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Home > Main Library > Human Rights > Labour Rights > Labour rights: reports of violations in Burma and the region > Forced Labour > ILO reports on forced labour in Burma

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ILO reports on forced labour in Burma
See also under International Labour Organisation

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: CEACR: Individual Observations Concerning ILO Convention No. 29, Forced Labour (1930) - Myanmar (ratification: 1955)
Description/subject: ILO Committee of Experts on the Applications of Standards and Recommendations: most years from 1991.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:3242334713187808::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:26981...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: On the Run - an army porter’s story of brutality and murder
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: "When the Burmese army hauled Naing Myint out of prison and forced him to become an ammunition porter on the frontline they actually did him a favor, opening the door to freedom. Naing Myint, a long-term prisoner, spent just two days humping ammunition before making a run for it..."
Author/creator: Shah Paung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2005


Title: ILC 2001, 89th Session: Discussion in Plenary
Date of publication: 21 June 2001
Description/subject: Discussion in Plenary of the report of the Committee on the Application of Standards, Part 3 of which is the report of the Special Sitting on Myanmar. The discussion includes some brief words on Burma, by the Reporter of the Committee, Ms Wiklund (Govt., Sweden), the Employer Delegate Mr Wisskirchen (Germany) and the Worker Delegate, Mr Cortebeek. The report also contains a statement by Mr Mya Than, the Myanmar Permanent Representative in Geneva. Scroll down for the references.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2001: Special sitting on forced labour in Myanmar (Provisional Record) plus supporting documents
Date of publication: 21 June 2001
Description/subject: Provisional Record 19 (Part 3). Committee on the Application of Standards. Special sitting concerning the application by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), in application of the resolution adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 88th (2000) Session. The document contains: A. Record of the discussion in the Committee on the Application of Standards; B.Observation of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations; C.Documents GB.280/6, and (Add. 1) and (Add. 2) under item 6 of the agenda of the Governing Body at its 280th Session (March 2001): "Developments concerning the question of the observance by theGovernment of Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)"; D. Provision minutes of the discussion of this item; E.Developments since the 280th Session of the Governing Body (March 2001): Arrangements for an objective assessment of the situation of forced labour following measures taken by the Myanmar Government.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc89/pdf/pr-19-3.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Forced Labour and Freedom of Association in Burma
Date of publication: 01 May 2001
Description/subject: in "Amnesty International's Concerns at the 89th International Labour Conference 5-21 June 2001, Geneva"
Language: English and Spanish
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR42/004/2001/en/f580f55f-d93b-11dd-ad8c-f3d4445c118e/ior4...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR42/004/2001/en/ff6e9d96-d93b-11dd-ad8c-f3d4445c118e/ior4... (Spanish)
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


