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Institute of Asian Cultures

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Title: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ..... 特集:日本のビルマ研究—歴史・文化・宗教を中心に ..... Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion..... Editor's Note - NEMOTO Kei... The Anglo-Burmese in the 1940s: To become Burmese or not - NEMOTO Kei... The Formation of the Concept of Myanmar Muslims as Indigenous Citizens: Their History and Current Situation - SAITO Ayako... Written and Oral Transmission of Burmese Classical Songs - INOUE Sayuri... Showing Respect and Bowing Down to s: Spirit Worship and Gender in a Village in Upper Burma - IIKUNI Yukako... Discovery of“ Outsiders”: The Expulsion of Undesirable Chinese and Urban Governance of Colonial Rangoon, Burma, c. 1900‒1920 - OSADA Noriyuki... Transnational“ Myanmar”-Karenni Societies in United States: Experiences of Karenni Refugee Resettlement - KUBO Tadayuki... The Foreign Presence in Mandalay during the Konbaung Period: A Review of the Urban Area - ISHIKAWA Kazumasa... A View of the Karen Baptists in Burma of the Mid-Nineteenth Century, from the Standpoint of the American Baptist Mission - FUJIMURA Hitomi... 『新しい黎明』 1960 年代カイロのフィリピン・ムスリム留学生論文集邦訳・解説(9) 邦訳:堀井 聡江 解説:川島 緑 - Foued KACIMI
Language: English, Japanese, Arabic
Source/publisher: Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University, Tokyo
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2015


Individual Documents

Title: A View of the Karen Baptists in Burma of the Mid-Nineteenth Century, from the Standpoint of the American Baptist Mission
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "This article aims to shed light on the significance of the mission policy and interaction between the mission society in America and missionaries in Burma, in order to comprehend the manner in which the Karens of the 19th century were described. The Karens have been known as “a Christianized people,” and they have been described thus both by themselves and others for quite a period of time. While this is still generally the case, yet many point to the fact that such an understanding does not precisely reflect the reality of the situation. As a matter of fact, the Christians, two-thirds of which are Baptists constitute merely a minority of the entire Karen population, slightly over 10 percent of their total number, and the majority of those people have been and still are Buddhists. This situation indicates that the general view of the Karens being Christian is distorted. And if so, one cannot avoid asking why such a distorted view came to grow so dominant with reference to our understanding of those people. A closer look into the historical situation is the key to prove this issue..."
Author/creator: FUJIMURA Hitomi
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (696K)
Alternate URLs: http://dept.sophia.ac.jp/is/iac/en/publish/asia/32.html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Discovery of “Outsiders”: The Expulsion of Undesirable Chinese and Urban Governance of Colonial Rangoon, Burma, c. 1900–1920
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Colonial Rangoon society embraced vast floating populations, constantly entering and leaving the territory of Burma, a province of British India until 1937. This situation made it difficult for the authorities to undertake police activities in the capital city of the province. Dealing with undesirable “outsiders” in Rangoon was an issue related to both the governance of the city and the border control of the province. By the 1910s, the Government of Burma and Rangoon Town Police discovered that expulsion of undesirable “outsiders” was helpful for preventing crime in the city. At first, this policy targeted Chinese riot ringleaders, but, during the 1920s, its scope was dramatically widened and the policy changed qualitatively. This paper deals with the early phase of this process. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, overseas Chinese were present in large numbers in the South China Sea region. For the emerging modern states in that region, it was common to utilize the economic resources of the Chinese network as well as to incorporate autonomous local Chinese communities into one unified, ruling state. As previous studies correctly point out, the government of Burma constructed its policy regarding the local Chinese population, especially in Rangoon, by referring to the early experiences of the Straits Settlements. However, the similarity between the two colonies should not be overemphasized. Despite frequent cross-references, each emerging state developed a different system of governing the Chinese to meet its own needs and conditions. Because of a lack of primary sources, previous studies have not explained concretely how the policy was introduced and practiced in Burma. As a result, the chronology and the characteristics of the process remain obscure. Therefore, this paper aims to clarify these by analyzing previously unexamined documents and to locate the process in the wider context of urban governance in colonial Rangoon..."
