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Education in Burma/Myanmar - general

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Title: "Myanmar Times" Special Feature on Education (2015)
Date of publication: 18 May 2015
Description/subject: 15 articles on education in Burma/Myanmar: "The ‘missing million’: Fewer than one in five graduate high school" By Stuart Alan Becker - "A groundbreaking multi-year education review cites ‘lack of interest’ as primary reason for dropouts, confirms need for sector reform..." "The high cost of ‘free’ ed" By Mya Kay Khine - "The recently approved decision to offer free high-school education is the last of a three-prong lifting of fees for the country’s roughly 8 million state school students..." "VOXPOP: What’s ahead for your child?" By Nay Zaw Aung Win. "U Tin Aung, 49, Tarmwe - My son is in the third year of secondary school at MLA International School..." "University application process to be reformed" By May Thinzar Naing - "Proposed overhaul of the university entrance process will mean less focus on matriculation scores and more on self-directed applications by students..." "International school fees to rise: What’s driving the price?" By Michelle Schaner - "The majority of international schools in Yangon expect to hike tuition in the 2015-2016 academic year by an additional 9 percent on average, citing devaluation of the local currency and the high cost of living – particularly the cost of housing for staff and teachers..." "Draft law in works for international schools" By Shwe Yee Saw Myint - "Until it passes, however, the legal status of international schools will remain difficult to pin down, despite their rapidly growing numbers..." "Better skills in a land of entrepreneurs" By Rupin Mahiyaria - "Peace in Kayin means fewer economic migrants to Thailand – and more opportunity to educate those at home, writes LIFT’s Rupin Mahiyaria..." ‘Living heritage’ By Cherry Thein - "With royal patronage long gone, state support for young artists, dancers and musicians today falls to a handful of arts schools..." ‘If we buy a dozen it’s cheaper’ By Myat Noe Oo - "Nothing offsets the sting of a new school year like the promise of new pencils and paper – not to mention pens, highlighters, soft pens, erasers, liquid correction fluid, notebooks, and, if you’re lucky, maybe a few stickers to decorate your pages too..." "Pioneering classrooms" By Ewan Cameron - "With their focus on development and community involvement, non-profit civil-society educators aren’t just filling gaps, writes Ewan Cameron – they’re rethinking how education should work..." "For Chin dialects, a long road back to the classroom" By Bill O’Toole - "Walking around Falam, the former capital of Chin State, a person can expect to hear no less than eight different Chin dialects widely spoken around town..." "Charting the rise of English tutors" - By Alasdair Macmillan "The recent history of English tutoring in Yangon started in the 1950s, when Monica Mya Maung, affectionately known as Aunty Monica to those who knew her well, started tutoring Myanmar people to speak English well..." "Lining up for private schools" By Phyo Wai Kyaw - "Since their reintroduction three years ago, private schools have been a hit..." ‘Completely outdated’ By Myo Lwin - "Clinical psychologist Dr Nyi Win Hman speaks to MT editor Myo Lwin by email from Australia..." "For those who aspire to study abroad" By San Tun Aung - "Having earned a university degree at home followed by two abroad – all three under scholarship – San Tun Aung offers advice to those looking to make their way in the educational world."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Education Myanmar: Investing in the Future
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: "A Myanmar Times special feature - January 2010"...Studying Abroad - How to apply and win a place at a prestigious university...Education sector is flourishing in 2010 - Students enjoy a multitude of study, learning options...Dubious agents entice students short of visa...Students voice concerns about studying in Aus...Garden school sews new hope...Music facilitates learning where it’s most needed...Pre-schools boom in Mandalay...Professionals choose MBAs...Manage your resources...Spanking habits die hard...Where to study and how...Malaysia and Singapore compete for young brains...Monastic education...Harvard imparts its wisdom...Scholars be [prepared?- line missing]...A strong CV can catapult your career...International students share their [experience? - line missing]
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB - OBL version; 2,51MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://mmtimes.com/2010/feature/507/eduaction.pdf
Date of entry/update: 24 September 2011


Title: "BurmaNet News" Education archive
Language: English
Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


Title: Education in Burma (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: Contents: 1 History 2 Uniform 3 Preschool and kindergarten 4 Primary education 5 Secondary education 6 Tertiary education 7 References 8 External links
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


Title: International Institute for Educational Planning (UNESCO)
Description/subject: 9 links to Myanmar reports and other material, 1999-2013
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Institute for Educational Planning
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2014


