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Formal Sanctions

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Title: EU arms embargo on Myanmar (Burma)
Description/subject: "The European Union established an arms embargo on Burma at some point prior to the agreement on a Common Position on Burma/Myanmar 1996/635/CFSP in October 1996. The Common position reaffirms the following measures that had already been adopted in 1990 and confirmed in a Declaration by the General Affairs Council on 29 July 1991:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Stockholm Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 October 2010


Title: European Union – Burma/Myanmar cooperation, an overview
Language: English
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.deltha.ec.europa.eu/Myanmar/MM_overview.htm
http://www.deltha.ec.europa.eu/Myanmar/MM2008/Devoverview2008.htm
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


Title: European Union sanctions applied to non-member countries: Burma/Myanmar
Description/subject: Texts of the EU Council and Commision Regulations and of the EU's Common Position, updated from November 1996. Contnets include: * Publication of visa ban list. * Freezing of funds of certain persons. * Confirmation of expulsion and withdrawal of all military staff attached to representations. * Confirmation of the embargo on arms and military equipment. * Prohibition to grant visas to leading members of the regime, to authorities in charge of tourism sector, and high-ranking members of the armed forces. * Suspension of official bilateral visits. * Prohibition on the export of equipment which may be used for internal repression or terrorism.
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Union
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: SUPPORTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN MYANMAR: Why the U.S. Should Maintain Existing Sanctions Authority
Date of publication: May 2016
Description/subject: Summary: "Is now the time for the U.S. Government to drop all sanctions on Myanmar (also known as Burma)? A network of corporate lobbyists and business associations are seeking to convince the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama to lift all remaining sanctions on the country by letting the existing sanctions authority expire this month. At the core of their argument is the idea that the situation in Myanmar has fundamentally changed for the better and that economic sanctions are no longer necessary or productive. Fortify Rights and United to End Genocide interviewed 43 eyewitnesses and survivors of human rights abuses as well as U.N. officials and others in Yangon Division, Rakhine State, and Kachin State in Myanmar in March and April 2016 to assess whether the U.S. Government should maintain its authority to sanction Myanmar or let it lapse this month. Given the current political landscape in Myanmar and ongoing egregious human rights violations, this report recommends that President Obama renew the sanctions authority on Myanmar for at least another year..."
Author/creator: Tom Andrews, David Baulk, Matthew Smith, Amy Smith, Daniel Sullivan.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Fortify Rights, United to End Genocide
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB-reduced version; 2.4MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fortifyrights.org/downloads/Fortify%20Rights%20&%20UEG,%20Supporting%20Human%20Rights%20...
Date of entry/update: 09 May 2016


Title: Wer lässt wen im Stich?
Date of publication: 30 January 2008
Description/subject: Die jüngsten Demonstrationen in Burma sind eine erneute Bewährungsprobe für demokratische Werte in einer Welt, die zumindest in politischer Hinsicht größtenteils demokratisch ist. Ebenso wie der Kampf der Werte auf den blutigen Straßen in Teilen Burmas sichtbar war, beschloss die benachbarte "größte Demokratie der Welt", die gleichzeitig ein strategischer Partner des Landes ist, eben jene Werte, die es tendenziell vertritt, aufs Spiel zu setzen. Der Rest der Welt – insbesondere die USA und Europa – tat kaum mehr als diplomatische Statements abzugeben und Indien und China zu drängen, entschieden vorzugehen. Indisch-burmesische Beziehungen, Burma-US Amerikanische Beziehungen, Burma-EU Beziehungen, Sanktionen; Indian-burmese, US-Burmese, EU-Burmese relations; sanctions;
Author/creator: Sachin Joshi
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Südasien
Format/size: Html (41k)
Date of entry/update: 03 February 2008


Title: JOUR FIXE: WENIG HOFFNUNG FÜR BIRMA: EINE DEBATTE ÜBER DEN SINN VON SANKTIONEN GEGEN DAS ERSTARRTE REGIME DER GENERÄLE
Date of publication: December 2007
Description/subject: Mit welcher Strategie ist den Menschen in Birma am ehesten geholfen? Die USA und die EU, auch die Bundesregierung schon zu Zeiten von Rot-Grün setzen auf Sanktionen; die asiatischen Nachbarn Birmas eher auf Diplomatie und Einbindung. Darüber diskutierten am Dienstag, 4.12.2007, beim Jour Fixe der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung und der tageszeitung (taz) der birmanische Menschenrechtsexperte und Oppositionelle Dr. Maung Zarni, der heute an der Universität Oxford in Großbritannien tätig ist, der Birma-Experte Dr. Hans-Bernd Zöllner, der am Asien-Afrika-Institut der Universität Hamburg lehrt, sowie Kerstin Müller, die außenpolitische Sprecherin der Bundestagsfraktion von Bündnis 90/Die Grünen. Debate on the efficiency of sanctions
Author/creator: Schaaf Stefan
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Heinrich Böll Stiftung
Format/size: Html (26k)
Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/de/01_event/5479.html
Date of entry/update: 19 December 2007