Author/creator: OSADA Noriyuki
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (706K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Researchers/osada_noriyuki_en.html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Showing Respect and Bowing Down to Nats: Spirit Worship and Gender in a Village in Upper Burma
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Buddhist Bamah living on the plains of the the Ayeyawadi River’s middle reaches formed what can be called the “Burmasphere” through cultural exchanges with other ethnic or religious groups in the surrounding area. In the Burmasphere, people adhere to the absolute superiority of Theravada Buddhism and conduct a variety of religious practices such as spirit worship, Brahmanism, and witchcraft. This paper considers the relationship between gender and religious practices, focusing on spirit worship in the Burmasphere and cases from rural communities in Upper Burma. Regarding spirit worship and gender, Brac de la Perrière showed how the feminine dimensions of spirit mediumship involve not only Burmese gender construction, but also the Burmese construction of difference and how it is encoded in the hierarchical system [Brac de la Perrière 2007]. This article will focus on the spirit ritual for the “Spirits of Tradition” (mizain hpazain nat or miyohpala nat) held in a village in Upper Burma, which is not necessarily needed a help of spirit mediums, as Spiro called a “simple and essentially private ritual”..."
Author/creator: IIKUNI Yukako
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://dept.sophia.ac.jp/is/iac/en/publish/asia/32.html
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: The Anglo-Burmese in the 1940s: To become Burmese or not
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "...This article is concerned with the manner in which the Anglo-Burmese identified themselves in the 1940s, through their perception of both the people of the suzerain nation and those of the native Burmese (Burmans), with whom they had to share the same type of livelihood. It also on the other hand concerns the issue as to how the two communities realized the features of the Anglo-Burmese. The 1940s in Burma included the period of the Japanese military occupation (1942-45), which for the Anglo-Burmese community was a traumatic experience. This article seeks to make clear the fact that the community of Anglo-Burmese not only fortified their own identity, but also experienced an increase in their hatred for the native Burmese. This was due to their having experienced the Japanese military administration, since they suffered under the pressure of the Burmese nationalists who had cooperated with Japan. It also seeks to clarify the fact of their dissatisfaction with the postwar British reaction towards Burmese nationalists, since from their own point of view the reaction was too conciliatory. Judging from their perspective, the fact that the post-war British Government had decided to grant full independence to Burma by compromising with the Burmese nationalists represented by Aung San and other pre-war anti-British activists, was something unwelcome. In the final section of this article, some indications will be presented as to how the ordinary Anglo-Burmese now living abroad recall their experiences of the Japanese occupation period and after. This will enable us to clarify their historical understanding of World War II and the independence of Burma..."
Author/creator: Kei NEMOTO
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (725K)
Alternate URLs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Burmese_people
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: The Foreign Presence in Mandalay during the Konbaung Period: A Review of the Urban Area
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Mandalay has many faces. As the last capital of the Konbaung Dynasty, Mandalay is considered the origin of the traditional Myanmar culture. A wide variety of handicrafts remain in practice today and are a focal point of the Buddhist practice. However, Mandalay cannot be discussed in only the narrow framework of Myanmar culture. Mosques, Hindu temples, and Chinese temples stood in a row along its streets, demonstrating the complex history of this city. However, the study of Mandalay’s diversity remains limited. The urban area of Mandalay lies around a square castle, and the towns are ordered as a grid. Such an extremely orderly city attracts attention from researchers, and arguments concentrate on interpretation of the design, the centricity and the cosmology of the city. In addition, a viewpoint assuming Mandalay as a model of the traditional capital of continental Southeast Asia was dominant for a long time. It is necessary to reconsider Mandalay as a hub in the regional trade network. Henry Yule, who visited the city during the Konbaung period records prosperous local trade activity. According to his account, various merchant groups including Chinese and Muslim possessed commercial quarter. The presence of a variety of religious buildings and communities in contemporary Mandalay is difficult to understand without paying attention to the commercial characteristics of the city. Recently, the study of the commercial importance of Mandalay has gradually developed. For example, Thant Myint-U acknowledges the commercial importance of the urban area. From the viewpoint of economic history, Schendel explains in detail a variety of commercial activities of the merchant group based in Mandalay. However, still too few studies address how these various groups were placed in the spatial structure of Mandalay. This paper collects basic information and creates a rough sketch of the formation of Mandalay. I suggest in advance that foreigners assume a considerable part of the city’s functions occur in the urban area. In the western part of the city, the commercial space stood along the Shwe ta waterway. However, the military was concentrated in the eastern, northern, and southern parts of the moat. In military duty, people of various backgrounds provided services for the needs of the royal authority. However, the openness of the social structure did not divide dwellers by ethnicity or religion in the city in those days, and personal relationships with the sovereign were indispensable. Based on such characteristics, we review Mandalay as an inland port city..."