Title: MIMU Education Sector
Description/subject: "Education helps children to fulfil their potential and is critical to all aspects of socio-economic development. However, it is estimated that over one million children are still out of school in Myanmar due to poverty, geographical remoteness, disability, language, conflict and other barriers. Myanmar’s Government is leading the process of national education reform. A Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR) has been informing new policy and planning, and a National Education Sector Plan (NESP) is being developed to define the strategic directions of the reform process and to guide its implementation..."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: MIMU
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Network Myanmar's Education page
Description/subject: Current focus (November 2011) on private schools in Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


Title: Results of a Google search for Education Burma OR Myanmar
Description/subject: 217,000 hits (June 2014)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2014


Title: Search Results on MIMU (Myanmar Information Management Unit)
Description/subject: With links to educational related reports.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Information Management Unit
Date of entry/update: 27 September 2014


Title: UNESCO Myanmar page
Description/subject: Links to Myanmar: Profile of Education... National Reports... IBEDOCS Resources... Links... WEBSITES Country Information (UNESCO) Education Statistics (UIS) Education Plans and Policies (IIEP) - See more at: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/worldwide/unesco-regions/asia-and-the-pacific/myanmar.html#sthash.FVpYsVVb.dpuf
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 April 2008


Individual Documents

Title: The critical thinking gap
Date of publication: 10 September 2015
Description/subject: "Myanmar needs to replace an education system that wants children to answer questions but not ask them with one that encourages analytical thinking and intellectual stimulation..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Frontier Myanmar"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 August 2016


Title: Making knowledge count
Date of publication: 17 August 2015
Description/subject: "Academic discussions sometimes get a bad rap. They are deemed tedious, even irrelevant, with unfocussed rambling on topics of only minor concern... The Myanmar people will want to see how academic ideas can be made useful in their lives. Such research is often best when it focuses on long-term considerations and the types of problems, like natural disasters, that cannot fit into daily news coverage. With good planning, Myanmar could create for itself an enviable array of knowledge that helps to secure its future. After the next election, making decisions about research priorities for the years ahead should be high on the agenda for Myanmar’s new government."
Author/creator: Nicholas Farrelly
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 25 August 2015


Title: INGOs Cannot Reach Lahu Areas and the Needs of the Lahu People
Date of publication: 30 July 2015
Description/subject: "Kyar Yin Shell is a 26-year-old young man from Kengtung, the ‘dark and dirty’ capital city of eastern Salween in the Shan State. While Kengtung has not seen civil war for over two decades, development is non-existent and electricity scarce. Kyar Yin Shell is Lahu, a little known ethnic group that lives scattered around the mountains of Burma, China, Laos, and Thailand. As most Lahu people, Kyar Yin Shell grew up in a village, but unlike many others he was lucky enough to go to school. As a teenager, hard-working Kyar Yin Shell had great hopes for his future until it all seems to end one day; wrong medical treatment left Kyar Yin Shell paralyzed. Kyar Yin Shell lost all hope for his future and like so many others in the Shan State, he became addicted to drugs. During those dark times, Kyar Yin Shell could never have known that he would not only survive and learn to live with his disability, but work actively for his people and travel overseas to represent his country. Kyar Yin Shell’s story shows how much life can surprise you. If you take the chance."...See the Alternate link for part 2.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalink.org/part-2-create-problems-lahu-ethnicities/
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2016