Title: Problemstaat Myanmar: Zum schwierigen Umgang mit dem Militärregime
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Eine Analyse über den Charakter und die Geschichte des Militärregimes, die Rolle der intnernationalen Gemeinschaft, der EU, USA und China und die Wirkung von Sanktionen, insbesondere nach den Aufständen 2007. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines UN-Engagements; character and history of the military regime, international community, USA, EU, China; impact of sanctions, uprisings 2007, UN-Engagement
Author/creator: Marco Buente
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
Format/size: PDF
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010


Title: Rot wie Blut - Edelsteine aus Burma finanzieren diktatorisches Regime
Date of publication: November 2007
Description/subject: Burma verfügt über das weltweit größte Vorkommen von Rubinen. Unter unmenschlichen Bedingungen abgebaut, fließen die Erlöse direkt in die Taschen des diktatorischen Regimes, egal ob offiziell exportiert oder illegal gehandelt. Boykott von Rubinen; Kimberley-Prozess; Boykott of Rubins, Kimberley-Process
Author/creator: Jolien Schure
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Fatal Transactions - Eine europäische Kampagne zur Rohstoffgerechtigkeit
Format/size: pdf (402.75 KB)
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2010


Title: Myanmar: sanctions, engagement or another way forward?
Date of publication: 26 April 2004
Description/subject: "...Since 1990, most Western governments have taken a self-consciously principled approach to Myanmar, applying coercive diplomacy and economic sanctions in an effort to force the military government to implement the results of the multiparty election held that year. The 30 May 2003 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi and her followers increased both political pressure and justification for strengthening this approach. However, the military government today is more entrenched and more recalcitrant than when it took power. The prodemocratic opposition -- although it maintains broad popular support -- has lost much of its momentum, and international actors have demonstrably failed to protect even Aung San Suu Kyi, not to speak of less prominent figures, from persecution. Meanwhile, the socio-economic conditions for a majority of the population have greatly deteriorated. In short, things are moving the wrong way. The much gentler 'engagement' policy embraced by most of Myanmar's Asian neighbours for most of the period of military rule has been equally unproductive. In the absence of any external pressure at all for change, it is highly unlikely that any change at all will occur. The people of Myanmar need greater say in the governance of their country. The failure of 40 years of military rule to provide human welfare and security consonant with the country's great natural potential is closely linked to the absence of popular participation in decision-making. For now, however, the configuration of power and interests inside the country are not conducive to major, quick change -- and there are no "magic bullets", no realistic policy options that can change that. In such circumstances, efforts are required to change political, social and economic realities over a longer period in ways that would facilitate better governance and the gradual introduction and consolidation of genuinely democratic institutions. That is only likely to happen if coercive measures are allied to a more flexible, intensive and sustained diplomatic strategy that does not in any way embrace the military government, but rather includes a greater willingness to pursue some half-measures, small steps and even limited cooperation in order to begin to move the country forward while protecting those who suffer under the status quo or might be hurt by future reforms. International objectives have to be rethought, new benchmarks for change adopted, a more supportive approach toward creating a positive internal climate of change adopted, and more support given to the UN in its important mediation and facilitation role. The road map put forward by the SPDC and realignments within the military government offer a sign of movement, slight though it may be, in the political situation. This provides an opportunity to encourage progress and should not be dismissed out of hand. Any government or institution that deals with Myanmar needs to maintain an acute sense of the realities of the country: change is often painfully slow and easily reversed, the military is an intensely difficult institution with which to deal, and outside influence on any of the actors is very limited. The international community should take whatever opportunity is presented to encourage whatever progress is possible. That means developing a new policy approach -- containing elements of the present sanctions approach of the West and engagement policy of the region, but more productive than either -- that brings together international actors rather than divides them, creates an environment for change in the country and offers a way out for all parties that has a chance of being accepted..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: pdf (635K)
Date of entry/update: 26 April 2004