Author/creator: ISHIKAWA Kazumasa
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (666K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275117303566
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: The Formation of the Concept of Myanmar Muslims as Indigenous Citizens: Their History and Current Situation
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "...Bamar Muslims began to actively express their awareness of being Bamar Muslims as indigenous citizens around the 1930s, almost at the same time that Burmese nationalism was on the rise. Bamar Muslims continued to raise their voices during the last military regime, yet most Buddhist Burmese did not recognize them as native. Using documents and interviews, this study will explore how the idea of Muslims as indigenous citizens emerged during the colonial period, and how it evolved up through the present time..."
Author/creator: SAITO Ayako
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies No.32 (2014)
Format/size: pdf (664K)
Alternate URLs: http://dept.sophia.ac.jp/is/iac/en/publish/asia/32.html
Date of entry/update: 19 September 2015


Title: Transnational “Myanmar”-Karenni Societies in United States: Experiences of Karenni Refugee Resettlement
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "This paper examines the resettlement of refugees from Burma/Myanmar to the United States, by focusing on the refugee experience. The ethnographic description of the resettlement process reveals how refugees, by establishing a transnational “Myanmar” community in the United States, manifested a nationalism that was hitherto believed to be impossible. Building a nation-state in Burma/Myanmar has been a controversial issue since the nation’s independence from the British in 1948. Callahan argues that the process of state building in Burma has focused on warfare and violence by the state. After independence, the national army or Tatmadaw regarded citizens as potential enemies, and conducted various anti-insurgency campaigns. Her argument richly elucidates the state-building process in Burma/Myanmar. However, though the Nation and the State are inseparable, her arguments exclude the nation-building process. This paper explores one aspect of belonging to the nation of “Myanmar.” While state building is one of the most important tasks for a country following ethnic conflict, it is often analyzed only within the context of resistance movements, such as “Burmanization” by the government or resistance movements against it. Hence, the possibilities for actual nation building have not yet been explored. The experiences of refugees outside the country offer a new and useful perspective for such a discussion. Refugees may no longer legally belong to their country of origin, yet their existence expresses the core essence of the nation they come from. The case study dealt with in this paper focuses on Karenni refugees from the Kayah State, which is the smallest state in Burma. In the Kayah State, the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) has been resisting the Burmese ruling military junta for more than 60 years, seeking either autonomy or independence from the state. The KNPP strategically have used the word “Karenni” as an umbrella term that includes all ethnic groups in Kayah State, in order to resist the Burma-centric state. The ex-chairman of the KNPP, namely Khu Hte Bu Pe, invented a “Karenni” script for the sake of the core spirit of his nation. Two refugee camps in Thailand were centers of KNPP politics in order to construct the “Karenni”, and “Karenni” has been an anti-state term, with its use being prohibited inside Burma by the junta. The category of “Karenni” or “Karenni” identity was constructed as a refugee concept in Thailand. This paper discusses the further transnational spread of “Karenni” through the resettlement of refugees to a third country, while also considering the meaning of Burma and Myanmar for those resettled refugees..."
Author/creator: KUBO Tadayuki
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (691K)
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Written and Oral Transmission of Burmese Classical Songs
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "This article details the written and oral transmission of Burmese classical songs or thachingyi (great song), specifically those for voice and harp (saung gauk). Over one thousand songs have been listed under the category of thachingyi. Their song texts have been transcribed, but their melodies and instrumentation have been transmitted orally. As the melodies of several of these songs have been lost, less than half continue to be played today. The musician reputed to have the largest repertoire can play approximately 400 songs. The majority of other musicians play a selection from the 169 songs featured in Naingandaw mu maha gita (The national version of maha gita, hereafter NAIN), the national compilation of song texts. There have been attempts to transcribe this music, however, none of these has been effective, apart from the notations of the distinguished instrumentalist, U Myint Maung (1937–2001). In this article, I will begin by examining the role of written materials in transmission. I will then describe how the music is relayed orally and discuss the factors that enable oral transmission. Finally, I will discuss how to approach the standardization of Burmese classical songs..."
Author/creator: INOUE Sayuri
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (695K)
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015