Title: A Study of Contemporary Trends and Challenges of English Language Teaching in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This article details a mixed methods study conducted during the 2015 academic year at Mandalay University, Department of English in Mandalay Myanmar. It con tributes to discourse examining contemporary patterns and challenges of English language education. Methodology from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was systematically combined. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 70 participants and ten focus group interviews were conducted with 33 participants. A second set of participants included university students from institutions in the Mandalay region. Results suggest that English language teaching in Myanmar mirrors other Asian contexts in terms of the rising influence of globalization for English teaching, a concern for teachers' English proficiency, and the disconnect between policy and practice. Teacher confidence, disconnect between curriculum and preparation of students; low salary, overreliance on the transmission model, and large class size were also reported as challenges. Recommendations call for steps toward a foundation of reflective practice using action research as a starting point and secondly to encourage English language educators representative of the creative class, defined by Florida (2002) to align as a public group of professionals. Future research should examine the elements that make English an important language in the Myanmar context and based on this, consider what concept of English, what variety of English, and what methodologies of English language teaching are most productive for Myanmar as a nation in transition.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thandar Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (344K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: An Overview of Higher Education Reform In Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The Education Reform especially in Higher Education has been started since 2011 when the shift of power from the military regime to the democratic one. Higher Education Institutes are governed mainly by the Minister of Education and other various Ministries. However, there is no much collaboration and coordination among Ministries. Moreover, the published policy or development plan which presents an overall strategy on higher education sector development is not formulated. There are some critical issues that the university sector that is serving only for elite students, in a country where the diversity of ethnicity, religion, language, and disabilities is challenging the state provision of education,moreover, in particular, language remains a dynamite issue in Myanmar. In Myanmar, there is also other financial challenge in Higher Education like the salaries of teachers and academics which leads to the negative consequence. Curriculum development is one of the considerable issues to be taken action. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Higher Education Reform in Myanmar. This involved a detailed analysis of Higher Education Law, the system of administration, finance, and an example of recent change. A key question that emerged from the paper was what are the drawbacks and whether the recent change could lead to the development of Higher Education. This paper provides an initial attempt to analyze Higher Education Law and National Education Law and then leads to examining the extent to how much effective roles can the different actors take in educational changes and fits different complex educational changes by testing it out in the light of research studies of educational reform found largely, but not exclusively, within Myanmar. Moreover, this paper will compare the standard of curriculum and testing system with international Higher Education system. This paper will, first, presents the overview of Higher Education in Myanmar and combined with the model of complex educational change derived from the earlier study. Finally, conclusions will be drawn providing recommendations regarding the question of effectiveness and the development of Myanmar".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Po Po Thaung Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (459K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Educational Development In A Changing Burma: The Future Of Children Of Migrant Labourers Returning From Thailand To Burma
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper presents the findings of a research study that investigated the level of education that the children of labor migrants from Burma now living in Chiang Mai, Thailand can access to as well as looking at the possibility and different channels for their further education should their parents decide to return to Burma. The focus of the study concentrates on four different ethnic groups, Karen, Karenni, Palaung and Shan by looking at children from the age between 4-13 years old to identify factors that are involved when these migrant children move back to Burma. At the same time, for many children who spent most of their lives in Thailand, it is interesting to see the possibilities and challenges for them in relating to accessing to education since Burma is a new home for many of them. Therefore, it is also interesting to see how the Burma government as well as the Thai education system will respond to this issue of educational development in the changing economic and democratic processes of these countries.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sutthida Keereepaibool
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (18K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report: 2000-2015: achievements and challenges
Date of publication: 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The 2015 EFA Global Monitoring Report provides a complete assessment of progress towards the Education for All goals established in 2000 at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal. The report takes stock of whether the world achieved the EFA goals and whether EFA partners upheld their commitments. It also explains possible determinants of the pace of progress and identifies key lessons for shaping a post-2015 global education agenda..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO via Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU)
Format/size: pdf (6.78MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.themimu.info/sector/education
Date of entry/update: 01 October 2015


Title: Myanmar’s academic ambitions
Date of publication: 26 November 2013
Description/subject: "In the 1980s Pyone Myat Thu’s family of academics left Burma for a better life. Now in the face of massive reform, the ANU postdoctoral fellow argues that education is the key to unlocking the country’s vast potential. And she also has some ideas on how the Burmese diaspora, spread across the four corners of the globe, can use their own education to help drive change in the county. Writing for the ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, Pyone notes that in the wake of the nation-wide student uprisings in August 1988, schools, technical colleges and tertiary institutions were closed leaving the education sector neglected “for as long as anyone cares to remember."..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2014


Title: World Data on Education: Myanmar educaiton
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "...National authorities have identified sixteen political, economic and social objectives as the basis on which all policy decisions should be made. The four national social objectives are: uplift of the morale and morality of the nation; uplift of national prestige, integrity, preservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage and national character; uplift of dynamism of patriotic spirit; and uplift of health, fitness and educational standards of the nation. The main educational goals are to: enable every individual to acquire basic education...base education on the rising of moral standards; ...develop the knowledge, including scientific and technical know-how, needed for nation building...train technicians, skilled workers and proficient intellectuals with practical knowledge who are loyal to the State a nd will contribute to nation-building endeavours...train the citizens so that they will achieve all-round development...allow all those who possess the intellectual ability, caliber and industriousness to acquire university education."...
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO & IBE
Format/size: pdf (330.78KB)
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2014


