 17 November 2012


Title: Myanmar conflict alert: preventing communal bloodshed and building better relations (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
Date of publication: 12 June 2012
Description/subject: "The communal bloodshed in Myanmar’s Rakhine State represents both a consequence of, and threat to, Myanmar’s current political transition. While communal tensions and discrimination against Myanmar’s Muslim minority long predate the country’s recent opening up, the loosening of authoritarian constraints may well have enabled this current crisis to take on a virulent intensity. Equally, failure to both halt the crisis and address its underlying causes risks halting or even eroding Myanmar’s current reform initiatives. Unless the government takes steps not just to end the violence but also lay the groundwork for protection of minority communities there is a risk of the violence spreading. How the government handles this case will be a major test of the police and courts in a country that has just begun to emerge from an authoritarian past. It will also test the government’s will and capacity to reverse a longstanding policy of discrimination toward the Muslim Rohingya..."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Date of entry/update: 29 July 2012


Title: "Rohingya," Rakhaing and the Recent Outbreak of Violence - A Note
Date of publication: 2012
Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Studies va Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (290K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Jacques-P-Leider-2013-Rohingya-Rakhaing_and_the_Recent_Outbreak_...
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: Abstract "This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand."
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES (IDE), JETRO Discussion Paper 206
Format/size: pdf (289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Issues_Affecting_the_Movement_of_Rural_Labour_in_Myanmar-Rakhine...
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


Title: THE ROHINGYAS Bengali Muslims or Arakan Rohingyas?
Date of publication: 26 March 2009
Description/subject: "In recent months, the Rohingyas have been making headlines again. Who are they? It was reported1 recently that Myanmar Foreign Minister U Nyan Win had told his ASEAN2 counterparts in Hua Hin, Thailand, prior to the ASEAN Summit, that the SPDC is "willing to accept the return of refugees from Myanmar if they are listed as Bengali Muslim minorities but not if they are Rohingyas, because Rohingyas are not Myanmar citizens". What does this signify? To the uninitiated, what difference does it make if they are Bengalis or Rohingyas? Are they not from Burma? In Burmese politics, however, it makes a world of difference..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Euro-Burma Office (EBO Briefing Paper No. 2
Format/size: pdf (48K)
Date of entry/update: 02 April 2009


Title: Muslim Immigration into Arakan and their Political Movements
Date of publication: 2009
Author/creator: Myint Thein
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (8.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/U-Myint-Thein-Arakan-Report.pdf
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015


Title: Myanmar's forgotten people
Date of publication: 22 April 2008
Description/subject: The Rohingyas have a history which dates back to the beginning of the 7th century when Arab Muslim traders settled in Arakan (Rakhine). They were recognised as an indigenous ethnic group by the U Nu government during the parliamentary era in the 1950s but lost their political and constitutional identity when the military government of General Ne Win promulgated the Citizenship Act of Burma in 1983. This effectively denied the Rohingyas recognition of their status as an ethnic minority group. Harsh discrimination against them soon followed.
Author/creator: Nyi Nyi Kyaw
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
Format/size: pdf (English, 224K; Burmese, 123K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/41.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


Title: The Rohingya Issue: A Thorny Obstacle between Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh
Date of publication: 2005
Description/subject: "...Whether the exact beginnings of Muslim settlement in Arakan is still to be determined, it is reasonable to understand that they have been residing there since the period of the Arakan Kingdom (Mrauk-U dynasty). They were the origin of the Muslims in Arakan. Also it has been questioned whether those Muslims are equivalent to the present Rohingyas, Yegar's discussion is convincing: that those Muslims who had resided since the days of Mrauk-U dynasty and the Muslims from Chittagong who immigrated into Arakan in 19th and 20th century were integrated to some extent and comprised the present Rohingyas. The naming of Rohingya by themselves is a relatively recent invention, but there is no reason to deny there existence as an ethnic group whether their naming was old or new. Taking these understandings into consideration, the Rohingya have a right to be recognized as a national group in present Burma and to be treated equal to other ethnic nationals. Even if a strong image of the ex-immigrants from Chittagong sticks on them, it is meaningless to avoid those people as foreigners. There is no rational reason to put the year of 1823 as a criterion for dividing the people in Burma between indigenous and non-indigenous. In order to change the situation in the border of Burma and Bangladesh from an explosive area of another possible exodus to a stable area where the border trade can be increased and be prospered, the first step to be taken is to "qualify" those Rohingyas as a Burmese national ethnic group. Without taking this measure, nothing will be improved and a thorny obstacle may remain for another uncountable decades. Not only the Government of Bangladesh but also the international community in all are expected to make efforts to persuade the military government of Burma to accept the Rohingyas into their national community." (from the Conclusion)
Author/creator: Kei NEMOTO
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Developing Economies (IDE) in "Elusive Borders: Changing Sub-Regional Relations in Eastern South Asia"
Format/size: pdf (263K)
Date of entry/update: 04 January 2013