Title: Burma/Myanmar: Reconciliation without Capitulation (a critique of the NBR report)
Date of publication: 31 March 2004
Description/subject: "The recent report by the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR), Badgley, J.H. (2004) “Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma”[3 March 2004], presented a shamelessly one-sided set of arguments for changing United States policy towards Myanmar. This paper tries to redress the balance, and to present both sides of the argument concerning what is, after all, a complex and heated issue. Two “core arguments” of the NBR report are identified and discussed, and in contrast the author develops two “core counter-arguments” for maintaining, with modifications, the existing U.S. policies with respect to Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Adam McCarty
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mekong Economics Ltd.
Format/size: html (83K),Word
Alternate URLs: http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au/pdf/staff/acde/paul_burke/mccarty_burke_myanmar_burma_reconciliation...
http://www.mekongeconomics.com/details_team.php?id=4
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Statement by Chairman Elton Gallegly
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Human Rights... Statement of Chairman Elton Gallegly... Developments in Burma... March 25, 2004.
Author/creator: Elton Gallegly
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66780/html/CHRG-112hhrg66780.htm
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Statement by Representative James A. Leach
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives... Statement by Representative James A. Leach, Chairman, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific... Joint Subcommittee Hearing on Developments in Burma... March 25, 2004
Author/creator: James A. Leach
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Daw San San
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... House International Relations Committee Joint Hearing Between Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific And Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights... TESTIMONY BY DAW SAN SAN ELECTED MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY, BURMA... March 25, 2004.
Author/creator: Daw San San
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Lorne W. Craner
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Testimony by Assistant Secretary Lorne W. Craner Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Bureau U.S. Department of State At a hearing entitled Developments in Burma By the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights March 25, 2004
Author/creator: Lorne W. Craner
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/h/tst/2004/
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Matthew P. Daley
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Matthew P. Daley, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Testimony before the House International Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights Washington, DC March 25, 2004
Author/creator: Matthew P. Daley
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/h/tst/2004/
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2004/30789.htm
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Tom Malinowski
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Human Rights and U.S. Strategy in Burma... Testimony by Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director, Human Rights Watch.
Author/creator: Tom Malinowski
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Veronika Martin
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Testimony by Veronika A. Martin Policy Analyst, U.S. Committee for Refugees... Developments in Burma... Before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and The Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Non-proliferation and Human Rights... March 25, 2004... Myanmarese Refugees in Thailand and The Human Rights Situation in Eastern Myanmar.
Author/creator: Veronika A. Martin
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
Date of publication: 20 November 2003
Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
Date of publication: 29 July 2003
Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
Date of publication: 28 July 2003
Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
Language: English
Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Commission
Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


Title: Council Common Position of 29 October 2001 extending and amending Common Position 96/635/CFSP on Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 30 October 2001
Language: English (10 other languages avaialble)
Source/publisher: European Council via EUR-Lex
Format/size: html., pdf (89K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.eulaw.egov.bg/DocumentDisplay.aspx?ID=65731
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2001:286:0001:0001:EN:PDF
Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


Title: Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2000 of 22 May 2000 prohibiting the sale, supply and export to Burma/Myanmar of equipment which might be used for internal repression or terrorism, and freezing the funds of certain persons.....
Date of publication: 22 May 2000
Description/subject: Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2000 of 22 May 2000 prohibiting the sale, supply and export to Burma/Myanmar of equipment which might be used for internal repression or terrorism, and freezing the funds of certain persons related to important governmental functions in that country
Language: English (18 other languages available)
Source/publisher: European Council via EUR-Lex
Format/size: html, pdf (148K)
Alternate URLs: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:122:0029:0038:EN:PDF
Date of entry/update: 08 October 2010


Title: Is Total the next Unocal?
Date of publication: August 1999
Description/subject: As the French government examines Total's involvement in Burma, Win Htein asks if the oil giant is facing the same fate as US-based Unocal.
Author/creator: Win Htein
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Massachusetts Burma Law
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: Articles on the Massachusetts Burma Law and selective purchasing laws
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/BD1999-V06-N02.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: U.S. SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA A Failure on All Fronts
Date of publication: 26 October 1998
Description/subject: "Trade Policy Analysis No. 1" Executive Summary: The U.S. policy of imposing unilateral trade and investment sanctions against Burma has proven to be a failure on all fronts. By forcing U.S. firms to disengage from Burma, that policy has harmed American economic interests and done nothing to improve the living conditions or human rights of the people of Burma. Sanctions have denied Burmese citizens the benefits of increased investment by American multinational companies--investment that brings technoloygy, better working conditions, and Western ideas. State and local sanctions against Burma have compounded the problem caused by federal sanctions and raised troubling constitutional questions.
Author/creator: Leon T. Hadar
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Treasury
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: Trade Policy Analysis No. 1 March 26, 1998
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2010