Title: 2010 Myanmar: Evaluation of UNICEF Education Programme - Improving Access to Quality Basic Education in Myanmar (2006-2010)
Date of publication: 2010
Description/subject: Purpose/ Objective: "The main purpose of this evaluation of the UNICEF Education Programme in Myanmar 2006-2010 is to assess its performance in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and suggest any needed modifications for further programming. The evaluation report attempts to identify key lessons learned and good practices documented through delivering the project interventions, as well as to suggest future directions that would contribute to the design and development of a second phase of multi-donor support from 2011."
Author/creator: David J Clarke
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2015


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: Use the main link to access a version containing hyperlinks to individual chapters.... PREFACE: "The year 2007 represented a turbulent year in the history of Burma. It was a year in which we witnessed people from all walks of life coming together in the largest public display of dissatisfaction with the military regime in almost 20 years. Regrettably, it was also a year in which we witnessed the brutal and bloody crackdown on those peaceful protests, including the unforgivable and unforgettable attacks on and killings of Buddhist monks. In reference to the colour of the robes worn by the monks, the international media named this peaceful mass movement the “Saffron Revolution”. These protests represented the biggest demonstrations conducted in Burma since the popular democratic uprising of 8.8.88.... Responding to the brutality visited upon the protestors and dedicated to the memory of the monks and laypersons who lost their lives during the Saffron Revolution, late in the year, the Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) commenced work on a report documenting the events leading up to, during, and following the September protests. This comprehensive report, entitled: Bullets in the Alms Bowl: An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, was based on over 50 eyewitness testimonies to the protests who had fled the country following the crackdowns as well as information gathered by a team of researchers working clandestinely within Burma. The situation of human rights in Burma largely disappeared from the international limelight for about a year during the transition from UN Human Rights Commission into UN Human Rights Council in 2006. Meanwhile, human rights violations in Burma continued unabated without the notice of the new UN Human Rights Council. It was not until images of the brutality visited upon the participants of the Saffron Revolution were broadcast worldwide by local and international media that the Council was compelled to act and convened a Special Session on 2 October 2007, thus bringing the human rights situation in Burma back onto agenda again.... The year 2007 also witnessed the first time in almost four years in which the regime had permitted the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation on Human Rights in Burma, Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, to return to the country. However, by his own admission, little was accomplished in what was to become his final visit to the country in his role in the mandate. Professor Pinheiro resigned as the Special Rapporteur on Burma in early 2008. Perhaps reflecting some of the frustration associated with the mandate, in his final report to the UN Human Rights Council, Pinheiro stated that the systematic and widespread human rights violations that have continued to be committed in Burma “are not simply isolated acts of individual misconduct by middle- or low-ranking officers, but rather the result of a system under which individuals and groups have been allowed to breach the law and violate human rights without being called to account”.... The consistent non-compliance of the Burmese military regime to the 30 consecutive resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly and UN Human Rights Council (previously Commission) undermines the credibility of the UN system and the prevalence of international law. However, since the international community bore witness to the ruthless crackdown on the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, we have heard the voices of increasingly more of the world’s respectable citizens and leading human rights advocates advocating for international intervention from the perspective of the Responsibility to Protect principle.... The systematic and widespread perpetration of rape and sexual violence against women, enslavement (forced labour), religious persecution and torture in combination of the litany of other human rights abuses being committed in Burma with near complete impunity constitute crimes against humanity according to Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court....The Burmese Generals should no longer be permitted to hide behind the wall of national sovereignty as they have done so for years. It is time for the United Nations and the international community to draw the legal conclusion that the human rights violations being committed in Burma are tantamount to crimes against humanity and that the SPDC’s leaders must be held to account for these crimes...."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: pdf (8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU2007.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2008