Title: Between Integration and Secession (The Muslims of Arakan)
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: Introduction: "The Expansion of Islam in Southeast Asia1: "Much before the first century, there is evidence of commerce between the Roman Empire and other Mediterranean lands, the cargo making its way mainly aboard Roman and Indian vessels. At the large port which sprang up on the southern coast of Ceylon, merchandise was exchanged between the Roman Empire, India, South­ east Asia, and China. One route went around the Indian subcontinent in the direc­tion of the Straits of Hormuz to the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, and from there up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to ports on the Mediterranean. Another route skirted the Arabian subcontinent to the port of Hadramaut, from there to the Straits of Bab al Mandeb and then to the Red Sea and Akaba. Alternately, the land route went from Hadramaut to Mecca and continued from there to Gaza or Da­mascus. Merchandise was transported via all these routes from China and India to Mediterranean ports and Europe; merchandise was transported along the same routes from the Middle East back to China and India. In the Mediterranean littoral, the appetite for merchandise from Asia motivated Indian merchants to develop their contacts in Southeast Asia and even further afield. In the Middle East, from at least the first century, Arab merchants were also acquainted with trade routes through Asian waters. Most of these merchants came from trade centers along the Red Sea, southern Arabia, or the Persian Gulf. By the third century, there were already Persian merchants along the Malay Peninsula. These Arabs and Persians acted as go-betweens for European merchants who dealt with Asian merchants active in India and the western parts of the Malaysian archipelago. Arab commerce extended to China. It is likely that a group of Arab merchants, and perhaps Per­sians as well, were in the city of Canton as early as the third century. Apparently the sea lanes from Egypt and Persia to India on the one hand, and from India to Southeast Asia on the other, were in Arab hands, and the number of Arab and Persian merchants grew in the first decade of the seventh century. But, because their ships were technically inferior and so had to stay close to the shore, the Chinese were not as involved in trade in the southern waters until long after the Indians, the Arabs, and the Malays of Southeast Asia, each of whom had learned enough about seasonal winds and navigation to sail in the open sea. In time, this commerce became a Muslim monopoly at both its western and eastern ends..."
Author/creator: Moshe Yegar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (686K)
Date of entry/update: 04 October 2015


Title: The Muslim “Rohingyas” of Burma
Date of publication: 11 December 1995
Description/subject: "The following monograph is a draft background paper from a presentation delivered at a conference, “The Muslim ‘Rohingyas’ of Burma”, organised by the Burma Centrum Nederland in Amsterdam in December 1995. Given the paucity of available data at the time, the paper did not seek to be definitive. Rather, it was intended as a draft for discussion, explaining dilemmas that the author had come across during the previous decade when researching about ethnic politics in the country. The hope was that, with the door to Burma gradually opening, other analysts and researchers would be able to develop understanding about the sensitive ethnic and political issues involved. Since this time, the crisis in the Arakan-Bangladesh borderlands has further worsened, with new violence, refugee outflows and a broader spread of ethnic nationality and Buddhist-Muslim tensions within the country. In response, there has been greater international awareness and research inter est, but the divisions in local society and politics have only become deeper. This monograph, still as a background draft for consultation, was published by the Burma Centrum Nederland in a “Rohingya Reader II” in October 1996. Scanned versions have also appeared on the Internet. This version is a 2017-generated document in PDF. The original text has been maintained, and there are no updates. It is intended that the text should be read in the context of the understandings and landscape of the Arakan-Bangladesh borderlands in 1995."
Author/creator: Martin Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Centrum Nederland, Author
Format/size: pdf (181K)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2018