Title: ILO Governing Body, 280th Session, March 2001: GB.280/6
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: Developments concerning the question of the observance by the Government of Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Responses from the ILO constituents (workers, governments and employers) and the rest of the international community to the measures adopted by the ILC in June 2000. Updates on forced labour from various sources, communcations between the ILO and the Government of Myanmar; Appendix 9 is the Observations of the CEACR (from November 2000).
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: PDF (214K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 280th Session, March 2001: GB.280/6 (Add.1)
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: Developments concerning the question of the observance by the Government of Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Additional communications received after GB.280/6 was finalized.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ILO
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 279th Session, November 2000: GB.279/6/1 (Add.2)
Date of publication: 15 November 2000
Description/subject: Various instructions from the Govt. of Myanmar prohibiting forced labour. Effect given by the Government of Myanmar to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar (Friday, 20 October-Thursday, 26 October 2000). Addendum. 1. The Office has received from the Government of Myanmar copies of a number of instructions mentioned in a communication dated 31 October 2000 from the Director-General of the Myanmar Department of Labour, excerpts of which are reproduced in Annex B of document GB.279/6/1(Add.1)(Rev.1). 2. These instructions are annexed...
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: PDF
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 279th Session, November 2000: GB.279/6/1
Date of publication: November 2000
Description/subject: Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar (Friday, 20 October-Thursday, 26 October 2000). Effect given by the Government of Myanmar to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar (Friday, 20 October-Thursday, 26 October 2000). 1. Origin of the mission. 1. In talks with the Permanent Representative of Myanmar, Ambassador U Mya Than, shortly after the conclusion of the 88th Session of the International Labour Conference, the Director-General emphasized the need for urgent action on the part of the Myanmar authorities to give effect as quickly as possible to the resolution adopted by the Conference at its 88th Session. He recalled that the resolution in question had authorized the Office to respond positively to all requests by Myanmar for assistance in attaining that goal. On 14 July, the Director-General followed up this conversation with a letter addressed to the Minister of Labour of Myanmar (Annex 1). 2. In an interim reply dated 7 August (Annex 2), the Minister of Labour, while expressing regret that the Conference had not chosen the path of cooperation to resolve the issue, stated that consultations were in progress in Yangon with a view to the adoption of a considered position. 3. On 8 September, the Director-General met the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Myanmar, Mr. Win Aung, at the United Nations Millennium Summit. During the meeting, the Director-General again emphasized the increasing urgency of action on the part of the Myanmar authorities to give effect to the Conference resolution, given that the next session of the Governing Body was only two months away, and recalled that such action was needed in the three main areas indicated in the resolution, namely legislative, executive and administrative measures. In the absence of any concrete action in those areas, the measures adopted by the Conference would take effect. The Minister assured the Director-General..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: PDF (233K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 279th Session, November 2000: GB.279/6/1(Add.1)(Rev.1)
Date of publication: November 2000
Description/subject: The chain of command in Myanmar; The document signed by Secretary-1; The communication of the Director-General of the Dept. of Labour. Effect given by the Government of Myanmar to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar (Friday, 20 October-Thursday, 26 October 2000) Addendum. 1. In paragraph 40 of its report, the mission indicated that following the announcement made by Secretary-1, new elements in the form of a document issued by the SPDC itself would probably be made available. 2. The Director-General on Friday, 3 November received a letter from the Minister of Labour which communicated the text of an instruction signed by Lieutenant-General Khin Nyunt in his capacity as Secretary-1 of the SPDC. In addition, in a separate communication addressed to the head of the mission, the Director-General of the Department of Labour specifies the measures adopted to ensure that forced labour is no longer imposed in practice. These communications are attached (Annexes A and B). 3. The following observations may assist the Governing Body in its assessment of the import of these new elements: (i) The chain of command in Myanmar 4. The highest authority in Myanmar is the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), which includes all military regional commanders and the chiefs of staff of the army, navy and air force, but does not include government ministers. Thus, the SPDC is the highest military authority and the highest civilian authority in the country. 5. Myanmar is divided into 14 administrative areas (7 States and 7 Divisions), which are further subdivided into districts, townships, and then village tracts (in rural areas) and...
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: PDF
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 279th Session, November 2000: GB.279/6/1(Add.3)
Date of publication: November 2000
Description/subject: "Communication from the Government of Myanmar. Effect given by the Government of Myanmar to the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar (Friday, 20 October-Thursday, 26 October 2000). Addendum. The Office has received from the Government of Myanmar the attached communication..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Labour Conference 2000
Date of publication: July 2000
Description/subject: (Useful overview and analysis) "Burma Debate" issue on ILC 2000: "Dancing with the Generals - The ILO Technical Cooperation Mission to Burma" (Mary Pack); Interviews with Lord Bill Brett, Mr. Rolf Thusing, H.E. Ambassador Asda Jayanama & Mr. Andrew Samet; ASEAN's ["alternative"] Proposal and the Compromise text - excerpts from the discussion in the Selection Committee; the text of the resolution and the result of the record vote.
Author/creator: Mary Pack
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" Vol. VII No. 1
Format/size: Spring/Summer issue. Undated, but probably July/August 2000
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmadebate.org/archives/bdspring00.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2000, 88th Session: Report of the Selection Committee
Date of publication: 09 June 2000
Description/subject: Provisional Record 6-4: Report of the Selection Committee. "Measures recommended by the Governing Body under article 33 of the Constitution – Implementation of recommendations contained in the report of the Commission of Inquiry entitled Forced Labour in Myanmar (Burma)". This is the key debate in the ILC adoption of the measures on Burma which have been widely interpreted as implying sanctions. The draft resolution (enclosed in the report) submitted by the Selection Committee was endorsed by the Conference Plenary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2000, 88th Session: Forced Labour in Myanmar (Burma). Background information and recommended action.
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Provisional Record 4: Measures recommended by the Governing Body under article 33 of the Constitution - Implementation of recommendations contained in the report of the Commission of Inquiry on forced labour in Myanmar (Burma)
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc88/pdf/pr-5.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2000, 88th Session: Myanmar - Discussion in Plenary, text of the resolution.
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Discussions in plenary, text of the resolution adopted and a link to the results of the record vote.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2000, 88th Session: Plenary, results of the record vote
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Vote on the resolution concerning the measures recommended by the Governing Body under Article 33 of the Constitution with respect to Myanmar. Record of the votes by the Government, Worker and Employer delegates. (For: 257; Against: 41; Abstentions: 31; Quorum: 271). By this resolution, the ILC adopted the measures widely interpreted as implying sanctions against Myanmar (to be triggered in November 2000 unless the Governing Body were satisfied that the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry had been adequately fulfilled. This did not occur, and the measures came into force on 30 November 2000).
Language: English, Francais, Espanol
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILC 2000, 88th Session: Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Provisional Record 8. Report of the ILO technical cooperation mission to Myanmar, 23-27 May 2000. The Mission's Conclusions (extract): "...Firstly, the mission believes that the Commission of Inquiry’s recommendations could be satisfied in a coherent and practical way if a comprehensive framework of legislative, executive, and administrative measures were adopted: i.rendering all practices constituting forced labour in the sense of Convention No. 29 illegal under national law, and ensuring that all legislative provisions in force that permit the imposition of forced labour are repealed or appropriately amended; ii.giving specific instructions to the state authorities, and notably to the responsible military authorities, regarding the consequences to be drawn from the above as regards the various forms of work mentioned in the Commission’s report, and monitoring their application, so that in practice no forced or compulsory labour is imposed by any authority; iii.informing the entire population adequately and completely about the above measures as well as the penalties applicable pursuant to section 374 of the Penal Code to all those imposing forced labour; and taking concrete action to ensure that these penalties are strictly applied in practice. Secondly, as the Myanmar authorities were told by the mission, the Office could certainly help formulate and implement such a framework if the Government’s commitment to take expeditious action to this effect was made sufficiently clear in the eyes of the Conference..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Alternate URLs: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc88/pdf/pr-8.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The 88th International Labour Conference
Date of publication: 01 May 2000
Description/subject: Document - "International Labour Organization: AI's concerns at the 88th international Labour conference" ..... Amnesty International's concerns relevant to the Committee on Application of Standards
Language: English (French and Spanish also available)
Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR42/001/2000/en/91a7a8f7-df4e-11dd-89a6-e712e728ac9e/ior4...
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR42/001/2000/en/a772bb5d-df4e-11dd-89a6-e712e728ac9e/ior4... (French)
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/IOR42/001/2000/en/ba59c031-df4e-11dd-89a6-e712e728ac9e/ior4... (Spanish)
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