Title: Evolving Education in Myanmar: the interplay of state, business and the community
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: The deterioration of Myanmar’s education system underlies the low economic growth of the country. The economic side of Myanmar’s education story is not one that is hard to tell. As Lorch has stated, civil society has jumped in where possible, but without managing to replace the State in any significant way. One particular section of civil society, the private sector, has used this business opportunity to turn education into a private and profitable good. The interesting fact is that the increased private schooling is fuelling the gap in Myanmar’s authoritarian logic. The regime has let institutions decay and has not provided the resources needed to build a strong state education system. This is a short-sighted tactic, as it in effect loosens the regime’s control over society. The private sector’s education aims are profit, but they achieve this by encouraging an education system meant largely to help children leave Myanmar and study abroad. Currently, education in English is the most desirable education parents can acquire for their children. As this trend continues, the regime is allowing a condition that increases the absence of its legitimacy, because it equates good education with foreign education. This problem goes beyond civil society simply patching up an inadequate or insufficient social structure.
Author/creator: Marie Lall
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (152K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: Much remains to be done to restore Myanmar education to its former high standards. In order to achieve this, a holistic approach to education must be taken. The focus should be not only on formal education, but on informal education. Informal education via the mass media and popular literature is often forgotten when discussing education issues. It is highly effective in educating the general populace about social problems such as drug addiction, sexually transmitted diseases and the existence and spread of HIV/AIDS. In such a holistic 123 Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options approach, the needs and inputs of the major education stakeholders must be considered within the contexts of home and community and school and community. Religion and the policy environment will also influence the outcome of the education process. Finally, Myanmar education will improve only when the education and training of its young improves. Their education should be carefully planned and mapped out. This chapter has identified the various stages in the education of a child and the development of its behaviour at which interventions could be made to establish habits of thoughtfulness, emotional discipline, self-management and conflict resolution. Only with such interventions will an evolutionary process begin in the mind-set of the population, making it possible for change to occur. Underpinning all this is a need for generational change, which will transform the psyche of the whole nation and enable its society to move away from a dominator type towards a more liberal and freer one.
Author/creator: Han Tin
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: January 2008
Description/subject: Conclusion: "The picture of civil-society initiatives in the Burmese/Myanmar education sector is diverse and multifaceted. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify some general trends: first, there are quite a lot of community-based initiatives in the education sector in the broadest sense. Most of these community-based groups, however, cannot engage in education directly. Instead, they are confined to education support activities such as the construction of school buildings or the collection of donations to pay for village teachers’ salaries. Second, there is a number—but definitely a small number—of civil-society groups that can engage in education more directly. Most of these apply informal, community-based approaches to teaching, whereas so far only a few groups have managed to become involved in formal education and been allowed to teach the government curriculum. Among the groups that are able to engage in formal education, monastic schools are undoubtedly the most prominent. Third, most educational initiatives that are aimed at children take place at the primary or even at the pre-primary level. While there are some at the middle-school level, only a handful exists at the high-school level. There are, however, also several educational initiatives for 169 The (re)-emergence of civil society in areas of state weakness: the case of education in Burma/Myanmar (young) adults in the sectors of vocational skills training and capacity building. Fourth, civil-society organisations active in the education sector often serve multiple social functions and, apart from education, many of them provide other welfare services as well. Education is often broadly understood to include (preventive) health education and general capacity building. Fifth, even though the number of civil-society initiatives in the education sector has been increasing during the past few years, the government is still extremely suspicious of all educational activities conducted by non-state actors. As a consequence, private education has not so far been legally provided for, and the majority of the civil-society groups that are active in the education sector cannot register with the MOE. As a makeshift solution, some of them have chosen to register with the MSW or the MRA. This leads us to the last but perhaps the most important point: most civil society-based educational initiatives take place under religious or ethnic umbrellas, such as Buddhist monasteries, Christian churches and ethnic CLCs. This last point has broader implications: in present-day Burma/Myanmar, various secular, religious and ethnic (cultural) education systems—all of which promote different life models—coexist. In some cases, the boundaries between these various education and life models seem to be quite clear-cut. Some Buddhist monastic schools teach only the Dhamma,30 some Christian missionaries preach only the Gospels and some CLCs focus solely on the preservation of their ethnic cultural heritage; and, above all, there is a highly authoritarian state, which is still largely reluctant to accept the existence of an independent civil society and the alternative education systems it provides. There are, however, also cases where the boundaries between religious and ethnic (cultural) education on the one hand, and secular/non-cultural education on the other, are rather blurred. Traditional religious and ethnic cultural groups that predate the modern national education system have re-emerged and increasingly engage in secular, non-cultural and, in some rare cases, even formal education as well. New actors such as NGOs have also entered the scene. The rigidity of the regime’s educational policies certainly does not reflect the reality on the ground. Instead of providing an enabling legal framework for private education, however, the regime still seeks mostly to either suppress or coopt alternative civil society-based education systems. Cooption of formerly independent groups thus constitutes another, negative form of the blurring of the lines between civil society-based and state-run education..."
Author/creator: Jasmin Lorch
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (170K)
Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