Title: "Our Journey" - Voices from Arakan, Western Burma
Date of publication: May 1991
Description/subject: Introduction, map and 32 interviews with Arakanese (Rakhine) and Rohingya refugees and activists.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Sold down the river
Date of publication: March 1986
Description/subject: "BURMA’S MUSLIM BORDERLAND... Arakan State, in western Burma, was the scene in 1978 of a mass exodus of some 200,000 Muslims into Bangladesh. Though most of the refugees were subsequently allowed back, Muslims in Arakan still suffer harassment from the authorities. Martin Smith examines recent developments in Arakan, and the plethora of groups there opposing the central government."
Author/creator: Martin Smith
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Inside Asia" February-March 1986
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2018


Title: REPORT ON THE 1978-79 BANGLADESH REFUGEE RELIEF OPERATION
Date of publication: June 1979
Description/subject: "During the past year the problems of international refugees have received much coverage in the world press -most of it devoted to the Vietnamese "boat people" arriving on the shores of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian nations. Another refugee movement of almost equal magnitude in the area, however, has received little attention: the 200,000 Muslim refugees from Burma in Bangladesh. Some press coverage appeared in May and June, 1978, when tens of thousands of the Muslim minority community were pouring into Bangladesh from neighboring Burma. And the signing of an agreement between the two governments on July 9th, allowing the refugees to return, merited short articles in many papers. But from then on there was virtually no news for six and a half months until January 26, 1979, when the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva announced to the press that since June 1, 1978, more than 10,000 of the Burmese refugees had died in the Bangladesh camps. Between late March and mid-July, 1978, approximately 200,000 of the estimated 1,400,000 Bengali Muslims (called Rohingyas) living in the state of Arakan in north-western Burma fled into nearby Bangladesh. The roots of this mass exodus can evidently be traced to increased immigration from Bangladesh in recent years into this isolated area somewhat tenuously controlled by the central government of the Union of Burma, and to the apparent growth of a movement for the autonomy or independence of the Arakan among both the Buddhists and the Muslims of the area. While some of the Buddhist community wanted independence for the Arakan state, they were also afraid of absorption into Bangladesh..."
Author/creator: Alan C. Lindquist
Language: English
Format/size: html (95K)
Date of entry/update: 13 June 2003


Title: The Muslims of Burma - A Study of a Minority Group
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: CONTENTS: I. Muslims in Burma in the Days of the Kings... The Beginnings of Muslim Settlement in the Irrawaddy Valley... Muslim Settlement in Arakan... Why Burma Did Not Become Muslim ...... II. Muslims in Burma During British Rule: Immigration from India... Organizations of Muslim Immigrants from India.. Organizations of Burmese Muslims.... The Burma Moslem Society... The General Council of Burma Moslem Associations... The Renaissance Movement... The Japanese Occupation...... III. Muslims in Burma Since Independence: Structural Changes in the Muslim Community... The General Council of Burman Moslem Associations... The Burma Muslim Congress... The Burma Muslim Organization... The Indian Muslims after World War II... Religious Activities... The Arakanese Muslims...... IV. Conclusion: Major Aspects of Muslim Community Life...... Appendices: A. How Many Muslims Are There in Burma?... B. Legislation on Islamic Subjects ... C. Various Documents of the General Council of Burman Moslem Associations ... D. Muslim Press ... E. Persons Interviewed ... F. Burma Newspapers Consulted... Bibliography... Indices... Personal Names... Geographical Names... Institutions... Groups.
Author/creator: Moshe Yegar
Language: English
Source/publisher: NetIPR
Format/size: pdf (4.66MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2014