Title: ILO Director-General: Second report to the Governing Body (Addendum)
Date of publication: 23 March 2000
Description/subject: Letter to the Director-General of the International Labour Office from the Director-General of the Department of Labour of the Government of Myanmar, dated 20 March 2000
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 277th Session, March 2000: GB.277/6
Date of publication: March 2000
Description/subject: Measures, including action under Article 33 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization, to secure compliance by the Government of Myanmar with the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) A. Information available on measures taken by the Government of Myanmar following the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, and action taken in this regard within the ILO since the 276th Session (November 1999) of the Governing Body. B. Measures that may be recommended by the Governing Body to the International Labour Conference for their possible adoption under article 33 of the Constitution
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 277th Session, March 2000: GB.277/6(Add.1)
Date of publication: March 2000
Description/subject: Draft resolution addressed to the Conference. Measures, including action under Article 33 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization, to secure compliance by the Government of Myanmar with the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Director-General: Second Report to the Governing Body
Date of publication: 25 February 2000
Description/subject: Second report of the Director-General to the members of the Governing Body on measures taken by the Government of Myanmar following the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine its observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Contents: Introduction; I. Amendment of legislation; II. Measures to stop the exaction in practice of forced or compulsory labour and information available on actual practice; A. Measures to stop the exaction in practice of forced or compulsory labour. B. Information available on actual practice;(1) Communications from the Government; (2) Findings of the CEACR; (3) Information received upon my request of December 1999; General observations; Forms of labour and services requisitioned: (a) Portering, military camp work and other work in support of the military: (b) Work on agricultural and other production projects; (c) Construction and maintenance of roads, railways, bridges and other infrastructure work. III. Punishment of those imposing forced labour. Final observations: Appendix I. CEACR observation. Appendix II. Letter from the Government of Myanmar dated 21 January 2000.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: PDF (174 K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 276th Session, November 1999: GB.276/6
Date of publication: November 1999
Description/subject: Measures, including action under article 33 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization, to secure compliance by the Government of Myanmar with the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). I. Information available on measures taken by the Government of Myanmar following the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry, and action taken in this regard within the ILO since March 1999. II. Measures that may be considered by the Governing Body
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: One Foot Out the Door? -- Report of the International Labour Organization
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: This June,in an extreme move by the International Labour Organization ILO, a resolution was passed that prohibits one of its member countries, Burma, from receiving technical cooperation and assistance from the ILO or attending its meetings, symposia or seminars... .
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmadebate.org/archives/summer99bttm.html#report
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Director-General's Report, May 1999
Date of publication: 21 May 1999
Description/subject: Report of the Director-General to the members of the Governing Body on Measures taken by the Government of Myanmar following the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine its observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 274th Session, March 1999: GB.274/5
Date of publication: March 1999
Description/subject: Measures taken by the Government of Myanmar to implement the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry established to examine the complaint concerning its observance of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Forced Labour in Myanmar (Burma)
Date of publication: 02 July 1998
Description/subject: "Report of the Commission of Inquiry appointed under article 26 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization to examine the observance by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)"...Full Text (about 400 pages) The central ILO report on forced labour in Burma. Appendix III contains 246 interviews, largely with people from non-Burman ethnic groups - Chin, Rohingya, Arakanese, Karen, Karenni, Shan, Pa-O, Mon. The interviews cover forced labour, but also many other violations of human rights such as killings (executions), rape, torture, looting, forced relocation (forced displacement) violence against women, violence against children, looting. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Format/size: Main link (html by section); 2nd html link, complete text - for searching online (1800K); Word - for download (2010K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/myanmar-OBL.htm
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/myanmar-COI-OBL.doc
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: ILO Governing Body, 267th Session, November 1996: GB.267/16/2
Date of publication: November 1996
Description/subject: Complaint concerning the non-observance by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), made by delegates to the 83rd (1996) Session of the Conference under article 26 of the Constitution of the ILO.
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Labour Office
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003