Title: Armut im Land der Goldenen Pagoden. Soziale Sicherheit, Gesundheit und Bildung in Burma; Focus Asien Nr. 26
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: In den letzten Jahren häufen sich die Meldungen über die kritische humanitäre Situation in Burma. Die sozialen Indikatoren Sterblichkeitsraten, Bildungsindikatoren, Verbreitung von typischen Armutskrankheiten wie Malaria und Tuberkulose, die alarmierende Verbreitung von HIV/AIDS - zeichnen ein düsteres Bild über den Zustand des Landes, wobei es große regionale und gesellschaftliche Unterschiede gibt. Die Broschüre gibt Einblicke in die Bereiche Gesundheits- und Bildungswesen in Burma, wobei Erfahrungen aus der praktischen Arbeit von Hilfsorganisationen dargestellt werden. Neben Vorstellungen vom Wohlfahrtsstaat werden darüber hinaus die Situation burmesischer Migrant/innen in Thailand beleuchtet, die Auswirkungen des Opiumbanns auf die Bevölkerung der Wa-Sonderregion untersucht und Chancen und Risiken humanitärer Hilfe diskutiert. Inhalt: Ulrike Bey: Armut im „Land der Goldenen Pagoden“; Marco Bünte: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar – Ein Überblick; Hans-Bernd Zöllner: Der Traum vom budhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat; Tankred Stöbe: Das Gesundheitssystem in Burma/Myanmar unter Ausschluss der ethnischen Minderheiten?; Brenda Belak: Der Zugang zur medizinischen Versorgung; Johannes Achilles: Das Bildungswesen in Birma/Myanmar – Erfahrungen zum Engagement im Bildungsbereich; Ulrike Bey: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit; Michael Tröster: Die Wa in Gefahr. Nach dem Opiumbann droht in der Special Region eine humaitäre Katastrophe; Jackie Pollock: Die Lebensqualität von Migrant/innen in Thailand; Jasmin Lorch: Der Rückzug des UN Global Fund aus Burma; Alle Artikel dieses Bandes sind außerdem noch separat verlinkt. keywords: social security, health, education, humanitarian aid, migration, opium ban
Author/creator: Ulrike Bey (Hrsg.)
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Format/size: pdf 970k
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Das Bildungswesen in Birma/Myanmar - Erfahrungen zum Engagement im Bildungsbereich. Oder: Birma, "Krieg gegen die Bildung" und "Ideen werden getötet"
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Zustand des Bildungswesens; Grundschulen, Universitäten; Blindenschule keywords: education, university, humanitarian organisation, school for the blind
Author/creator: Johannes Achilles
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 31-36
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Dimensionen sozialer Probleme in Myanmar - Ein Ãœberblick
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Armut in Myanmar; Die Situation im Gesundheitswesen; Die AIDS-Problematik; Das Bildungssystem keywords: poverty, health system, HIV/AIDS, education, social problems
Author/creator: Marco Bünte
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 9-14
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Armutsreduzierung und die Stärkung der Position von Frauen hängen in vielerlei Hinsicht zusammen. In Burma, so heißt es im Allgemeinen, nehmen die Frauen eine angesehene und respektierte Rolle in der Gesellschaft ein. In der Kombination mit Armut, Gewalt oder kulturellen Werten werden jedoch Diskriminierungen und Ungleichheiten sichtbar. Die meisten Gesundheitsprobleme, denen sich Frauen ausgesetzt sehen, sind auf schlechte Lebensbedingungen zurückzuführen. keywords: women, health, education, prostitution, HIV/AIDS, family planning
Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26, S. 37-43
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: GRANDIR SOUS LA DICTATURE BIRMANE
Date of publication: August 2003
Description/subject: "Ce rapport se concentre sur la situation des enfants birmans en Birmanie et dans leur principal pays d’exil, la Thaïlande. Il fait suite à deux voyages effectués en Thaïlande et en Birmanie pour y rencontrer des dizaines d’intervenants dans le domaine de l’enfance : parents, enfants, enseignants, médecins, syndicats, ONG, etc. Nous avons aussi eu l’occasion, tant en Birmanie qu’en Thaïlande, de visiter plusieurs hôpitaux, écoles et usines où travaillent des enfants. La plupart de nos interlocuteurs ont demandé de ne pas les citer nommément dans ce rapport car ils craignent pour leur sécurité. Nous les remercions tous pour le temps qu’ils ont bien voulu nous accorder, avec une reconnaissance toute particulière pour les personnes qui, en Birmanie même, ont pris des risques pour nous montrer la réalité de leur pays."
Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Confederation International des syndicats libres (CISL)
Format/size: pdf (112K)
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: GROWING UP UNDER THE BURMESE DICTATORSHIP
Date of publication: August 2003
Description/subject: The situation facing children after 41 years of military rule in Burma... Some facts and figures on Burma; Historical background: 41 years of dictatorship; Standard of living in Burma; Children in Burma: 1) Education; 2) Child labour; 3) Forced child labour 18; 4) Health 19: Burmese children in Thailand; 1) Burmese people in Thailand; 2) Education of Burmese children in Thailand; 3) Child labour; 4) Health; Burmese children in Bangladesh; Conclusions.
Author/creator: Samuel Grumiau
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
Format/size: pdf (216K)
Date of entry/update: 23 August 2003