Title: Despatch on visit to Burma by Pakistan Foreign Minister: Problems of Arakan Muslims
Date of publication: 28 January 1964
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reducedn version; 6.01MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf'>http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf'>http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Bhutto-1964.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: The Mujahid Revolt in Arakan
Date of publication: 31 December 1952
Description/subject: British Records and Reminiscences: The Mujahid Revolt in Arakan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (97K-reduced version; 118K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/Pearn-1952-rev.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: A 1949 UK Foreign Office perspective on the troubles in Arakan
Date of publication: 26 January 1949
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.44MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Peter-Murray-1949.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: Burmese Outpost
Date of publication: 1945
Description/subject: Extract from Anthony Irwin's 'Burma Outpost' Arakan 1942
Author/creator: Anthony Irwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: Collins via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (807K-reduced version; 1.49MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/Extract-Irwin-rev.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: North Arakan and the Refounding of the Old Town 1944-45
Date of publication: 1945
Description/subject: Return to Arakan 1944-45: Memoirs of Robert Mole
Author/creator: Robert Mole
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pentland Books via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (64.7K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF12/robert-mole.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: The British Military Administration of North Arakan
Date of publication: 1943
Author/creator: Peter Murray
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.65MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF13/peter-murray-1980.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2015


Title: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: An Account of Indians in the 1931 Census, Chapter XII
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 2.67MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Date of publication: 1931
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Tables on Race and Language in the 1931 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (392K)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF16/1931-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Date of publication: 1921
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Chapter 11 on Race and Caste from the 1921 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.7MB-reduced version; 8.79MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF18/Censu...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract from the 1917 Gazetteer of Akyab (Sittwe + Maungdaw Districts)
Date of publication: 1917
Description/subject: British Gazeteers and Other Reports: Extract from the 1917 Gazetteer of Akyab (Sittwe + Maungdaw Districts): R B Smart
Author/creator: Mr. R. B. Smart
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma gazetteer, Volume A, Rangoon 1917 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (504K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 03 November 2015


Title: Extract from the 1912 Gazetteer of Sandoway (Thandwe): W B Tydd
Date of publication: 1912
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma gazetteer, Volume A, Rangoon 1917 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (578K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015


Title: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Indian, including seasonal migration, from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB-reduced version; 3.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Date of publication: 1911
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1911 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 2.85MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1911-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Date of publication: 1901
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Race from the 1901 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (579K-reduced version; 873K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF17/1901-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Arakan: Past-Present-Future: John Ogilvy Hay 1892
Date of publication: 1892
Author/creator: John Ogilvy Hay
Language: English
Source/publisher: Tribal Analysis Center via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.97MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015


Title: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Date of publication: 1891
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Religion from the 1891 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (366K-reduced version; 645K-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Date of publication: 1881
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extracts from the 1881 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 1.95MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF19/Extra...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: British Burma Gazetteer Vol II 1879 - Selected pages on Aykyab town and district
Date of publication: 1879
Description/subject: British Gazeteers and Other Reports: British Burma Gazetteer Vol II 1879 - Selected pages on Aykyab town and district
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Burma Gazetteer, Vol. II, Rangoon, 1879 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.80MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015


Title: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Date of publication: 1872
Description/subject: British Census Records and Reports 1872-1931: Extract on Arakan from the 1872 Census
Language: English
Source/publisher: British Foreign Office via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB-reduced version; 4.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-i...
https://web.archive.org/web/20161008134859/http://www.networkmyanmar.org/images/stories/PDF20/1872-...
Date of entry/update: 02 November 2015


Title: Political Incidents of the First Burmese War: TC Robertson
Date of publication: March 1853
Author/creator: Thomas Campbell Robertson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Richard Bentley, 1853 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015


Title: Account of Arakan: Lieut. Phayre Senior Assistant Commissioner
Date of publication: 1841
Description/subject: British Gazeteers and Other Reports: Account of Arakan: Lieut. Phayre Senior Assistant Commissioner - JAS Vol. 117 No. 33 - 1841
Author/creator: Lieut. Phayre
Language: English
Source/publisher: JAS Vol. 117 No. 33, 1841 via Network Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.62MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.networkmyanmar.org/index.php/rohingyamuslim-issues
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2015