Title: Hard Lessons
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: "Falling standards and the culture of fear have crippled Burma’s education system and the country’s future...Schools and universities in Burma require sweeping reform to promote a more equitable, multi-ethnic and multicultural society... Clearly, the regime ... can continue to promote a culture of fear and watch the complete disintegration of the country’s education system, or it can recognize that future national development will stand a better chance with genuine investments in the education of Burma’s youth today."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 11, No 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: Learning in a Democracy
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: "Burma’s long-term prospects for a successful transition to democracy will depend more on educational change than "regime change... With the dialogue between the ruling regime and the democratic opposition once again deadlocked, many people are thinking that Burma is due for an Iraq-style "regime change." Regardless of the manner in which political change comes to the country, however, the initial period of reconstruction following the establishment of democracy will be especially challenging for educators. The success of Burma’s efforts to reestablish itself as a democratic nation will depend largely on its capacity to introduce sweeping educational reforms—from the classroom to the state level..."
Author/creator: Dr Thein Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


Title: Education Report 2002
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: 1. Introduction; 2. Free education in Primary Level: 2.1. Main cause of students' dropout rate in Primary Level Education; 2.2. Government Obligation; 2.3. Evaluation on the works of International Organizations and governments in Primary level Education; 2.4. Child Solider and Child Labor; 2.5. Summary... 3. Rights of Education: 3.1. Right of Education under present socio economic systems; 3.2. Gender Inequality in the System; 3.3. Systematic suppression of students in fear of student unrests; 3.4. Rights of Minority people in Education; 3.5. Student Political Prisoners; 3.6. Alternative Education; 3.7. Summary... 4. Curriculum: 4.1. Influence of government political goals and policies; 4.2. Participation of Teachers and Education Professionals in the Curriculum Drafting; Process; 4.3. Summary... 5. Student Perception on Education and Ethical Concerns: 5.1. Perceptions of Students on Present Education System; 5.2. Relying on private tuitions; 5.3. Corruption in the System; 5.4. Summary... 6. Teaching and Learning System: 6.1. Lacks of Student Participation in Classroom Lectures; 6.2. Creating Thinking for Students; 6.3. Quality of Teachers; 6.4. Insufficient Learning Materials and Resources; 6.5. Continuous Assessment and Progress System (CAPS); 6.6. Summary... 7. Student Rights: 7.1. Freedom of Expression; 7.2. Freedom of Association; 7.3. Other Student Rights; 7.4. Summary... 8. Widening Gap between Civilian and Military Education: 9. Academic Freedom; 9.1. Censorship of Academic Publication; 9.2. Political Interference in Academia; 9.3. Freedom of Speech; 9.4. Institutional Academic Freedom; 9.5. Summary... 10. Information Technology: 10.1. Introduction; 10.2. General Criterion; 10.3. E-education; 10.4. Opportunities to use IT; 10.5. IT Related Vocational Training; 10.6. Internet Access; 10.7. Summary... 11. Conclusion... Appendix: list of institutes of higher education in Burma... Bibliography.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foreign Affairs Committee, All Burma Federation of Student Unions (ABFSU)
Format/size: pdf (248K) 81 pages
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights to Education and Health
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: Situation of Education: Partial Re-opening of Universities; Closure of Dagon and Rangoon Cultural University; No Housing for Students at Pa-an college; Technical Institute moved to remote areas and tuition too high for most students; Quality Higher Education Lost for a Generation of Students; Disparity Between Civilian and Military Education... Situation of Health: HIV/AIDS; SPDC Ministry of Health Data on HIV (also see chapter on Women); HIV Prevalence Rates Among Injecting Drug Users; Mental Health; Prisoners' Health; Health Related INGOs Working in Burma; Health Situation in Border/Conflict Areas; Health situation in relocation sites; Health situation for villagers in hiding villages; Health Situation in Toungoo District, Karen State; Epidemic Kills thousands in Maung Yawn; Villagers forced to pay for UNICEF provisions; Families forced to buy health care cards for mothers and children to support military fund; Bribes demanded to attend Nurse Training; Lack of medicine among SPDC soldiers; Shortage of Medicine and Importation of Counterfeit Medicine in Karenni State... Personal Account.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Ri9ghts Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 May 2005


Title: The Educational Cost of Army Rule in Burma
Date of publication: 27 September 2000
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper deals with the educational cost of army rule in Burma in at least four respects. First, there is a lack of access to education due to years of neglect regarding compulsory basic education. Second, the school curriculum fails to promote skills, which are needed for the world of work as well as social life. Third, there is no provision for teaching in languages other than Burmese for children whose mother tongue is not Burmese. The three problems mentioned above are worsened by the fact that the teaching profession is undermined by the regime."
Author/creator: Thein Lwin
Language: English
Format/size: HTML (103K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Current Education System in Burma
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Substantial report which demonstrates how the military education system in Burma has been built up and developed to the detriment of civilan education. "...The military regime in Burma, currently known as the SPDC, has perpetually neglected civilian education in the country, especially since the national uprisings of 1988, and the resulting political deadlock. The education system, along with other socially vital institutions, and the country as a whole, is incessantly declining. It is clear that the military junta's priorities are to keep the army strong, despite the fact that the country has no external enemies. Over 40% of the national budget is spent on the military force, while only a mere 7.7% of the allotted education budget is used to promote education. The country's economy is rapidly collapsing, and common people across the nation are struggling to survive, yet teacher salaries remain low and the cost of education is high and rising. Beginning from the lowest level of primary school through to the institutions of higher learning, only those with enough money are able to receive their education. 9.5 million of Burma's children are unable to even begin their basic education, and of those that do start primary school, only 37% are able to go on to the middle school level..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ABFSU
Format/size: html (421K) pdf (164K), 37 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ABFSU-edu_report.pdf (original)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Irrawaddy" - education
Description/subject: Articles on education in Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 23 January 2015


Title: Education in Burma
Description/subject: "Representatives of the government insist that the education standards in Burma conform with those set out by the UN as part of the Millennium Development Goals. However, considering the meagre part of the budget that is spent on education, as well as the history of violence against students and restricted freedom of speech, international observers have some serious doubts about whether this is really the case. The fact that so many young Burmese see leaving the country as the only way to educate themselves speaks for itself."...
Language: English
Source/publisher: Oxford Burma Alliance
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 October 2014


Title: Lway Chee Sangar: Reclaiming Rights After a Childhood of Labor, Hardship, and Conflict
Description/subject: "“We had never heard about human rights in the village,” Lway Chee Sangar tells me at the Palaung Women’s Organization (PWO) office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Sangar is 23 years old. The ethnic nationality group to which she belongs, called the Palaung or Ta’ang, has been caught in an armed struggle for self-determination against the brutal Burmese regime for the better part of the past five decades. Sangar began working with the PWO about three years ago when her parents, desperate to give her an opportunity to improve her life, sent her from their tiny, remote village in the northern Shan State of Burma to the PWO’s former training center in China. It took her a combined six months of training at the PWO to begin to grasp the idea that all humans have rights. Sangar’s story is speckled with brushes with conflict, starting from her birth. She was born on the run, when her parents had to flee their village due to an outbreak of fighting nearby. Today, the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), the armed wing of the Palaung State Liberation Front, is fighting off Burmese offensives and combatting opium cultivation in Palaung areas, according to their statement. Civilians are often caught in the cross-fire. Burmese forces have been known to use brutal tactics against civilians in conflict areas, including deadly forced portering and forced labor, torture, killing, and extortion of money, supplies, and drugs."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2016


Title: Review on Adult Education in Myanmar
Description/subject: ..."Education has always been given high priority in Myanmar society since ancient times with the monasteries acting as the main centres of education. Because of its strong tradition of monastic education, the literacy rate has been high all along the history of Myanmar. The literacy rate in the country dropped drastically as education was given scant attention during the British colonial period. However, sustained efforts after Independence in 1948 have steadily increased the literate population and today the literacy rate has climbed to 91.8 percent in 2002."...
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCO
Format/size: pdf (42.27KB)
Date of entry/update: 28 October 2014